SlideShare a Scribd company logo

gene for genes

gene for genes

1 of 48
Download to read offline
MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF GENE FOR GENE
SYSTEMS IN PLANT- FUNGUS INTERACTION AND THE
APPLICATIONS OF AVIRULENCE GENES IN CONTROL OF
PLANT PATHOGENS
1
NON HOST RESISTANCE :
• Apple trees and tomato pathogens
• Powdery mildew on wheat (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici)
and barley
Disease is exception rather than rule
HORIZONTAL RESISTANCE :
• General resistance, quantitative resistance
• Incomplete resistance but durable
2
VERTICAL RESISTANCE :
• Race specific , qualitative resistance, differential resistance
• Complete resistance, not durable – high selection presssure
• Follow gene for gene system
3
PATHOGEN
RACE
PATHOGEN RACE
PLANT VARIETY 1 2 PLANT VARIETY 1 2 3 4
A _ + A _ + + +
B + _ B + _ _ +
C _ + _ +
D + _ + _
Reaction of plants to attacks by various pathogens in relation to resistance of
the plant
4
Agrios (2005)
Each gene that confers avirulence (Avr) to the pathogen there is a
corresponding gene in the host that confers resistance (R) to the host
and vice versa – H.H.Flor (1946)
5
RESISTANT OR SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES IN THE
PLANT
VIRULENCE OR AVIRULENCE
GENE IN PATHOGEN
R (resistant)
dominant
r ( susceptibility)
recessive
A (avirulent) dominant AR (-) Ar (+)
a ( virulent) recessive Ar (+) ar (+)
6
RESISTANCE (R) OR SUSCEPTIBILITY ( r) GENES
IN THE PLANT
R1 R2 R1 r2 r1 R2 r1 r2
VIRULENCE (a) OR
AVIRULENCE (A)
GENES IN THE
PATHOGEN
A1 A2 - - - +
A1 a2 - - + +
a1 A2 - + - +
a1 a2 + + + +

Recommended

R genes in Plants
R genes in PlantsR genes in Plants
R genes in PlantsJana Pnr
 
Resistance mechanism In Plants - R GENE
Resistance mechanism In Plants - R GENE Resistance mechanism In Plants - R GENE
Resistance mechanism In Plants - R GENE SunandaArya
 
Plant immunity towards an integrated view of plant pathogen interaction and i...
Plant immunity towards an integrated view of plant pathogen interaction and i...Plant immunity towards an integrated view of plant pathogen interaction and i...
Plant immunity towards an integrated view of plant pathogen interaction and i...Pavan R
 
Varu gaitonde genetics of host plant disease resistance
Varu gaitonde genetics of host plant disease resistanceVaru gaitonde genetics of host plant disease resistance
Varu gaitonde genetics of host plant disease resistanceVarsha Gayatonde
 
plantimmunitytowardsanintegratedviewofplantpathogeninteractionanditsimplicati...
plantimmunitytowardsanintegratedviewofplantpathogeninteractionanditsimplicati...plantimmunitytowardsanintegratedviewofplantpathogeninteractionanditsimplicati...
plantimmunitytowardsanintegratedviewofplantpathogeninteractionanditsimplicati...dawitg2
 
Plant Physiol.-2014-Ashfield-235-51
Plant Physiol.-2014-Ashfield-235-51Plant Physiol.-2014-Ashfield-235-51
Plant Physiol.-2014-Ashfield-235-51Ryan Kessens
 

More Related Content

Similar to gene for genes

Plant disease resistance genes: current status and future directions.
Plant disease resistance genes: current status and future directions.Plant disease resistance genes: current status and future directions.
Plant disease resistance genes: current status and future directions.RonikaThakur
 
Molecular basis of plant resistance and defense responses to pathogens
Molecular basis of plant resistance and defense responses to pathogensMolecular basis of plant resistance and defense responses to pathogens
Molecular basis of plant resistance and defense responses to pathogensSenthil Natesan
 
Mechanism of plant resistance to viruses
Mechanism of plant resistance to virusesMechanism of plant resistance to viruses
Mechanism of plant resistance to virusesSheikh Mansoor
 
Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and it’s Significance in Plant Disease Ma...
Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and it’s Significance in Plant  Disease Ma...Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and it’s Significance in Plant  Disease Ma...
Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and it’s Significance in Plant Disease Ma...Ankit Chaudhari
 
arabidopsis thaliana a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactions
arabidopsis thaliana a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactionsarabidopsis thaliana a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactions
arabidopsis thaliana a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactionsKanthraj Kanthu
 
Gene for gene hypothesis
Gene for gene hypothesis Gene for gene hypothesis
Gene for gene hypothesis Rachana Bagudam
 
Reducing the effects of viral diseases
Reducing the effects of viral diseasesReducing the effects of viral diseases
Reducing the effects of viral diseasesHina Qaiser
 
Gene silencing techniques for crop improvement
Gene silencing techniques for crop improvementGene silencing techniques for crop improvement
Gene silencing techniques for crop improvementJhilickBanerjee
 
ROLE OF PATHOGEN DERIVED EFFECTOR PROTEINS IN PLANT DISEASE AND RESISTANCE
  ROLE OF PATHOGEN DERIVED EFFECTOR PROTEINS IN PLANT DISEASE AND RESISTANCE   ROLE OF PATHOGEN DERIVED EFFECTOR PROTEINS IN PLANT DISEASE AND RESISTANCE
ROLE OF PATHOGEN DERIVED EFFECTOR PROTEINS IN PLANT DISEASE AND RESISTANCE UAHS shivmogga
 
Crop genome editing using CRISPR
Crop genome editing using CRISPRCrop genome editing using CRISPR
Crop genome editing using CRISPRAMITSINGH3260
 
Rna interference in insect pest management
Rna interference in insect pest managementRna interference in insect pest management
Rna interference in insect pest managementamoldchokhat
 
Systemic acquired Resistance
Systemic acquired ResistanceSystemic acquired Resistance
Systemic acquired ResistanceMukesh Kumar
 
RNA interference Activity in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Cells and Whole Insec...
RNA interference Activity in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Cells and Whole Insec...RNA interference Activity in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Cells and Whole Insec...
RNA interference Activity in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Cells and Whole Insec...huyng
 

Similar to gene for genes (20)

Plant disease resistance genes: current status and future directions.
Plant disease resistance genes: current status and future directions.Plant disease resistance genes: current status and future directions.
Plant disease resistance genes: current status and future directions.
 
Nematode resistance faisal
Nematode resistance faisalNematode resistance faisal
Nematode resistance faisal
 
Molecular basis of plant resistance and defense responses to pathogens
Molecular basis of plant resistance and defense responses to pathogensMolecular basis of plant resistance and defense responses to pathogens
Molecular basis of plant resistance and defense responses to pathogens
 
Mechanism of plant resistance to viruses
Mechanism of plant resistance to virusesMechanism of plant resistance to viruses
Mechanism of plant resistance to viruses
 
Tuesday theme 1 1220 1235 large briefing room mulusew
Tuesday theme 1 1220 1235 large briefing room mulusewTuesday theme 1 1220 1235 large briefing room mulusew
Tuesday theme 1 1220 1235 large briefing room mulusew
 
Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and it’s Significance in Plant Disease Ma...
Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and it’s Significance in Plant  Disease Ma...Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and it’s Significance in Plant  Disease Ma...
Systemic Acquired Resistance (SAR) and it’s Significance in Plant Disease Ma...
 
arabidopsis thaliana a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactions
arabidopsis thaliana a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactionsarabidopsis thaliana a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactions
arabidopsis thaliana a model plant for studying plant pathogen interactions
 
SAR
SARSAR
SAR
 
Gene for gene hypothesis
Gene for gene hypothesis Gene for gene hypothesis
Gene for gene hypothesis
 
SAR ppt
SAR pptSAR ppt
SAR ppt
 
Reducing the effects of viral diseases
Reducing the effects of viral diseasesReducing the effects of viral diseases
Reducing the effects of viral diseases
 
Gene silencing techniques for crop improvement
Gene silencing techniques for crop improvementGene silencing techniques for crop improvement
Gene silencing techniques for crop improvement
 
ROLE OF PATHOGEN DERIVED EFFECTOR PROTEINS IN PLANT DISEASE AND RESISTANCE
  ROLE OF PATHOGEN DERIVED EFFECTOR PROTEINS IN PLANT DISEASE AND RESISTANCE   ROLE OF PATHOGEN DERIVED EFFECTOR PROTEINS IN PLANT DISEASE AND RESISTANCE
ROLE OF PATHOGEN DERIVED EFFECTOR PROTEINS IN PLANT DISEASE AND RESISTANCE
 
Crop genome editing using CRISPR
Crop genome editing using CRISPRCrop genome editing using CRISPR
Crop genome editing using CRISPR
 
Rna interference in insect pest management
Rna interference in insect pest managementRna interference in insect pest management
Rna interference in insect pest management
 
Mk saminar
Mk saminarMk saminar
Mk saminar
 
Systemic acquired Resistance
Systemic acquired ResistanceSystemic acquired Resistance
Systemic acquired Resistance
 
RNA interference Activity in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Cells and Whole Insec...
RNA interference Activity in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Cells and Whole Insec...RNA interference Activity in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Cells and Whole Insec...
RNA interference Activity in Glassy-winged Sharpshooter Cells and Whole Insec...
 
Presentation final
Presentation finalPresentation final
Presentation final
 
SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE ppt
 SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE ppt SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE ppt
SYSTEMIC ACQUIRED RESISTANCE ppt
 

More from vahidzarrin

biotech-lec 6.ppt
biotech-lec 6.pptbiotech-lec 6.ppt
biotech-lec 6.pptvahidzarrin
 
New Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation.ppt
New Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation.pptNew Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation.ppt
New Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation.pptvahidzarrin
 
PhyloCode2b[1].pdf
PhyloCode2b[1].pdfPhyloCode2b[1].pdf
PhyloCode2b[1].pdfvahidzarrin
 
MG Plant Diseases 2006 3.ppt
MG Plant Diseases 2006 3.pptMG Plant Diseases 2006 3.ppt
MG Plant Diseases 2006 3.pptvahidzarrin
 
pesticide_20100208_080741.ppt
pesticide_20100208_080741.pptpesticide_20100208_080741.ppt
pesticide_20100208_080741.pptvahidzarrin
 
Cranberry Boom Sprayer Cost.ppt
Cranberry Boom Sprayer Cost.pptCranberry Boom Sprayer Cost.ppt
Cranberry Boom Sprayer Cost.pptvahidzarrin
 
adjuvantssandaaction.pdf
adjuvantssandaaction.pdfadjuvantssandaaction.pdf
adjuvantssandaaction.pdfvahidzarrin
 
9_Efficient_Knapsack_Sprayer_Use.ppt
9_Efficient_Knapsack_Sprayer_Use.ppt9_Efficient_Knapsack_Sprayer_Use.ppt
9_Efficient_Knapsack_Sprayer_Use.pptvahidzarrin
 
8_Calibration_of_hand-held_sprayer_equipment.ppt
8_Calibration_of_hand-held_sprayer_equipment.ppt8_Calibration_of_hand-held_sprayer_equipment.ppt
8_Calibration_of_hand-held_sprayer_equipment.pptvahidzarrin
 

More from vahidzarrin (16)

Organelles.ppt
Organelles.pptOrganelles.ppt
Organelles.ppt
 
leaves.ppt
leaves.pptleaves.ppt
leaves.ppt
 
biotech-lec 6.ppt
biotech-lec 6.pptbiotech-lec 6.ppt
biotech-lec 6.ppt
 
sootymold.pdf
sootymold.pdfsootymold.pdf
sootymold.pdf
 
New Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation.ppt
New Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation.pptNew Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation.ppt
New Microsoft Office PowerPoint Presentation.ppt
 
BACTER~1.PPT
BACTER~1.PPTBACTER~1.PPT
BACTER~1.PPT
 
nematoda.pdf
nematoda.pdfnematoda.pdf
nematoda.pdf
 
PhyloCode2b[1].pdf
PhyloCode2b[1].pdfPhyloCode2b[1].pdf
PhyloCode2b[1].pdf
 
MG Plant Diseases 2006 3.ppt
MG Plant Diseases 2006 3.pptMG Plant Diseases 2006 3.ppt
MG Plant Diseases 2006 3.ppt
 
Chapter 12.ppt
Chapter 12.pptChapter 12.ppt
Chapter 12.ppt
 
pesticide_20100208_080741.ppt
pesticide_20100208_080741.pptpesticide_20100208_080741.ppt
pesticide_20100208_080741.ppt
 
Cranberry Boom Sprayer Cost.ppt
Cranberry Boom Sprayer Cost.pptCranberry Boom Sprayer Cost.ppt
Cranberry Boom Sprayer Cost.ppt
 
calibfull.ppt
calibfull.pptcalibfull.ppt
calibfull.ppt
 
adjuvantssandaaction.pdf
adjuvantssandaaction.pdfadjuvantssandaaction.pdf
adjuvantssandaaction.pdf
 
9_Efficient_Knapsack_Sprayer_Use.ppt
9_Efficient_Knapsack_Sprayer_Use.ppt9_Efficient_Knapsack_Sprayer_Use.ppt
9_Efficient_Knapsack_Sprayer_Use.ppt
 
8_Calibration_of_hand-held_sprayer_equipment.ppt
8_Calibration_of_hand-held_sprayer_equipment.ppt8_Calibration_of_hand-held_sprayer_equipment.ppt
8_Calibration_of_hand-held_sprayer_equipment.ppt
 

Recently uploaded

Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfSUMIT TIWARI
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleCeline George
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdfAynouraHamidova
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika    -  The story of the queenNzinga Kika    -  The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queenDeanAmory1
 
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYSOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYGloriaRamos83
 
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...MohonDas
 
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptxADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024avesmalik2
 
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaDecision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaPrince Armah, PhD
 
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaBTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaFaheema Hasan
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxAKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdfDr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdfDr.Florence Dayana
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 10-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 10-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 10-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 10-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdfAynouraHamidova
 
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxOdontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxMennat Allah Alkaram
 
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...AKSHAYMAGAR17
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasAlexandraSwartzwelde
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdfDiploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
Diploma 2nd yr PHARMACOLOGY chapter 5 part 1.pdf
 
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales ModuleNew Features in  the Odoo 17 Sales Module
New Features in the Odoo 17 Sales Module
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 11 THEO ĐƠN VỊ BÀI HỌC - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (GLOB...
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-2.pdf
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 1-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
 
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdfOverview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
Overview of Databases and Data Modelling-1.pdf
 
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika    -  The story of the queenNzinga Kika    -  The story of the queen
Nzinga Kika - The story of the queen
 
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAYSOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
SOCIAL JUSTICE LESSON ON CATCH UP FRIDAY
 
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
BEZA or Bangladesh Economic Zone Authority recruitment exam question solution...
 
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptxADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS  method.pptx
ADAPTABILITY, Types of Adaptability AND STABILITY ANALYSIS method.pptx
 
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
VPEC BROUCHER FOR ALL COURSES UPDATED FEB 2024
 
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in GhanaDecision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
Decision on Curriculum Change Path: Towards Standards-Based Curriculum in Ghana
 
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic LeukemiaBTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
BTKi in Treatment Of Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia
 
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptxPlant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
Plant Genetic Resources, Germplasm, gene pool - Copy.pptx
 
Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer Lipids as Biopolymer
Lipids as Biopolymer
 
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdfDr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
Dr.M.Florence Dayana-Cloud Computing-Unit - 1.pdf
 
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 10-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 10-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 10-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
11 CI SINIF SINAQLARI - 10-2023-Aynura-Hamidova.pdf
 
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptxOdontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
Odontogenesis and its related anomiles.pptx
 
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...Genetic deterioration  Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
Genetic deterioration Seed ageing of improved variety seed, Maintenance of G...
 
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in CanvasFood Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
Food Web SlideShare for Ecology Notes Quiz in Canvas
 

gene for genes

  • 1. MOLECULAR CHARACTERIZATION OF GENE FOR GENE SYSTEMS IN PLANT- FUNGUS INTERACTION AND THE APPLICATIONS OF AVIRULENCE GENES IN CONTROL OF PLANT PATHOGENS 1
  • 2. NON HOST RESISTANCE : • Apple trees and tomato pathogens • Powdery mildew on wheat (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici) and barley Disease is exception rather than rule HORIZONTAL RESISTANCE : • General resistance, quantitative resistance • Incomplete resistance but durable 2
  • 3. VERTICAL RESISTANCE : • Race specific , qualitative resistance, differential resistance • Complete resistance, not durable – high selection presssure • Follow gene for gene system 3 PATHOGEN RACE PATHOGEN RACE PLANT VARIETY 1 2 PLANT VARIETY 1 2 3 4 A _ + A _ + + + B + _ B + _ _ + C _ + _ + D + _ + _
  • 4. Reaction of plants to attacks by various pathogens in relation to resistance of the plant 4 Agrios (2005)
  • 5. Each gene that confers avirulence (Avr) to the pathogen there is a corresponding gene in the host that confers resistance (R) to the host and vice versa – H.H.Flor (1946) 5 RESISTANT OR SUSCEPTIBILITY GENES IN THE PLANT VIRULENCE OR AVIRULENCE GENE IN PATHOGEN R (resistant) dominant r ( susceptibility) recessive A (avirulent) dominant AR (-) Ar (+) a ( virulent) recessive Ar (+) ar (+)
  • 6. 6 RESISTANCE (R) OR SUSCEPTIBILITY ( r) GENES IN THE PLANT R1 R2 R1 r2 r1 R2 r1 r2 VIRULENCE (a) OR AVIRULENCE (A) GENES IN THE PATHOGEN A1 A2 - - - + A1 a2 - - + + a1 A2 - + - + a1 a2 + + + +
  • 9. 9
  • 10. Hydrophilic- lacking stretches of hydrophobic amino acids - enable them to be anchored in cell membranes May produced and localized in pathogen cytoplasm or secreted through membrane pores If secreted externally – directly acts as elicitors If localized in cytoplasm of pathogen - acts indirectly as enzyme to produce elicitor molecules Acting as avirulence factors in elicitor-receptor model (plant defense) 10
  • 11. Contribution towards the virulence of pathogen. eg. AvrBs2 gene of X. campestris pv. Vesicatoria Avr proteins interact with specific plant proteins (virulence target) - enhances availability of nutrients to pathogen . Most R proteins contain amino acid leucine rich domain (LRR- leucine rich repeats), Depending on R protein LRR reside : cytoplasmic LRRs or extracytoplasmic LRRs. Leucine-rich repeats (LRR) region of R-genes is involved in recognizing pathogens 11
  • 12. MAJOR CLASSES OF R PROTEINS S. NO MAJOR R-GENE CLASSES EXAMPLE 1 NBS-LRR-TIR N, L6, RPP5 2 NBS-LRR-CC I2, RPS2, RPM1 3 LRR-TrD Cf-9, Cf-4, Cf-2 4 LRR-TrD-Kinase Xa21 5 TrD-CC RPW8 6 TIR-NBS-LRR-NLS- WRKY RRS1R 7 LRR-TrD-PEST-ECS Ve1, Ve2 8 Enzymatic R-genes Pto, Rpg1 LRR - Leucine rich repeats; NBS - Nucleotide-binding site; TIR -Toll/Interleukin- 1- receptors; CC - Coiled coil; TrD –Transmembrane domain; PEST -Amino acid domain; ECS - Endocytosis cell signaling domain; NLS - Nuclear localization signal; WRKY -Amino acid domain; HC toxin reductase - Helminthosporium carbonum toxin reductase enzyme. 12 Gururani et.al.,2012
  • 13. 13 Agrios (2005) TYPES OF R-CODED RECEPTOR PROTEINS
  • 14. GENE PLANT PATHOGEN YEAR ISOLATED Pto Tomato Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (avrPto) 1993 PBS1 Arabidopsis Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola(avrPphB) 2001 RPS2 Arabidopsis Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola (avrRpt2) 1994 N Tobacco Tobacco Mosaic virus 1994 Bs2 Pepper Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (avrBs2) 1999 RRS-1 Arabidopsis Ralstonia solanacearum 2002 Pi-ta Rice Magnaporthe grisea(avrPita) 2000 Cf-9 Tomato Cladosporium fulvum(Avr9) 1994 Ve1 Ve2 Tomato Verticillium albo-atrum 2001 Xa-21 Rice Xanthomonas oryzae pv.oryzae (all races) 1995 Pi-d2 Rice Magnaporthe grisea 2006 14 Gururani et.al.,2012
  • 15. Plant proteins belonging to the nucleotide-binding site– leucine-rich repeat (NBS- LRR) family are used for pathogen detection. (R-PROTEIN) Harmful organism Recognition by resistance protein Signal to cell nucleus Genetic material Defense Response Defense protein (R-PROTEIN) Outside plant cell Inside plant cell Diagram of a plant disease resistance protein in action. A portion of the protein (MAROON) lies outside the cell and specifically recognises the harmful organism. The remaining portion of the protein (RED) resides inside the cell and communicates a signal to the plant’s genetic material, which in turn stimulates a defense response against the invading organism. (R-GENE) 15
  • 16. • INDIRECT PERCEPTION OF AVR PROTEINS:  Protease dependent defense elicitation model The co-receptor model The guard hypothesis  The decoy hypothesis  Bait and Switch model •DIRECT PERCEPTION OF AVR PROTEINS : Elicitor- receptor model 16
  • 17.  Albersheim and Anderson Prouty, 1975 proposed this model.  Avirulence (Avr) gene of a pathogen encodes an elicitor (Avr) protein that is recognized by a receptor protein encoded by the matching resistance (R) gene of the host plant. eg. Pi-ta R gene from rice and AvrPi-ta from Magnaporthe grisea ELICITOR– RECEPTOR MODEL 17 Staskawicz et.al.,1995
  • 18. PROTEASE DEPENDENT DEFENSE ELICITATION MODEL  Kruger et al., 2002 proposed this model.  eg.Tomato leaf mold –Cladosporium fulvum interaction.  Rcr3 required for Cf-2 mediated resistance towards C.fulvum strains carrying Avr2, encodes a tomato cysteine endoprotease.  Rcr3 might process Avr2 to generate a mature ligand, or Rcr3 might degrade Avr2 - releasing active elicitor peptides that interact with the extracellular LRR of Cf2. 18
  • 20. THE CO-RECEPTOR MODEL  Jones and Jones,1996 proposed this model.  RPS5 an Arabidopsis NB-LRR protein localized to a membrane fraction - activated by the AvrPphB cysteine protease effector from P. syringae.  AvrPphB is cleaved, acylated and delivered to the host plasma membrane. Activated AvrPphB cleaves the Arabidopsis PBS1 serine- threonine protein kinase, leading to RPS5 activation. 20
  • 22. THE GUARD HYPOTHESIS Van-der-biezen and Jones, 1998 proposed this model.  Interaction between guardee and Avr is recognized by the R protein  eg. AvrPto of Pseudomonas syringae and Pto gene of tomato, Prf gene act as guardee. Evolutionary unstable situation R protein is absent -evolution of the guardee to avoid binding R protein is present - selection will favor binding 22
  • 24.  Van der Hoorn and Kamoun, 2008 proposed this model.  Host protein termed as “decoy” - specializes in perception of the effector by the R protein  Not contributing pathogen fitness in the absence of its cognate R protein. Effector target monitored by the R protein is a decoy that mimics the operative effector target  e.g. AvrPto and AvrBs3 - some host targets of effectors act as decoys to detect pathogen effectors via R proteins DECOY HYPOTHESIS 24
  • 26. Peter Moffett , proposed this model in 2002. The NB-LRR protein - primed (signaling competent) but autoinhibited (restrained from signaling) state. Functional nucleotide binding pocket and multiple intramolecular interactions - fine-tuned balance between the LRR and ARC2. Avr protein is brought into the NB-LRR system via the bait protein - direct binding or alteration to bait. Conformational changes within the nucleotide binding pocket- allow signaling motif - downstream signaling components. Subsequent to signaling, intramolecular interactions within the NB- LRR protein dissociated. BAIT AND SWITCH MODEL 26
  • 28. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. 35
  • 36. 36
  • 37. 37
  • 38. 38
  • 39. 39
  • 40. DIRECT UTILIZATION THROUGH TWO COMPONENT SENSOR SYSTEM (De Witt , 1992) 40 Lauge and De Wit (1998)
  • 41. INDIRECT UTILIZATION OF AVIRULENCE GENES GENE DEPLOYMENT GENE PYRAMIDING 41 Virulence/ avirulence pattern Gene Deployment V1 / avr2, avr3 R2, R3, not R1 V2 , V3 / avr1 Only R1 V1, V2, V3/ avr4, avr5 R4, R5 R1 R1 + R2 R1 + R2+ R3 eg. Oat against crown rust
  • 43. 43
  • 44. FLAX RUST – All the virulent rust strains retain intact copies of the Avr genes (AvrL567) but have altered their sequences Host R genes imposed selection for new variants to escape recognition. 44 Jones & Dangl (2006)
  • 45. 45
  • 46. 46
  • 47. Functional genomic tools to disease resistance - interactions between defense signaling and other plant processes. Structural basis of recognition will enable us - design R proteins that recognize essential virulence factors New transgenic resistant plants by exploiting both avirulence genes and resistance genes in molecular resistance breeding Using avirulence gene products / race-specific elicitors - events in signal transduction pathways can be studied. 47
  • 48. 48