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The History of Ireland, Scotland & Wales - Osher Lifelong Learning at UNM


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We will examine Irish, Scottish, and Welsh history and culture from 500 BC to the present. In particular, lectures and discussions will focus on the early cultural identity of the Irish, Scots, and Welsh and their customs and mythologies; the influence of Roman culture and Christianity on these lands and peoples; the English conquest and colonization of these lands and peoples; and, finally, on the process of political devolution in all three areas. These aspects of Irish, Scottish, and Welsh history will be examined through historical documents and literature, art, music, and film clips. Students will emerge from the class with a clear sense of the events that shaped the early history and culture of Ireland, Scotland, and Wales and how those events continue to shape these areas even to the present day.

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The History of Ireland, Scotland & Wales - Osher Lifelong Learning at UNM

  1. 1. The conquest of Wales Map of Wales circa 1100 • Hywel Dda, d. 950 – Cyfreith Hywel Dda (the Law of Hywel the Good) • English overlordship in the 10th century – From king (brenhin) to prince (tywysog) and lord (arglwydd) • Gruffudd ap Llywelyn, d. 1063 – Ruled Gwynedd, Deheubarth, Powys, Ceredigion, and Gwent • William the Conqueror, r. 1066-1087 • Marcher lords
  2. 2. The conquest of Wales Modern illustration of Owain Gwynedd • Henry I, r. 1100-1135 • Powys – Bleddyn ap Cynfyn, d. 1075 – Maredudd ap Bleddyn, r. 1116-1132 • English Civil War, 1135-1154 • Gwynedd – Owain Gwynedd, r. 1137-1170 – Dafydd ab Owain, r. 1170-1194 • Deheubarth – Gruffudd ap Rhys, r. 1120-1137 – Maredudd ap Gruffudd, r. 1137-1155 – Rhys ap Gruffudd, r. 1155-1197 • Yr Arglwydd Rhys • Eisteddfod
  3. 3. The conquest of Wales Funeral effigy of Rhys ap Gruffudd, St. David’s, Wales • Henry II, r. 1154-1189 – Campaign in Wales in 1157 – Submission of Owain Gwynedd and Rhys ap Gruffudd – Revolt of Welsh princes in 1165 • Rhys established as Henry’s justiciar in South Wales in 1170s – Dafydd ab Owain, r. 1170-1194 • Marries Emma, an illegitimate daughter of Henry II
  4. 4. The conquest of Wales Stone likeness of Llywelyn Fawr, National Museum of Wales, Cardiff. • • • Richard I, r. 1189-1199 John, r. 1199-1216 Llywelyn ab Iorwerth ab Owain Gwynedd, aka Llywelyn Fawr (the Great), r. 1194-1240 – Marriage to Tangwystl, daughter of the king of Mann • One son, Gruffudd – Marriage to Joan, illegitimate daughter of John • One son, Dafydd • • • John’s Welsh campaign in 1210 Henry III, r. 1216-1272 Dafydd ap Llywelyn, r. 1240-1246
  5. 5. The conquest of Wales Modern stone monument to Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, Cilmeri, Wales. • The four sons of Gruffudd ap Llywelyn Fawr – Owain, Llywelyn, Rhodri, Dafydd • Llywelyn ap Gruffudd, r. 1255-1282 – Treaty of Montgomery, 1267 • Llywelyn recognized as Prince of Wales • Edward I, r. 1272-1307 – Treaty of Aberconwy, 1277 • The last Welsh War, JuneDecember 1282 • Dafydd ap Gruffudd, d. 1283
  6. 6. Wales in 1267 (l) and 1284 (r)
  7. 7. Edward I holding parliament in 1278 (Edward center, Alexander III of Scotland to his right and Llywelyn ap Gruffudd to his left) From the Garter Book, circa 1524
  8. 8. The conquest of Wales • Cultural change – – – – – • The Statute of Rhuddlan, 1284 – – – – • • From killing of political opponents to castration and blinding From partible inheritance to primogeniture Princes as makers of law instead of professional jurists Dafydd ap Llywelyn and changes to the law of feud (galanas) Llywelyn ap Gruffudd and the jury system Rhingyll Pencenedl Galanas Amobr and amobrwyr Edward’s castles The revolt of Owain Glyndwr, 1400-1408 – A descendant of the dynasty of Powys, d. 1408
  9. 9. Beaumaris Castle (Anglesey, north Wales), outer ward, built 1295-1330
  10. 10. Beaumaris Castle, inner ward
  11. 11. Caernarvon Castle (Caernarvon, north Wales), built 1283-1330
  12. 12. Conwy Castle (Conwy, north Wales), built 1283-1289
  13. 13. The conquest of Scotland, almost • • • • Illustration from a charter to Kelso Abbey, 1159. David I (left) and Malcolm IV (right). National Library of Scotland. Kenneth Mac Alpin, r. 843-858 Duncan I, r. 1034-1040 Macbeth MacFindlay, r. 1040-1057 Malcolm III r. 1058-1093 – Margaret, granddaughter of Aethelred Unraed, r. England 9781016 – St. Andrew • David I, r. 1124-1153 – Mathilda, daughter of Henry I of England, was David’s niece – Henry II of England, son of Mathilda, was David’s greatnephew • Malcolm IV, r. 1153-1165 – Nicknamed “the Maiden” – Forced to do homage to Henry II as overlord, 1163 • William I, the Lion, r. 1165-1214 – Treaty of Falaise
  14. 14. Twelfth-century Scotland
  15. 15. The conquest of Scotland Great seal of Alexander II of Scotland, 1229. British Library. • Alexander II, r. 1214-1249 • Alexander III, r. 1249-1286 • Margaret, the Maid of Norway, d. 1290 • The succession crisis – Edward I’s “Great Cause” – John Balliol, r. 1292-1296 – Robert Bruce, r. 1306-1329
  16. 16. The conquest of Scotland Modern statue of William Wallace, National Wallace Monument, Stirling. • The first Scottish war, 1296-1307 – The Stone of Scone • • • • • • William Wallace, d. 1305 Battle of Stirling Bridge, 1297 Battle of Falkirk, 1298 Robert Bruce, r. 1306-1329 Battle of Bannockburn, 1314 David II, r. 1329-1371 – Recognized as king of Scotland by Edward III of England in 1357 • • Declaration of Arbroath, 1320 England, Scotland, and France – The “Auld Alliance”
  17. 17. The Declaration of Arbroath, 1320 • To the most Holy Father and Lord in Christ, the Lord John, by divine providence Supreme Pontiff of the Holy Roman and Universal Church… • Most Holy Father and Lord, we know and from the chronicles and books of the ancients we find that among other famous nations our own, the Scots, has been graced with widespread renown. They journeyed from Greater Scythia by way of the Tyrrhenian Sea and the Pillars of Hercules, and dwelt for a long course of time in Spain among the most savage tribes, but nowhere could they be subdued by any race, however barbarous. Thence they came, twelve hundred years after the people of Israel crossed the Red Sea, to their home in the west where they still live today. The Britons they first drove out, the Picts they utterly destroyed, and, even though very often assailed by the Norwegians, the Danes and the English, they took possession of that home with many victories and untold efforts; and, as the historians of old time bear witness, they have held it free of all bondage ever since.
  18. 18. • • • The Most Holy Fathers your predecessors gave careful heed to these things and bestowed many favours and numerous privileges on this same kingdom and people... Thus our nation under their protection did indeed live in freedom and peace up to the time when that mighty prince the King of the English, Edward [Edward I], when our kingdom had no head and our people harboured no malice or treachery and were then unused to wars or invasions, came in the guise of a friend and ally to harass them as an enemy. The deeds of cruelty, massacre, violence, pillage, arson, imprisoning prelates, burning down monasteries, robbing and killing monks and nuns, and yet other outrages without number which he committed against our people, sparing neither age nor sex, religion nor rank, no one could describe nor fully imagine unless he had seen them with his own eyes… But from these countless evils we have been set free, by the help of Him Who though He afflicts yet heals and restores, by our most tireless Prince, King and Lord, the Lord Robert [Robert Bruce]… Yet if he should give up what he has begun, and agree to make us or our kingdom subject to the King of England or the English, we should exert ourselves at once to drive him out as our enemy and a subverter of his own rights and ours, and make some other man who was well able to defend us our King; for, as long as but a hundred of us remain alive, never will we on any conditions be brought under English rule. It is in truth not for glory, nor riches, nor honours that we are fighting, but for freedom — for that alone, which no honest man gives up but with life itself…
  19. 19. • May it please you to admonish and exhort the King of the English, who ought to be satisfied with what belongs to him since England used once to be enough for seven kings or more, to leave us Scots in peace, who live in this poor little Scotland, beyond which there is no dwelling-place at all, and covet nothing but our own… • But if your Holiness puts too much faith in the tales the English tell and will not give sincere belief to all this, nor refrain from favouring them to our prejudice, then the slaughter of bodies, the perdition of souls, and all the other misfortunes that will follow, inflicted by them on us and by us on them, will, we believe, be surely laid by the Most High to your charge…
  20. 20. Stone of Scone, taken by Edward I in 1296 and returned to Scotland in 1998
  21. 21. Stone of Scone under coronation chair of English monarchs, Westminster Abbey
  22. 22. Edinburgh Castle