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Women's History Lecture by Dr. Lizabeth Johnson | OLLI at UNM

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A lecture by Dr. Lizabeth Johnson for Osher Lifelong Learning at the University of New Mexico.

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Women's History Lecture by Dr. Lizabeth Johnson | OLLI at UNM

  1. 1. Goddesses and queens: women’s religious and political power in ancient Europe Map of the ancient Mediterranean, from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1.
  2. 2. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe Female fertility figurine, Mesopotamia, c. 6000 BCE, Metropolitan Museum of Art. • Hunter-gatherer societies as egalitarian • Settled agricultural societies as patriarchal • Patrilinear, patrilocal • Women’s sexuality in need of control and direction • Urbanization and militarization of society • Women tended to have higher status in less urbanized societies, such as Celtic, Norse, and Germanic • Specialization of crafts or appropriation of female industries by men • Mycenaean conquest of Minoan Greek centers and royal (male) appropriation of fabric industry (female)
  3. 3. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe Running Spartan girl, c. 500 BCE, British Museum. • Ancient Greece • Sparta, laws dating to 8th (?) century BCE • Lycurgus • Female citizens encouraged to exercise; strong body would produce strong children • Women as managers of household in men’s absence • By mid-5th century, Spartan women could inherit/own property, including horses • Aristotle’s complaint (c. 350) that Spartan women owned 2/5 of Sparta’s lands • No real concept of adultery
  4. 4. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe • Ancient Greece • Gortyn (Crete), laws in 5th century inscription, but possibly from 7th century BCE • Women as managers of household in men’s absence • Women could inherit and own property • Daughters received slightly less than sons • In divorce, wife took her own property and half the produce of the household • If a father/husband/son violated regulations regarding children’s property, control passed to mother/wife • Married female slave could own property and take it with her upon divorce • Patrōïōkos—female heir • Adultery and rape punishable by fine
  5. 5. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe • Ancient Greece • Athens, law codes from 7th to 5th centuries BCE • Kyrios—male guardian (father/husband/son/male relative) • Daughters inherited if there were no sons • Epiklēros—female heir • Dowries • Laws of Solon (6th century BCE) limited women’s personal property to three dresses /items of clothing • Unmarried woman who had extramarital sex punished by sale into debt slavery • Married woman who committed adultery was divorced by her husband, no longer allowed to participate in public ceremonies • Rape punishable by fine paid to husband; victim divorced (if married) or shunned (if single) • Xenophon’s Oeconomicus (c. 400 BCE)
  6. 6. Left—vase depicting women at a fountain, c. 500 BCE, Metropolitan Museum of Art; right—vase depicting women weaving, c. 550 BCE, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  7. 7. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe Vase of Sappho (r) and Alcaeus (l), c. 470 BCE, Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich. • Women at work in Greece • Poets • Sappho, fl. 7th century BCE • Shopkeepers • Midwives, wetnurses • Hetairai • Courtesans, usually of foreign birth • Aspasia, partner of Pericles, fl. 430 BCE • Prostitutes
  8. 8. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe • Ancient Rome • Female values • Fides (loyalty) • Pudicitia (chastity) • Modestas (modesty) • Lanam fecit (lit. she made wool, good housekeeping) • Livy’s History of Rome (written c. 10 CE) • The killing of Horatia (c. 640 BCE) • The Rape of Lucretia (c. 509 BCE) • The bravery of Cloelia (c. 506 BCE) • Vestal Virgins—highest religious position for women; required no guardians
  9. 9. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe • Ancient Rome • The Twelve Tables (c. 450 BCE) • Curator—guardian (father/husband/brother/son/uncle) • Women to be in perpetual guardianship “propter animi levitatem” • Marriage cum manu (lit. with hand) • Respectable women to be veiled in public • Women not allowed to drink wine • Women not allowed to attend public events without a guardian • Women allowed to inherit property equally with brothers if no will • Divorce allowed— “Tuas res tibi habeto”
  10. 10. Left--sarcophagus with reclining couple, from Cerveteri, c. 520 BCE, Museo Nazionale di Villa Giulia, Rome; right—sarcophagus of woman reclining with bust of husband, c. 1st century CE, British Museum.
  11. 11. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe Bust of Empress Faustina, wife of Antoninus Pius, c. 140 CE, Capitoline Museum, Rome. • Ancient Rome • Laws from the late Republic and Empire • Marriage sine manu (lit. without hand) • Women prohibited as sole or main heir of property • Guardianship • Laws of Caesar Augustus (30 BCE-14 CE) released free women from guardianship after birth of three children (four children if freedwoman) • Adultery punishable by death • Lex Julia 18 BCE modified this to exile • 6th century CE law required the husband to put his wife in a nunnery • Rape punishable by death • Later modified to rapist losing property and/or being exiled • By late empire (c. 500 CE) widows gained right of guardianship over children • Divorce much more difficult after conversion to Christianity
  12. 12. “On account of lightness of mind:” social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe Top—relief of women in a poultry shop, Museum of Roman Civilization, Rome; bottom—relief of two female gladiators, British Museum, London. • Women at work in Rome • Poets • Physicians, midwives, wetnurses • Shopkeepers • Actresses, dancers, musicians • Prostitutes • Gladiators • Philosophers • Sosipatra, d. mid-4th century • Hypatia, d. 415
  13. 13. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe Statue of a woman and young girl from a grave monument, c. 320 BCE, Metropolitan Museum of Art. • A philosophical view of women • Socrates, d. 399 BCE • Plato, d. 347 BCE • The Republic, The Laws • Aristotle, d. 322, BCE • Politics • Epicureans • Cynics • Hipparchia, wife of Crates
  14. 14. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe Old market woman, c. 150-100 BCE. Roman marble copy of Hellenistic original, Metropolitan Museum of Art. • A medical view of women • Theories on male versus female • Plato’s Timaeus • Aristotle’s On the Generation of Animals • Hippocrates, d. 377 BCE • Galen, d. circa 200 CE • “Women’s troubles” and the “wandering womb” • Childbearing • Average lifespan 34-36 years • Average number of births, 4.6 with 1.6 deaths
  15. 15. “On account of lightness of mind”: social and cultural views of women in ancient Europe Boudicca coin, c. 61 CE, historyfiles.co.uk. • Women outside the Roman Empire • Cartimandua, fl. 40-50 CE • Queen of the Brigantes tribe in Britain (Northumbria) • Boudicca, d. 61 CE • Queen of the Iceni tribe in Britain (East Anglia) • Amalasuintha, d. 535 CE • Regent of the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy, 525-534 • Queen of the Ostrogothic kingdom of Italy, 534-535
  16. 16. Boudica statue, by Thomas Thornycroft, 1905, London.
  17. 17. Minoan snake goddess Figurine in the Heraklion Archaeological Museum, Crete, c. 1600 BCE. • Associated with the earth and fertility • May also have aspects of rebirth • Possibly derived from the Egyptian snake goddess, Wadjet
  18. 18. Gaia Poseidon (c) battling a giant (r); Gaia (l) pleads for the giant’s life. Image from the Antikenmuseen, Berlin, Germany, 410-400 BCE. • Mother goddess, strongly associated with the earth and fertility • Consort of Uranus • Mother of Rhea and Chronus
  19. 19. Rhea Statue in the Getty Museum, Malibu, California, c. 50 CE. • Mother goddess and fertility goddess • Consort of Chronus • Mother of Zeus/Jupiter, Hera/Juno, Poseidon/Neptune, Hades/Pluto, Demeter/Ceres
  20. 20. Demeter Statue in the Museo Pio-Clementino, Musei Vaticani, Vatican City. • Goddess of agriculture, fertility • Mother of Persephone (Roman Prosperina) • Persephone’s abduction by Hades/Pluto • Associated with Elusinian mysteries
  21. 21. Demeter Left image from the Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe, Germany, 480 BCE; right image from the National Museum, Athens, Greece, 450-425 BCE.
  22. 22. Athena Frieze of the mourning Athena, original in the Acropolis Museum, Athens, Greece, c. 460 BCE. • Goddess of wisdom, warfare, and women’s handicrafts • Athena Parthenos, Athena the Virgin • Patron goddess of Athens and Sparta • Athena’s sacred snake said to inhabit the temple in Athens • Romanized as Minerva
  23. 23. Athena Image from the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 460-450 BCE.
  24. 24. Artemis Statue in the Louvre, Paris, France, c. 325 BCE. • Goddess of the hunt, associated with important events in women’s lives • Menstruation, childbirth, death • Romanized as Diana
  25. 25. Artemis Left image from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 470 BCE; right image from the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze, Florence, Italy, 570-560 BCE.
  26. 26. Hestia Statue in Museo Torlonia, Rome, Italy, c. 470 BCE. • Goddess of the hearth and home • Often depicted as a living flame • Romanized as Vesta • Rome’s Vestal Virgins dedicated to the serve of Vesta
  27. 27. Hera Image from the Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, New York City, NY, c. 500-475 BCE. • Queen of the gods, consort of Zeus, goddess of fertility • Children by Zeus • Ares—god of war • Hebe—cupbearer to the gods • Eileithyia—goddess of childbirth • Gives birth to Hephaestus/Vulcan independently
  28. 28. Aphrodite Statue in the Hermitage Museum, St. Petersburg, Russia, 420-410 BCE. • Goddess of love and sexuality • Born from sea foam • Married to Hephaestus, but has affair with Ares • Romanized as Venus
  29. 29. Judgment of Paris: l-r Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, Hermes, and Paris Image from the Antikenmuseen, Berlin, Germany, 440 BCE.
  30. 30. Female cultic practices • Cult of Athena in Athens • Panathenaea, the Parthenon • Eleusinian mysteries • A chief priest and two priestesses, one dedicated to Demeter and one to Persephone • The melissae (bees) • Thesmophoria—a Demeter cult for women only • Games of Hera—women’s version of the Olympic games • Fortuna • Fortuna Virginalis, Fortuna Primigenia, Fortuna Muliebri, Fortuna Virilis • Cult of Vesta, Vestal Virgins • Cult of Ceres • Cult of Bacchus/Dionysius • Bacchanalia; after 186 BCE, Roman men forbidden to participate • Cult of Isis and Serapis • Hellenized version of the Egyptian gods Isis and Osiris • Cult of the Magna Mater/Cybele--imported into Rome c. 200 BCE
  31. 31. Goddesses and queens: women’s religious and political power in ancient Europe • Women in mythology • Penelope, wife of Odysseus • Clytemnestra, wife of Agamemnon • Antigone and Ismene in Antigone • Women in historical sources • Gorgo, daughter of Spartan King Cleomenes I and wife of Spartan king Leonidas (half-brother of Cleomenes), fl. 480 BCE • Artemisia of Caria, queen of Halicarnassus, fl. 480 BCE • The only female commander during the Persian War • Aspasia, Athenian hetairai and companion of Pericles (d. 429), fl. 430 BCE
  32. 32. Stills of Gorgo (l) and Artemisia (r) from 300: Rise of an Empire.
  33. 33. Alexander the Great’s empire and the Hellenistic world (336-31 BCE). Map from Coffin and Stacey, Western Civilizations, Volume 1.
  34. 34. Macedonian queens Gold medallion depicting Olympias as an ancestor of Roman Emperor Caracalla, Walters Art Museum. • Olympias of Epirus, wife of Philip II, d. 316 BCE • Cleopatra, d. 336 • Europa, d. 336 • Amyntas IV, d. 336 • Roxane, princess of Bactria and wife of Alexander the Great, fl. 330 BCE
  35. 35. Hellenistic queens Egyptian coin depicting Arsinoë II and a cornucopia, forumancientcoins.com. • Laodice, half-sister and wife of Antiochus II, d. circa 240-230 BCE • Poisoned Antiochus and killed his other wife and child • Triggered the Third Syrian War, 246- 241 • Arsinoë II, sister and wife of Ptolemy II, d. 270 BCE • First Ptolemaic queen to be depicted on coinage • Credited with the development of naval power in Egypt
  36. 36. Hellenistic queens Left—tetradrachm of Cleopatra (Antony on obverse side), British Museum; right—bust of Cleopatra, Altes Museum, Berlin. • Cleopatra VII, d. 30 BCE • Co-ruler of Egypt from 51-48 BCE with brother Ptolemy XIII • Relationship with Gaius Julius Caesar, 48-44 • Gnaeus Pompeius Magnus, d. 48 • Gaius Julius Caesar, d. 44 • Caesarion • Relationship with Marcus Antonius (Mark Antony), 41-30 • Marcus Antonius, d. 30 • Octavian/Caesar Augustus, d. 14 CE
  37. 37. Women, politics, and the Hellenistic Age • Phile of Priene (Ionia), 1st century BCE • Aristodama of Smyrna (Ionia), granted honorary citizenship of Lamia, Thessaly (central Greece), 2nd century BCE
  38. 38. Women and politics during the Roman Republic (509-30 BCE) Statue of Lucretia and Brutus, by Ignaz Platzer, c. 1750 CE, Schönnbrun Gardens, Vienna. • The Rape of Lucretia, c. 509 BCE • The Oppian Law, 215-195 BCE • Cornelia and sons Tiberius and Gaius Gracchus, fl. 150-120 BCE • Sempronia and the Catiline Conspiracy, c. 62 BCE • Hortensia and the triumvirs, 42 BCE
  39. 39. Women of the Roman Empire Bust of Livia, Louvre Museum, Paris. • Livia, d. 29 CE • Wife of Caesar Augustus, r. 30 BCE-14 CE • Mother of Tiberius, r. 14-37 CE
  40. 40. Women of the Roman Empire Aureus depicting Nero and Agrippina, 54 CE, National Archaeological Museum, Naples. • Agrippina the Younger, d. 59 CE • Sister of Caligula, r. 37-41 CE • Niece and wife of Claudius, r. 41- 54 CE • Mother of Nero, r. 54-68 CE
  41. 41. Agrippina the Younger crowning Nero emperor, 54-59 CE, Aphrodisias Museum, Turkey.
  42. 42. Women of the Roman Empire Left—portrait of Julia Domna, Septimius Severus, Geta (effaced) and Caracalla, Staatliche Museem, Berlin; right—statue of Julia Domna as Ceres, Ostia Museum, Rome. • Julia Domna, d. 217 CE • Wife of Septimius Severus, r. 192-211 CE • Mother of Caracalla, r. 211-218 CE
  43. 43. Women of the Roman Empire Denarius depicting Julia Maesa as Juno, Ebay.com. • Julia Maesa, d. 224 CE • Sister of Julia Domna • Grandmother of Elagabalus, r. 218- 222 CE • Grandmother of Severus Alexander, r. 222-235 CE • “Mother of the armies and the Senate”
  44. 44. Women of the Roman Empire Brass medallion of Julia Mamaea, naming her “Mother of Augustus and the military camps,” c. 224 CE, Museum für Vor und Frühgeschichte, Berlin. • Julia Mamaea, d. 235 CE • Aunt of Elagabalus • Mother of Severus Alexander, r. 222-235 CE • “Mother of Augustus, and of the Camps, and of the Senate, and of the Fatherland”
  45. 45. Women of the Roman Empire • Theodora, d. 547/8 CE • Wife of Emperor Justinian I, r. 529-565 CE • Nika Revolt • Procopius’ Secret History, published after 565 CE
  46. 46. Justinian and Theodora mosaics from the church of San Vitale, Ravenna, Italy.
  47. 47. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Mosaic of Christ as the Good Shepherd, from the tomb of Galla Placida, Ravenna, Italy, c. 450. • The Catholic Church • Conversions to Christianity 1st CE onward • Official (but underground) Catholic Church established by 200 CE • Church granted toleration in 313 CE by Emperor Constantine the Great • No official authoritative roles for women in the early Catholic Church • Early doctrinal ideas • God as creator (not procreator) • Women as spiritual equals of men • Women’s sexuality threatening and disorderly • Eve and the exile from Eden • The Virgin Mary
  48. 48. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Fresco of a veiled Christian woman, 3rd-5th century, Giordani Catacomb, Rome. • The Church’s stance on women, men, and marriage • Women as equal to men, or subordinate? • Genesis 1 and 2 • St. Paul, d. circa 60 CE • St. Augustine, d. 430 CE • Marriage • Forced marriages not allowed • Marriage as demonstrating grace of God • Marriage for the purpose of procreation • Marriage indissoluble except in cases of… • Immoral behavior • Adultery • Severe abuse
  49. 49. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Illumination of the martyrdom of Perpetua, Felicitas, Revocatus, Saturninus, and Secundulus, from the Menologion of Basil II, c. 1000, Vatican Library. • Women as converts and martyrs • St. Thecla, d. 1st century CE • The Gnostic Church • Greek “gnosis,” meaning knowledge • Gospel of Mary Magdalene • St. Perpetua, d. 203 CE
  50. 50. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Icon of the Virgin and Jesus, 6th-7th century, Monastery of St. Catherine, Mt. Sinai, Egypt. • Celibacy and monasticism • Celibacy as the better path • St. Jerome, d. 420 CE • “Against Jovinian” • “Letter to Eustochium” • St. Macrina, d. late 4th century CE • Transvestite nuns • Matrona/Babylas, 6th century CE • Mary/Marinos, 7th century CE
  51. 51. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Top—map of the Carolingian Empire, from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1; right—map of Anglo-Saxon England, from Peter Hunter Blair, Roman Britain and Early England, 55 BC-AD 871. • Christianizing queens • Clothild, d. early 6th century • Queen of Clovis I, king of Franks • Bertha, d. early 7th century • Queen of Aethelberht, king of Kent • Aethelburh, d. mid 7th century • Queen of Edwin, king of Northumbria
  52. 52. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Image of St. Balthild, 14th century, British Library, London. • Women as saints and missionaries • St. Radegund, d. 587 • Queen of Clothar I, king of Neustria • St. Brigit, 6th century (Ireland) • St. Bathild, d. 680 • Queen of Clovis II, king of Burgundy and Neustria • St. Hilda, d. late 7th century • Whitby, England • St. Leoba, d. late 8th century • Saxony (NW Germany) • St. Boniface, d. late 8th century • Double monasteries
  53. 53. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Ende’s illumination of the apocalypse from “Commentary on the apocalypse of St. John” by Beatus of Gerona, 10th century. • Women in Carolingian Europe • Charlemagne’s educational reforms • Court school at Aachen • Monastic schools • Ende, Leon, Spain, d. late 10th century • Hrosvitha of Gandersheim, d. 1001 • Women and religious authority • Claustration • Castimony • Female saints • From conversion to maintenance
  54. 54. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Triumph of the Virgin, Senlis Cathedral, c. 1170. • Mary as the ideal woman • The Cult of the Virgin Mary • Founded by St. Bernard of Clairvaux, d. 1153
  55. 55. Left—Triumph of the Virgin, Chartres Cathedral, c. 1210; right—Coronation of the Virgin, Notre Dame Cathedral, Paris, c. 1210.
  56. 56. Medieval image of Mary and Eve “The Tree of Life and Death,” Berthold Furtmeyer, Archbishop of Salzburg’s Missal, 1481.
  57. 57. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Fresco of Saint Claire (l) and Saint Elizabeth of Hungary (r), by Simone Martini, 1317, Capella di San Martino, San Francesco, Assisi, Italy. • Mystics and saints • St. Hildegard of Bingen, d. 1178 • St. Elizabeth of Hungary, d. 1231 • St. Clare of Assisi, d. 1253 • The order of the Poor Clares • St. Catherine of Siena, d. 1380 • Anchoresses
  58. 58. Hildegard’s visions Left—Hildegard dictating a vision to a scribe, Liber Scivias, as preserved in the Rupertsberger Codex, c. 1180; center—the cosmic tree, Liber Scivias; right—an image of the universe, Liber Scivias.
  59. 59. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Illumination of Margery Kempe, from MS. Royal 15 D. 1, British Library, London. • Suspicious mystics • Beguines • Beguinages • Hadewijch of Brabant, d. circa 1240 • Margery Kempe, d. 1438
  60. 60. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Portrait of Joan of Arc, c. 1485, Archives Nationales, Paris. • Mystic and heretic • Joan of Arc, d. 1431 • The Hundred Years’ War, 1337-1453 • Jean la Pucelle (the Maiden)
  61. 61. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Depiction of Waldensians, in Martin le France, “Le Champion des Dames,” c. 1440, Bibliotheque Nationale Grenoble. • Heretics • Waldensians • Founded by Peter Valdes, d. 1216 • Cathars • 13th-14th centuries • Perfecti • Lollards • Founded by John Wycliffe, d. 1384
  62. 62. Europe and England, 500-900 CE Left map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1; right map from Peter Hunter Blair, Roman Britain and Early England, 55 BC-AD 871.
  63. 63. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Effigy of Fredegund, St. Denis Cathedral, Paris, 12th century. • Frankish queens • Fredegund, d. 596 • Wife of Chilperic king of Neustria • Galswinth, d. circa 570 • Other wife of Chilperic and sister to Brunhild • Brunhild, d. 613 • Wife of Sigibert, king of Austrasia • Bathild, d. 680 • Wife of Clovis II, king of Neustria
  64. 64. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Lombard coin with names of Louis II and Angilberga, c. 870, Ancient Coin Search Engine. • Women in Carolingian Europe • Women as managers of family/royal household • Women as representatives of royal power • Aethelflaed of Wessex, Lady of the Mercians, d. early 10th century • Anointing of queens • Judith, queen of Aethelwulf of Wessex, r. 839-858 • Angilberga, queen of Louis II of Italy, r. 840-875 • Women as feudal lords • Partible inheritance • Primogeniture
  65. 65. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Emma (l) and Cnut (r) depicted in the Winchester New Minster register, or Book of Life, c. 1031. British Library. • English queens • Emma, d. 1052 • Queen of Aethelred Unraed, 1002-1016 • Queen of Cnut, 1017-1035 • Matilda, d. 1083 • Queen of William the Conqueror, king of England • Edith-Matilda, d. 1118 • Queen of Henry I of England
  66. 66. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Manuscript image of Empress Matilda, 15th century, British Library. • English queens • Empress Matilda (aka Maud), d. 1170 • First marriage to Emperor Henry V of Germany • Second marriage to Geoffrey, Count of Anjou • Mother of Henry II of England • Matilda, d. 1152 • Queen of King Stephen of England
  67. 67. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Effigy of Eleanor of Aquitaine, 13th century, Fontevrault Abbey, France. • Eleanor of Aquitaine, d. 1204 • Daughter of William X, duke of Aquitaine • First marriage to Louis VII of France, 1137-1151 • Daughters Marie, Countess of Champagne; Alix, Countess of Blois • Second marriage to Henry II of England, 1152-1189 • Sons William, Henry the Younger, Richard the Lionheart, Geoffrey, and John • Daughters Matilda, duchess of Saxony; Eleanor, queen of Castile; Joan, queen of Sicily
  68. 68. Left—map of 12th century France, from Elizabeth Hallam, Capetian France, 987- 1328; right—map of Henry II’s lands, from Coffin and Stacey, Western Civilization, Volume 1.
  69. 69. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Moralized Bible, depicting Blanche of Castile (l) and Louis VIII (r), c. 1235, J. Pierpont Morgan Library, New York. • French queens • Blanche of Castile, d. 1252 • Queen of Louis VIII of France, r. 1223-1226 • Mother of Louis IX (aka St. Louis), r. 1226/1234-1270 • Regent for her son, 1226-1234 and 1248- 1252 • Louis IX on the Seventh Crusade from 1248-1254 • Margaret of Provence, d. 1295 • Queen of Louis IX of France • Mother of Philip III, r. 1270-1285 • Accompanied Louis on the Seventh Crusade; led French forces after his capture in Egypt early in 1250 and ransomed him back • Remained involved in diplomatic affairs until Louis’s death
  70. 70. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Left—map of Italy, from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1; right—Matilda (r) and Henry IV (kneeling) at Canossa, 1077, Vita Matildis, 12th century, Vatican Library, Rome. • Matilda of Tuscany, d. 1115 • Aka Matilda of Canossa and “la Gran Contessa” • After brother’s death, sole heir to Margravate of Tuscany • Married to Godfrey the Hunchback, duke of Lower Lorraine in 1069, but repudiated him in 1071 and ruled alone • Allied with Pope Gregory VII in his conflict with Emperor Henry IV, 1077- 1085 • Supplied military forces to defend Rome and Gregory VII • Married Welf V, duke of Bavaria, in 1089 to further her alliance with the papacy • Made peace with Emperor Henry V c. 1112 and named “Imperial Vicar Vice- Queen of Italy”
  71. 71. Saints or heretics? Ladies or lords?: women’s religious and political power in medieval Europe Left—map of medieval Spain, from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1; right—wedding portrait of Ferdinand and Isabella, by anonymous, 1469, Convento de las Agustinas, Avila, Spain. • Isabella I of Castile, r. 1474-1504 • Daughter of Juan II of Castile • Wife of Ferdinand II of Aragon, r. 1479- 1516 • Mother of Catherine of Aragon (queen of Henry VIII of England) • Grandmother of Carlos I of Spain, r. 1517-1556 (aka Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, r. 1519-1556) • Patron of Columbus, 1492-1504
  72. 72. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe Top—Eowyn offering Aragorn a cup of mead, from Lord of the Rings: Return of the King; bottom— amulets representing female figures, one carrying a horn of mead or ale, from Vikings: the North American Saga, edited by Fitzhugh and Ward. • Marriage in early medieval Europe • The “morning gift” • Germanic morgengabe • British/Welsh cowyll • Irish coibche • Women’s ability to choose their husband • Peace weavers • Adultery • Punishment was public shaming and/or ostracism • Divorce • Allowed in Welsh and Irish society even after conversion to Christianity
  73. 73. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe Maria of Brabant’s marriage to Philip III of France, Chroniques de France ou de St. Denis, c. 1350, British Library. • Marriage in later medieval Europe • Consent • Christina of Markyate, d. early 12th century • Dowries • Marriage as a religious ceremony • Declared the seventh sacrament by 1208 • Calling of the “banns” • Blessing of the marriage bed • Marriage fees—merchet and amobr • Grounds for annulment • Impotence, adultery, and consanguinity • Louis VII of France and Eleanor of Aquitaine, d. 1204 • Owain Gwynedd and Cristina, d. late 12th century • Dower
  74. 74. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe Trota/Trotula, from the Miscellanea Medica XVIII, 14th century, Wellcome Library, London. • Childbearing and other health issues • Marriage between 12-15 for noblewomen • Early 20s for commoners • Average lifespan 36 years • 39% lived beyond age of 40 • “Churching” • Orphanages • Contraception • “The Trotula,” 12th century • Modern translation by Monica H. Green • Women’s sexuality • Leyrwite and amobr • The Romance of the Rose, 13th century • Concubinage
  75. 75. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe • Women as sexual objects • Jean le Meun, The Romance of the Rose, 13th century • “There is no Lucretia now, nor any Penelope in Greece, nor any worthy lady anywhere on earth if they are properly solicited; the pagans say that no woman ever defended herself against a man who made a serious effort to conquer her, and no one ever found a compromise. Many even give themselves of their own accord when suitors are lacking.”
  76. 76. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe Peter Abelard and Heloise, from Le Roman de la Rose, 14th century, British Library. • Educational opportunities • Educational manuals • The Book of the Knight of the Tower, c. 1372 • The Householder of Paris, c. 1392 • Dhuoda, d. circa 850 • Liber Manualis • Heloise, d. 1164 • Mistress/wife of Peter Abelard, d. 1142 • Later abbess of Paraclete, 1130-1164 • Marie de France, fl. late 12th century • Lais of Marie de France • Christine de Pizan, d. 1430 • The Book of the City of Ladies, 1405 • The Book of the Body Politic, 1404-1407 • The Tale of Joan of Arc, 1429
  77. 77. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe • The Defense of Women • Christine de Pizan, the Book of the City of Ladies: • Christine to Rectitude: “I am therefore troubled and grieved when men argue that many women want to be raped and that it does not bother them at all to be raped by men even when they verbally protest. It would be hard to believe that such great villainy is actually pleasant for them.” Rectitude: “Rest assured, dear friend, chaste ladies who live honestly take absolutely no pleasure in being raped. Indeed, rape is the greatest possible sorrow for them.”
  78. 78. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe Veronica Franco, a 16th century Venetian courtesan, by Tintoretto, 1575, Worcester Art Museum. • Women at work • Peasants • Free versus unfree • Serfs, villeins, fisgilini, dagewardi • Agricultural work • Townswomen • Clothing trade • Weavers, fullers, dyers, embroiderers, etc. • Guilds • Apprentices • Servants, nurses • Food trade • Fishwives, brewsters, bakers, etc. • Moneylenders • Prostitution • Stews, brothels, bawds, and procurers • The Black Death, 1347-1352
  79. 79. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe Woman milking a cow, Historylearningsite.co.uk. • Women and the law • Merchet • Leyrwite • Chevage –fine for leaving the lord’s property • Relief and heriot—inheritance fees • Magna Carta, 1215 • Fee tail or entailment, c. 1285 • Wardship • Coverture • Shrews and scolds • Sumptuary laws
  80. 80. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe • Domestic violence • Paterfamilias • English gaol delivery rolls, 1300-1348 • Out of 22,417 felony indictments, 92% of DV cases were homicides; this was 2% of total homicides reported and only 0.7% of total cases were DV • 29% of men accused were indicted for wife killing; 29% of women accused for killing their husbands were convicted and burned • 75% of cases of spousal violence from 1215-1515 were homicides • English Statute of Treason, 1352 • Paris church courts • 10% of 600 petitions c. 1384-7 were for separation on grounds of cruelty • Separation a mense et thoro versus a mense • Welsh and Irish “Fairy Bride” stories • Raising “the hue and cry”
  81. 81. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe • English law regarding rape • Glanvill, 12th century • Bracton, 13th century • “if he is convicted of this crime [this] punishment follows: the loss of members, that there be member for member, for when a virgin is defiled she loses her member and therefore let her defiler be punished in the parts in which he offended. Let him thus lose his eyes which gave him sight of the maiden’s beauty for which he coveted her. And let him lose as well the testicles which excited his hot lust.” • Statute of Westminster I, 1275 • Statute of Westminster II, 1285 • French law prosecuted rape as a capital crime until c. 1385 • The Last Duel, by Eric Jager.
  82. 82. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe • Pursuing a rape case in court • Glanville, 12th century • “A woman who suffers in this way must go, soon after the deed is done, to the nearest vill and there show to trustworthy men the injury done to her, and any effusion of blood there may be and any tearing of her clothes. She should then do the same to the reeve of the hundred. Afterwards she should proclaim it publicly in the next county court.”
  83. 83. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe • Conception from rape • Galen, fl. 200 AD • Joan versus one E., Eyre of Kent 1313-4 • Justice: “You shall answer to the King for that you have ravished the maid Joan, who is thirty years of age and carries a child in her arms.” The woman was asked who was the father of the child, and she answered that E. was. It was said that this was a wonderful thing, for that a child could not be engendered without the consent of both parties; and so it was said that E. was guilty of naught.”
  84. 84. Female judicial combat— the Solothurner Fechtbuch, 1423
  85. 85. Talhoffer Fechtbuch, 1459
  86. 86. Talhoffer Fechtbuch, 1467
  87. 87. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe Portrait of a man and a woman at a casement, Fra Filippo Lippi, c. 1444, Metropolitan Museum of Art. • Women in Renaissance Europe • Dowries and dowry funds • Monte delle Doti of Florence, est. 1425 • Architecture of enclosure • Selected Letters of Alessandra Strozzi, ed. and trans. Heather Gregory • Alessandra Strozzi, fl. 1400-1450 • Giovanni and Lusanna: Love and Marriage in Renaissance Florence, by Gene Brucker • Affair of Giovanni di Ser Ludovico della Casa and Lusanna, 1442/3- 1454/5
  88. 88. Palazzo Strozzi, Florence, Italy, built 1489-1538.
  89. 89. “One who speaks too much isn’t thought to be wise”: social and cultural views of women in medieval Europe The Chess Game, by Sofonisba Anguissola, c. 1555, National Museum, Poznań, Poland. • Women as artists • Sofonisba Anguissola, ca. 1532- 1625 • Lavinia Fontana, 1552-1614
  90. 90. Sofonisba Anguissola: left—Self Portrait at Easel, 1556, Łańcut Palace, Poland; right—Three Children with Dog, by Sofonisba Anguissola, c. 1580, Collection of Lord Methuen, Corsham Court, Bath.
  91. 91. Sofonisba Anguissola: Portrait of Philip II of Spain (the Prado Philip), 1565, the Prado Museum, Madrid, Spain.
  92. 92. Lavinia Fontana: Left—Self Portrait at the Virginal with a Servant, 1577, Academia Nazionale di San Luca, Rome; right—Portrait of a Noblewoman, 1580, National Museum of Women in the Arts.
  93. 93. Lavinia Fontana: left—Portrait of the Gozzadini Family, 1584, Pinacoteca Nazionale, Bologna; right—Minerva Dressing, 1613, Galleria Borghese, Rome.

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