Part 1 to 4: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World


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Part 1 to 4: Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World

  1. 1. Marvels & Mysteries of Our Animal World By An Admirer Of Nature
  2. 2. <ul><li>Dedicated To Father Of Zoology </li></ul><ul><li>He lived in the 4 th century BC </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander,the great,provided 1000 workers for the study of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Treatises by him: </li></ul><ul><li>History , Parts , Movements , </li></ul><ul><li>Locomotion and Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Of Animals </li></ul>Who am I ?
  3. 3. <ul><li>Recorded the feeding habits of Angler-fishes </li></ul><ul><li>First to make dissection of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Studied 540 kinds of animals- a task without microscopes and reference books </li></ul>?
  4. 4. ARISTOTLE “Father Of Zoology”
  5. 5. DARWIN & RUSSEL WALLACE AD 1823 “ ORIGIN OF SPECIES” AD 1913 AD 1809 AD 1882 HUXLEY : Introduced the term “ BIOGENESIS” AD 1825 AD 1895 LAMARCK : Introduced the term “BIOLOGY” Invertebrate classes first introduced AD 1744 AD 1829 JOHN RAY : Published “ORNITHOLOGY” and “HISTORY OF FISHES” AD 1628 AD 1705 ALBERTUS MAGNUS : Aristotle’s work enlarged AD 1193 AD 1280 ARISTOTLE : History, Parts, Movements, Locomotion & Reproduction Of Animals BC 384 BC 322
  6. 6. History Of Classification Of Life Binomial Nomenclature – “ SYSTEMA NATURAE” 10 TH Edition (1758) Animals into 6 Classes: Quadrupeds, Birds, Reptiles, Fishes, Insects & Worms LINNAEUS 1707 1778 “ NATURAL HISTORY” ROMAN PLINY THE ELDER 23 – 79 AD Followed Aristotle THEOPHRASTUS 372 – 287 BC Red Blood: Mammals,Birds,Reptiles,Fish Colourless Blood: Squids,Shellfish Crayfish,and Insects. ARISTOTLE 384 322 BC
  7. 7. Geographical Distribution Of Animals in 1857. PL SCLATER 1829-1913 Heredity Principle MENDEL 1822 - 1884 “ PHILOSOPHIE ZOOLOGIQUE” On Evolution in 1809 LAMARCK 1744 - 1829 “ HISTOIRE NATURELLE” First Treatise On Animal Geography in 1777 BUFFON 1707 - 1788
  8. 8. Extensively revised … .. 1981 Edition of International Code Of Zoological Nomenclature 1958 International Congress On Zoology organized a commission for naming animals 1898 Geographical Distribution Of Animals RUSSEL WALLACE 1823 - 1913 Origin of Species By Means Of Natural Selection in 1859 CHARLES DARVIN 1809 - 1882
  9. 9. Zoology Development Chronologically Gave the word “Species” a practical limitation JOHN RAY 1628-1694 Anatomical discoveries with microscope MALPIGHI 1628-1694 Blood Circulation HARVEY 1578 – 1657 A D Rough classification of animals ARISTOTLE 384 – 322 BC
  10. 10. Discovery of animal cell Foundation of Embryology and Physiology SCHWANN 1810-1882 Comparative anatomy and Paleontology CUVIER 1769-1832 Theory of evolution Lamarckism LAMARCK 1744-1829 Binomial system of Nomenclature LINNAEUS 1707-1778
  11. 11. Heredity Principle MENDEL 1822-1884 Supported the theory of Evolution HUXLEY 1825-1895 Supported the theory of Evolution WALLACE 1823-1913 Theory of Evolution Origin of species by means of natural selection DARWIN 1809-1882
  12. 12. Aristotle presenting his text to Alexander <ul><li>Darwin in his translation of Aristotle’s Parts of Animals remarked “I have a high notion of Aristotle’s merits. Linnaeus and Cuvier have been my two Gods, though in very different ways, but they were mere schoolboys to old Aristotle” </li></ul>
  13. 13. Anglerfishes seem to eat anything that is available <ul><li>Encyclopedia of the Animal World (Bay books, Sydney, 1972), volume 1, page 68: </li></ul><ul><li>“ It is interesting to note that Aristotle who well merits the title of Father of Zoology recorded this curious feeding habit over 2000 years ago” </li></ul>
  15. 15. <ul><li>ANIMALS FAR IN THE SKY </li></ul><ul><li>S tars linked </li></ul><ul><li>together to </li></ul><ul><li>form shapes. </li></ul><ul><li>Constellations </li></ul><ul><li>named after </li></ul><ul><li>animals, Gods </li></ul><ul><li>and heroes. </li></ul><ul><li>(Fig: GC Eimmart) </li></ul>
  16. 16. <ul><li>(Escher mosaic) </li></ul><ul><li>2 Million different kinds of animals </li></ul><ul><li>Zoology now enables animals to be not only studied but appreciated, and often loved, with a sense of wonder and delight </li></ul>
  17. 17. <ul><li>TAXONOMY </li></ul><ul><li>Recognition, description, nomenclature </li></ul><ul><li>and classification of living organisms. </li></ul><ul><li>Linnaen System: Seven Groups </li></ul><ul><li>KINGDOM : ANIMALIA </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM : CHORDATA </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS : MAMMALIA </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER : CARNIVORA </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY : FELIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS : FELIS </li></ul><ul><li>SPECIES : TIGRIS </li></ul>
  18. 18. <ul><li>KINGDOM - ANIMALIA </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM - CHORDATA </li></ul><ul><li>SUB PHYLUM - VERTEBRATA </li></ul><ul><li>SUPER CLASS - TETRAPODA </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS - MAMMALIA </li></ul><ul><li>SUB CLASS - THERIA </li></ul><ul><li>INTER CLASS - EUTHERIA </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER - PRIMATA </li></ul><ul><li>SUB ORDER - ANTHROPOIDEA </li></ul><ul><li>SUPER FAMILY - HOMINOIDEA </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY - HOMINIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>SUB FAMILY - HOMINIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS – HOMO ; SPECIES - SAPIENS </li></ul>
  19. 19. BINOMIAL NOMENCLATURE <ul><li>Naming with two names as Homo sapiens </li></ul><ul><li>Linnaes insisted Latinized taxonomic names He changed his name from karl von Linne </li></ul><ul><li>Latin was used by all scholars then </li></ul><ul><li>Being a dead language meaning is permanent </li></ul><ul><li>Command housecat is Felis domestica </li></ul><ul><li>A student forgot, and with presence </li></ul><ul><li>of mind, wrote in the answer sheet, a </li></ul><ul><li>descriptive one, as Felis pussicatius </li></ul><ul><li>(He has understood the principle!) </li></ul>
  20. 20. <ul><li>Master of Macabre - Scorpion </li></ul><ul><li>Marvels of Disguise - Peppered moth </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf & Stick insects </li></ul><ul><li>Praying Mantis </li></ul><ul><li>Water Walker - Pond skater </li></ul><ul><li>Maker of Fireworks - Bombardier beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Weight Lift Champion - Scarab beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Insect Light Makers - Click beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Glow worms </li></ul><ul><li>Wizards of Light - Luminous shrimp </li></ul><ul><li>Dragon & Angler fish </li></ul>
  21. 21. <ul><li>Epic Home Return - Salmon </li></ul><ul><li>Producers of Shock - Electric Eel </li></ul><ul><li>Costume Changers - Chameleon, </li></ul><ul><li>Octopus </li></ul><ul><li>Sea horse </li></ul><ul><li>The King of Ocean Air - Albatross </li></ul><ul><li>Miracle in the Air - Humming bird </li></ul><ul><li>Migration Mysteries </li></ul><ul><li>Prince of Night Air - Bat </li></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><li>MASTER OF THE MACABRE </li></ul><ul><li>SCORPION (800species 0.5-11”) </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY BUTHIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER SCORPIONIDA </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS ARACHNIDA </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM ARTHROPODA </li></ul><ul><li>Buthus occitanus , FAT TAIL SCORPION, N.Africa </li></ul><ul><li>Light yellow, 3” long – World most dangerous </li></ul><ul><li>Poison neurotoxin – Affects nervous system - Convulsions, Paralysis & stops Breathing </li></ul><ul><li>Fat tail kills human in seven hours, a dog in seven minutes and a mouse in few second. </li></ul>
  23. 23. <ul><li>COURTSHIP DANCE </li></ul><ul><li>Cannibal like scorpions prey </li></ul><ul><li>upon one another </li></ul><ul><li>Mating runs the risk of </li></ul><ul><li>not as a mate but a meal </li></ul><ul><li>Mating demands rituals of courtship </li></ul><ul><li>Male approaches female with great care </li></ul><ul><li>Pincers are grabbed, thus with her weapon </li></ul><ul><li>neutralized the pair begins to dance </li></ul>
  24. 24. <ul><li>MERRY RIDING </li></ul><ul><li>Baby scorpions live on </li></ul><ul><li>mother’s back for two weeks </li></ul><ul><li>Afterwards very aggressive, </li></ul><ul><li>attack and eat each other </li></ul><ul><li>Enemies: birds, mantis, toads, </li></ul><ul><li>lizards, snakes, foxes, mongooses,bats, </li></ul><ul><li>rodents and monkeys. Life term is 4 years. </li></ul><ul><li>Withstand extreme temperature and even atomic radiation. Without water for 3 months and without food for nearly a year </li></ul>
  25. 25. <ul><li>Major orders of insects Number of species </li></ul><ul><li>Orthoptera (grasshoppers) 20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Hemiptera (true bugs) 1,00,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Coleoptera (beetles) 3,70,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Diptera (true flies) 1,00,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Lepidoptera (butterflies & moths) 1,50,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Hymenoptera (ants, bees &wasps) 1,20,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total 8,60,000 </li></ul><ul><li>Total number of species more than10,00,000 </li></ul>
  26. 26. <ul><li>MARVELS OF DISGUISE– PEPPERED MOTH </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM: ARTHROPODA </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS : INSECTA </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER : LEPIDOPTERA </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY : GEOMETRIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>Biston betularia </li></ul><ul><li>The mutant, darker peppered moth is better camouflaged against trees darkened by pollution. In 1953, Bernard Kettlewell proposed </li></ul><ul><li>“ Bird Predation Theory” (BPT), and explained industrial melanism in the peppered moth. </li></ul><ul><li>This is primarily a natural selection in the form of differential bird predation on differently-camouflaged backgrounds. </li></ul>
  27. 27. <ul><li>LEAF INSECT </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER : PHASMIDA </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY: PHASMIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>Phyllium bioculatum </li></ul><ul><li>Up to 80 mm long. The whole insect looks just like a leaf. Lives on vegetation and well camouflaged against the leaves on which it feeds. Distribution: Indonesia. </li></ul><ul><li>Leaf & Stick insects are pure vegetarians </li></ul><ul><li>Put themselves into positions just like those real leaves and twigs </li></ul>
  28. 28. <ul><li>STICK INSECT- 3000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Long and Slender </li></ul><ul><li>Asian species over 30 cm </li></ul><ul><li>Brown stick insect paler </li></ul><ul><li>by day, darker by night </li></ul><ul><li>Many species of stick insects </li></ul><ul><li>reproduce without mating. </li></ul><ul><li>Female lays fertile eggs from which emerge female babies. This type of virgin birth is called Parthenogenesis . So no males ever found in some species </li></ul><ul><li>The walking stick has the unusual ability of partial regeneration. If a leg is lost or damaged it will grow back after several successive molts </li></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><li>PRAYING MANTIS </li></ul><ul><li>2000 Species </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER: </li></ul><ul><li>DICTYOPTERA </li></ul><ul><li>Carnivorous insect uses disguise for its </li></ul><ul><li>protection and also to hide from its prey </li></ul><ul><li>Its large eyes can spot a victim at a distance </li></ul><ul><li>Waits patiently for the opportunity to seize </li></ul><ul><li>some unsuspecting beetle or butterfly with </li></ul><ul><li>its fast moving front legs </li></ul>
  30. 30. <ul><li>Mantis religiosa </li></ul><ul><li>The head is removed for the mating to take effect properly. It causes the body to ejaculate faster. </li></ul><ul><li>Photographs by Catherine Chalmers In her book “Food Chain” </li></ul>
  31. 31. <ul><li>POND SKATER </li></ul><ul><li>Gerris remigis </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY :Gerridae </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER: Hemiptera </li></ul><ul><li>Pond skaters walk </li></ul><ul><li>gracefully over the </li></ul><ul><li>surface of ponds, </li></ul><ul><li>lakes and rivers </li></ul>
  32. 32. <ul><li>SURFACE TENSION </li></ul><ul><li>The surface tension of water at 20 C is 0.07 mN/ mm </li></ul><ul><li>( milli N / milli meter) </li></ul><ul><li>A large pond skater’s mass is 0.02 gm or 0.00002 Kgm </li></ul><ul><li>Force exerted is = mass x gravitational acceleration </li></ul><ul><li>( 10 meter/square sec) </li></ul><ul><li>= 0.00002 into 10 = 0.0002 Newton </li></ul><ul><li>= 0.20 milli Newton </li></ul><ul><li>Contact surface of of its feet is (say) 20 mm , </li></ul><ul><li>this is 20 mN per 20 mm or 0.01 mN /mm </li></ul><ul><li>This is only one seventh of the force that the surface tension can withstand, so the pond skater easily avoids the danger of breaking through the surface film </li></ul>
  33. 33. <ul><li>The deformation of the water caused by the clip's weight can be seen. This bending of light is similar to the bending of light by strong gravitational fields, as predicted by Einstein's theories. Surface tension is due to an attraction between the molecules in water, which cause its surface to act in an elastic manner. </li></ul>
  34. 34. <ul><li>MAKER OF FIRE WORKS </li></ul><ul><li>Bombardier Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>Brachinus explodens </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY CARABIDAE ORDER COLEOPTERA </li></ul><ul><li>A living cannon fires explosives for defense </li></ul><ul><li>against ants and other ground beetles </li></ul><ul><li>Chinese invented gun powder. Roger Bacon in 13 th century did experiments with gun powder in England. But these beetles had been firing over millions of years </li></ul>
  35. 35. <ul><li>Two chemicals hydroquinones </li></ul><ul><li>and hydrogen peroxide </li></ul><ul><li>are produced in glands and </li></ul><ul><li>stored in a large reservoir </li></ul><ul><li>When threatened the </li></ul><ul><li>chemicals are pushed to a </li></ul><ul><li>reaction chamber which </li></ul><ul><li>secretes peroxidases and catalases (enzymes) that break down the hydrogen peroxide, and catalyse the oxidation of the hydroquinones into p-benzoquinones compounds that are well known for their irritant properties. </li></ul>
  36. 36. <ul><li>WEIGHT LIFT CHAMPION </li></ul><ul><li>Scarab Beetle </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY SCARABAEIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER COLEOPTER </li></ul><ul><li>Beetle has more than 30,000 species </li></ul><ul><li>Dung beetles, chafers, Japanese beetles, </li></ul><ul><li>Dor beetles etc. </li></ul><ul><li>For breeding some scarabs come together </li></ul><ul><li>in pairs, mould a ball of dung, and roll this to a selected site. The female working underground moulds it into a mass. On this one egg will be laid </li></ul>
  37. 37. <ul><li>Scarab, Symbol Egyptian Amulets of resurrection heiroglyphs </li></ul><ul><li>The dung beetle with </li></ul><ul><li>the sun god “Khepri” </li></ul><ul><li>Mummy Priestess </li></ul><ul><li>Nesykhonsu, standing </li></ul><ul><li>to the left of sun god </li></ul><ul><li>Priest at right with offerings </li></ul>
  38. 38. 850 50 0.67 Rhinoceros beetles capable of lifting 850 times their own weight. Stag beetles are able to drag an object 120 times their own weight, ants can carry 50 times their weight, and honeybees fly along with pollen loads up to 24 times their weight. Man can lift two thirds of his weight.
  39. 39. <ul><li>INSECT LIGHT MAKERS </li></ul><ul><li>CLICK BEETLE </li></ul><ul><li>GENUS PYROPHORUS </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY ELATERIDAE </li></ul>
  40. 40. <ul><li>Click beetle Pyrophorus noctilucus </li></ul><ul><li>4 cm long, Belize </li></ul><ul><li>(Central America) </li></ul><ul><li>surface brightness </li></ul><ul><li>is 1/4 candle </li></ul><ul><li>Click Beetles are called this way because of their ability to propel themselves into the air with a clicking sound. </li></ul><ul><li>A spine between two grooves on their underside allows them to &quot;snap' themselves as high as 6 inches if they somehow find themselves on their backs, eventually getting them back onto their feet. </li></ul>
  41. 41. <ul><li>GLOW WORMS ( female & larva glow) </li></ul><ul><li>Lampyris noctiluca Lampyris splendidula </li></ul><ul><li>Luciferin is oxydised to produce oxyluciferin, with the enzyme luciferase acting as a catalyst in the reaction </li></ul><ul><li>“ Twenty glow-worms shall our lanterns be </li></ul><ul><li>To guide our measure round about the tree” </li></ul><ul><li>(Shakespeare, The Merry Wives of Windsor) </li></ul>
  42. 42. Water particles interact with light by absorbing certain wave lengths. First the reds and oranges disappear, later the yellows, greens and purples and last the blue.
  43. 43. <ul><li>Photocorynus spiniceps </li></ul><ul><li>The female may have as many as six males attached. The male is taken care of the rest of his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Female Ceratias holboelki weighed half a million times as its male. </li></ul>
  45. 45. <ul><li>Stages in the Life Cycle of a salmon (Salmo salar) </li></ul><ul><li>Eggs: Clear & translucent </li></ul><ul><li>Alevins : Eggs hatch into alevins </li></ul><ul><li>and feed off yolk sac </li></ul><ul><li>Fry : Young fish in its first year </li></ul><ul><li>Parr : Juvenile salmon in 2nd or 3rd year in freshwater </li></ul><ul><li>Smolts : Young one leaving fresh water for first visit to sea </li></ul><ul><li>Grilse : Young salmon that has spent 1 winter at sea </li></ul><ul><li>before returning to the river </li></ul><ul><li>MSW (Salmon): Multi Sea Winters fish (at sea more than one year) </li></ul><ul><li>Kelts : Salmon that have spawned </li></ul><ul><li>Spring Salmon : Salmon that have spent at least 2 years at sea and return to freshwater from Jan to May to spawn the next autumn. </li></ul>
  46. 46. <ul><li>Pacific species - Chinook Salmon </li></ul><ul><li>( Onchorhynchus tschawytscha) ( 45 kg) </li></ul><ul><li>A large salmon can make leap of 10 feet </li></ul><ul><li>FRESH WATER SEA WATER </li></ul><ul><li>ONWARD </li></ul><ul><li>RETURN </li></ul>Kelts Spawning Alevin Fry Birth & 3- 8 Years Smolts Feed & Grow (1- 6 Years) Grilse
  47. 47. <ul><li>Up to 50 miles a day, </li></ul><ul><li>salmon reach their </li></ul><ul><li>birth place covering </li></ul><ul><li>hundreds or even </li></ul><ul><li>thousands of miles to </li></ul><ul><li>find its birth place </li></ul><ul><li>Using Stars, Moon, Sun, or Earth Magnetic Field </li></ul><ul><li>However once they reach the mouth of the river, </li></ul><ul><li>they can find the actual headstream where </li></ul><ul><li>they were born by smell </li></ul><ul><li>Female digs shallow trench, deposits her eggs </li></ul><ul><li>Male fertilizes the eggs and female covers them with gravel. Male dies soon . Female guards the nests for few days and then die. </li></ul>
  48. 48. <ul><li>SALMON MIGRATION </li></ul>
  49. 49. <ul><li>Wells Dam is the first dam that over two million smolts must pass during annual out-migrations through the Columbia River to the Pacific Ocean </li></ul><ul><li>The smolt bypass system at Wells Dam is based on spill intake baffles </li></ul><ul><li>Diverting smolts from turbines will increase smolt survival rates </li></ul>
  50. 50. <ul><li>PRODUCERS OF SHOCKS </li></ul><ul><li>ELECTRIC EEL ( Electrophorus electricus ) </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER ANGUILLIFORMES </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS PISCES </li></ul><ul><li>PHYLUM CHORDATA </li></ul><ul><li>Sea water Fresh water </li></ul><ul><li>Migration (reverse of salmon) </li></ul><ul><li>The Electric eel is actually a fish that can reach 9 feet (2.7 m) in length and weigh more than 50 pounds (23 kg). The electricity comes from nerve ending cells in the tail that can produce from 600-1,000 volts at one time. Electric eels have 200-250 &quot;electric&quot; cells per centimeter. They are native to South American rivers. </li></ul>
  51. 51. <ul><li>ELECTRIC CAT FISH </li></ul><ul><li>Malapterurus electricus </li></ul><ul><li>FAMILY MALAPTERURIDAE </li></ul><ul><li>ORDER SILURIFORMES </li></ul><ul><li>CLASS ACTINOPTERYGII </li></ul><ul><li>Native of river Nile </li></ul><ul><li>The electric organ, which is evolved from its pectoral muscle, surrounds the body </li></ul><ul><li>over most of the length of the fish </li></ul><ul><li>and is capable of discharging up to 350 V </li></ul>
  52. 52. <ul><li>COSTUME CHANGERS </li></ul><ul><li>CHAMELEON </li></ul><ul><li>Panther Chameleon </li></ul><ul><li>Chamaeleo pardalis </li></ul><ul><li>Family Chamaeleonidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order Squamata </li></ul><ul><li>Class Reptilia </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul>
  53. 53. <ul><li>Panther is native to the African island Madagascar </li></ul><ul><li>Tongue, twice the length of the body , ends </li></ul><ul><li>in a muscular sticky tip. </li></ul><ul><li>Snatches the prey in 1/16 of a second </li></ul><ul><li>Skin contains cells of granules of colour pigment </li></ul><ul><li>Changes colour with surroundings, the nervous system and animal’s temperature. </li></ul><ul><li>Each eye can move separately (2 things at a time) </li></ul>
  54. 54. <ul><li>Octopus bimaculoides </li></ul><ul><li>Family Octopodidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order Octopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Subclass Dibranchia </li></ul><ul><li>Class Cephalopoda </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Mollusca </li></ul><ul><li>OCTOPUS O ver 100 different species </li></ul><ul><li>The Giant Octopus is 23 ft </li></ul><ul><li>from arm tip to arm tip </li></ul><ul><li>weighing up to 182 kg </li></ul><ul><li>The smallest is 3/8 inch </li></ul><ul><li>Californian octopus </li></ul>
  55. 55. <ul><li>Octopus, squids & Cuttlefish change colour </li></ul><ul><li>Skin contains unique little sacs containing colour pigments. </li></ul><ul><li>After death skin cells remain alive for few </li></ul><ul><li>hours. Thus sensitive to light, even a dead octopus can performs visual magic </li></ul>
  56. 56. <ul><li>SEAHORSE Hippocampus kuda ( Fig . 1& 2) </li></ul><ul><li>Family Syngnathidae Order Syngnathiformes </li></ul><ul><li>Class Pisces Phylum Chordata </li></ul>
  57. 57. <ul><li>Australian </li></ul><ul><li>Sea-dragon </li></ul><ul><li>Fleshy leaf-like </li></ul><ul><li>appendages look </li></ul><ul><li>like seaweed </li></ul>
  58. 58. <ul><li>The female seahorse deposits up to 200 eggs into a brood pouch on the male, where they are fertilized. In the male's brood, the seahorse eggs hatch and develop into baby seahorses. After almost two to six weeks of being &quot;pregnant,&quot; the male &quot;gives birth&quot; to the baby seahorses. Labor can take up to three hours! Same thing for sea-dragon. </li></ul>
  59. 59. <ul><li>Common name: </li></ul><ul><li>White's Seahorse </li></ul><ul><li>Scientific name: </li></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus whitei hippo - horse (Greek) campos - sea animal (Greek) whitei - after John White </li></ul><ul><li>Family name: </li></ul><ul><li>Syngnathidae syn - together, with (Greek) gnathos - jaw (Greek) idae - suffix meaning that </li></ul><ul><li>Only found in Australia this a family name </li></ul>
  60. 60. <ul><li>THE KING OF OCEAN AIR </li></ul><ul><li>ALBATROSS </li></ul><ul><li>Diomedea exulans </li></ul><ul><li>Family Diomedeidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order Procellariiformes </li></ul><ul><li>Class Aves </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum Chordata </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>Albatrosses travel over open </li></ul><ul><li>sea for months at a time </li></ul><ul><li>covering thousands of </li></ul><ul><li>miles. They can drink salt </li></ul><ul><li>water without harm. </li></ul><ul><li>These birds in fact spend most of their lives at sea coming to land only to breed </li></ul><ul><li>The wandering albatross Diomedea exulans has </li></ul><ul><li>the broadest wing span of any living bird up to </li></ul><ul><li>11.5 feet. A wandering albatross known to be </li></ul><ul><li>still feeding its chick, was seen 2640 miles from </li></ul><ul><li>its nest. Such a distance is not far for an albatross </li></ul>
  62. 62. <ul><li>Albatross require a relatively high air speed </li></ul><ul><li>to function effectively. Therefore these birds are found in the southern oceans where the air flow is continuous. Designed </li></ul><ul><li>to glide effortlessly for days at a time </li></ul>
  63. 63. <ul><li>MIRACLE IN THE AIR </li></ul><ul><li>Hummingbird </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Trochilidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Trochiliformes </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Aves </li></ul><ul><li>Phylum: Chordata </li></ul><ul><li>There are around 330 species </li></ul><ul><li>All in America & Caribbean </li></ul><ul><li>They feed on nectar </li></ul><ul><li>Ruby-throated Hummingbird </li></ul><ul><li>3 gm & 3” Archilochus colubris </li></ul>
  64. 64. <ul><li>Bee Hummingbird </li></ul><ul><li>( Mellisuga helenae ) of Cuba is </li></ul><ul><li>the smallest bird in the world, </li></ul><ul><li>weighing 1.8 gm, one inch long </li></ul><ul><li>and its egg weighs 0.5 gm. </li></ul><ul><li>3300 times lighter than heaviest </li></ul><ul><li>egg produced by Ostrich. </li></ul><ul><li>Giant Hummingbird </li></ul><ul><li>( Patagona gigas ) </li></ul><ul><li>of Andes is 8” </li></ul><ul><li>long of in which </li></ul><ul><li>half is its tail </li></ul>
  65. 65. <ul><li>Red-booted Racket-tail humming </li></ul><ul><li>Spathura rufocaligata </li></ul><ul><li>The hummingbird can stand still in </li></ul><ul><li>the air (hover), fly forward and </li></ul><ul><li>backward and fly upside down </li></ul><ul><li>The wing can actually twist at wrist </li></ul><ul><li>joint and can be moved through </li></ul><ul><li>the air in a “figure of eight” pattern. </li></ul><ul><li>This give the hummingbird its </li></ul><ul><li>helicopter- like maneuverability. </li></ul>
  66. 66. <ul><li>The wing of a small hummingbird beats 70 beats per second. For giant it is 8-10 beats per sec. </li></ul><ul><li>Albatross can glide for many hours without </li></ul><ul><li>flapping its wings once. For honeybee it is 250 </li></ul><ul><li>beats/sec. Midge flaps its minute wings 1000 times per second. </li></ul>
  67. 67. <ul><li>MIGRATION </li></ul><ul><li>(Tundra Swans) </li></ul><ul><li>HIBERNATION </li></ul><ul><li>(Marmot, Rodent) </li></ul><ul><li>Food, water, protective cover, and a sheltered place to nest and breed are basic to survival. Changing seasons can transform a comfortable environment into an unlivable one -- the food and water supply can dwindle, plant cover can vanish, and competition with other animals can increase. Migration is mass movement </li></ul><ul><li>V- formation to reduce the stress of flight </li></ul><ul><li>HIBERNATION is deep sleep for many months </li></ul>
  68. 69. <ul><li>AMERICAN GOLDEN PLOVER </li></ul><ul><li>( Pluvialis dominica ) </li></ul><ul><li>Non-stop flight of about 4000 km in 48 hours </li></ul>
  69. 70. <ul><li>ARCTIC TERN ( Sterna paradisaea ) </li></ul><ul><li>Champion of long distance migration </li></ul><ul><li>Arctic to its winter </li></ul><ul><li>home Antarctic, </li></ul><ul><li>17,700 km in </li></ul><ul><li>90 days. Thus </li></ul><ul><li>travel every year </li></ul><ul><li>35,400 km. </li></ul>
  70. 71. <ul><li>GRAY WHALE WHITE STORK </li></ul><ul><li>CRANE The position of the sun, </li></ul><ul><li>moon, stars, the earth temperature, </li></ul><ul><li>atmospheric pressure, and earth </li></ul><ul><li>magnetic field have all been </li></ul><ul><li>identified as playing a part in </li></ul><ul><li>migration </li></ul>
  71. 72. <ul><li>Monarch Butterfly </li></ul><ul><li>Danaus plexippus </li></ul><ul><li>Family: Danaidae   </li></ul><ul><li>Order: Lepidoptera </li></ul><ul><li>Class: Insecta   </li></ul><ul><li>Eastern Canada to Mexico is 1600 Km </li></ul><ul><li>Average speed is 17.5 Km/ hour </li></ul><ul><li>Height from ground is 5 Meter </li></ul><ul><li>Average daily distance covered is 120 Km </li></ul>
  72. 73. <ul><li>Complete </li></ul><ul><li>M etamorphosis </li></ul><ul><li>Hormones circulating </li></ul><ul><li>within the body </li></ul><ul><li>trigger the changes </li></ul><ul><li>that occur during </li></ul><ul><li>metamorphosis </li></ul><ul><li>A month to go through the stages from egg to adult </li></ul><ul><li>The adults live another two to six weeks in the summer </li></ul><ul><li>Monarchs that migrate live all winter, or about six to nine months </li></ul>
  73. 74. <ul><li>Many hundreds of thousands of Monarch Butterflies fly 2,500 miles in an arduous one month journey to arrive in Pacific Grove each fall with a great purpose . </li></ul><ul><li>But, first they must rest before they begin the regeneration of their amazing five generation annual life cycle. </li></ul><ul><li>In March when milkweed appears, the Monarchs begin a marvelous ritual, the crowning achievement of their great journey </li></ul>
  74. 75. <ul><li>Eventually, they fly off in separate directions, and the male dies because he expended so much energy in the mating </li></ul><ul><li>The female flutters out to place her 400+ eggs on milkweed bushes all the way over in California's San Joaquin Valley. She will lay them one at a time, on the underside of a leaf. </li></ul><ul><li>After she has laid all her eggs, she dies </li></ul><ul><li>Four days after tiny caterpillar emerges </li></ul>
  75. 76. The caterpillar eats its shell and the leaf it was attached to. The milkweed leaf is poisonous to the Monarch's predators, so the newborn can develop without being eaten by a bird. After two weeks the caterpillar crawls up on a stem, or, a branch, and using its last two back legs, hangs upside down and becomes a butterfly chrysalis. When the new Monarch has formed, and splits the cocoon, it must remain still for two hours so its wings dry, and the veins harden .
  76. 77. <ul><li>Then strong enough to fly, it goes north to repeat the mating cycle. Four short (one-month) generations of Monarchs fly north (like a relay race) until the fourth generation reaches the last milkweed of autumn in Canada. </li></ul><ul><li>The fifth generation, the long-living (8 month) butterfly is born in Canada in late summer, and immediately migrates south to sanctuaries in California. </li></ul>
  77. 78. <ul><li>Milkweed family </li></ul>
  78. 79. <ul><li>A generation of Monarch butterflies hatched in Canada is able to find its way to winter roots in Mexico, used by their grandparents and ancestors before them. </li></ul><ul><li>The information is stored in their genes! </li></ul>
  79. 80. Pacific grove in California is proud of monarch and the whole town is sanctuary for them “ It is the duty of every citizen to protect the butterflies” is the town ordinance. Street signs are everywhere. “School children parade” is on a Saturday morning in early October every year
  80. 81. <ul><li>PRINCE OF NIGHT AIR </li></ul><ul><li>BAT </li></ul><ul><li>Nyctophilus geoffroyi </li></ul><ul><li>Family : Vespertilonidae </li></ul><ul><li>Order : Chiroptera </li></ul><ul><li>Class : Mammalia </li></ul><ul><li>Bat, only mammal that can fly </li></ul><ul><li>There are nearly 1000 living bat species </li></ul><ul><li>Nearly all bats are nocturnal (active at night) or crepuscular (active during the twilight of dawn and dusk) </li></ul>
  81. 82. <ul><li>Echolocation is a high pitched sound produced in the bat's larynx. The sound frequencies range from 11 kHz to 160 kHz. When these pulses strike an object, an echo of the sound returns and is collected by the bat's forward-facing ears. The echoes enable bats to judge the shape, texture and distance of any object such as a tree, building or insects. As the bat gets closer to its prey the frequency increases. </li></ul>
  82. 84. <ul><li>We are part of the natural world and are dependent </li></ul><ul><li>on it. The natural world, since we have become the most powerful of all creatures, is now dependent upon us. </li></ul><ul><li>Those who concern themselves solely with man and his works are cut off from the animal world of marvels and mysteries. </li></ul>
  83. 86. THANK YOU