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Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 A.D. Lecture by Dr. Lizabeth Johnson | OLLI at UNM


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Between the long-lasting popularity of the works of Shakespeare to the more recent popularity of T.V. and film dramas about the Tudor and Stuart monarchs of England, the Tudor-Stuart period in English history is one of the most well-known eras in English history. Beginning with the accession of Henry VII, the first Tudor king, in 1485 and ending with the death of Anne, the last Stuart queen, in 1714, this roughly 230-year period in English history includes a number of notable and even infamous events, such as the English Reformation, the attack of the Spanish Armada, the English Civil War, the Glorious Revolution, and the unification of England and Scotland. It was also during this period that England started down the path that would lead to the British Empire, which would encompass lands as far flung as the Americas, Australia, India, China, Africa, and the Middle East. With the creation of the British Empire, English/British culture began to spread out to all these regions of the world, to the ultimate effect that a majority of the modern world still views the English language as a common tongue. We'll focus on the political history of this period as well as the social and cultural aspects of that history, with a particular emphasis on how these important events (and more!) shaped England, the British Empire, and the world.

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Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 A.D. Lecture by Dr. Lizabeth Johnson | OLLI at UNM

  1. 1. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Map from The Oxford Illustrated History of the British Monarchy, by John Cannon and Ralph Griffiths. • The War of the Roses, 1455-1471 • House of York versus house of Lancaster • Edward IV, r. 1461-1470/1471- 1483 • Marriage to Elizabeth Woodville • Richard III, r. 1483-1485 and the princes in the Tower • Battle of Bosworth Field, 1485 • Henry Tudor, Earl of Richmond • Claim to the throne through the Beaufort family, descendants of John of Gaunt’s (third son of Edward III) third marriage
  2. 2. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Effigies of Henry VII and Elizabeth of York, Westminster Abbey. • Henry VII, r. 1485-1509 • Periodic revolts by Yorkists until 1497 • Marriage to Elizabeth of York • Arthur, Margaret, Henry, and Mary • Treaty of Étaples, 1492 • Royal revenue • Royal land revenue increased four fold • Revenues from customs rose by ¼ • Wardships rose 20 fold • Overall royal revenue rose from £52,000 to £142,000 • The King’s Council • Fines and attainting for treason • Justices of the Peace • Statute against livery, 1504 • House of Commons and taxation
  3. 3. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Arthur, by unknown artist, c. 1500, Royal Collection; portrait of Catherine of Aragon (or possibly Mary Rose Tudor), by Michael Sittow, c. 1502, Kunsthistoriches Museum, Vienna. • Henry VII, r. 1485-1509 • Alliance with Spain • Marriage of Arthur and Catherine of Aragon • Arthur died just a few weeks after the marriage in 1502 • Alliance with Scotland • Marriage of Margaret and James IV of Scotland in 1503 • International exploration, 1497 • John Cabot • Exploration of the North American coastline
  4. 4. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Cardinal Wolsey, by Samson Strong, c. 1610, Christ Church, Oxford. • Henry VIII, r. 1509-1547 • Marriage to Catherine of Aragon • Henry’s early reign • Renaissance education • Greek and Roman histories, Latin, French, Italian, astronomy, theology, mathematics, music • Tournaments, jousting, tilting, archery, horsemanship • Cardinal Thomas Wolsey, d. 1529
  5. 5. Henry VIII opening parliament, 1512, from Procession of Parliament, The Master and Fellows of Trinity College, Cambridge, 16th century.
  6. 6. Henry VIII jousting before Catherine of Aragon, from the Westminster Tournament Roll, The College of Arms, 1511.
  7. 7. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Anne Boleyn, by unknown artist, c. 1535, Hever Castle, Kent. • Henry and the Protestant Reformation • “Defender of the Faith” • Catherine of Aragon, d. 1536 • Mary, b. 1516 • Leviticus 20:21 “If a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an impurity… they shall be childless.” • Aunt of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor and ally of the pope in Germany • Divorced, 1533 • Anne Boleyn, d. 1536 • Married, 1533 • Elizabeth, b. 1533 • Executed for treason • Cardinal Wolsey, d. 1529
  8. 8. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Frontispiece to Coverdale’s Bible, 1535, U.S. Archives. • Henry and the Protestant Reformation • Sir Thomas More • Chancellor, 1529-1535 • Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, 1532-1555 (d. 1556) • Thomas Cromwell, d. 1540 • Act of Appeals, 1533 • Act of Supremacy, 1534 • Henry as “Supreme Head of the English Church” • Abolition of monasteries and nunneries, 1536 onward • The Pilgrimage of Grace, 1536 • Copies of Coverdale’s Bible in every parish, 1536 • Act of Six Articles, 1539 • Upheld transubstantiation, confession, vows of chastity, private mass, illegality of clerical marriages, and utraquism
  9. 9. Painting of the four evangelists stoning Pope Paul II, Avarice and Hypocrisy to death, by Girolamo da Treviso the Younger, c. 1540, in Royal Collection at Windsor Palace.
  10. 10. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Henry VIII, by Hans Holbein the Younger, Walker Art Gallery, Liverpool. • Henry’s other marriages • Jane Seymour, d. 1537 • Married, 1536 • Edward, b. 1537 • Died in childbirth • Anne of Cleves, d. 1557 • Married, January 1540 • Divorced, July 1540 • Catherine Howard, d. 1542 • Married, 1540 • Divorced, 1541 • Executed for treason • Catherine Parr, d. 1548 • Married, 1543
  11. 11. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Francis I of France, by Jean Clouet, c. 1520, Musée Conde, Chantilly, France. • Henry and foreign policy • France • Holy League, 1511 • Campaign of 1513 • Therouanne and Tournai • Treaty of 1514 • England kept conquests and Henry’s sister Mary married Louis XII • Tournai returned to France in 1518 for 600,000 crowns • Field of the Cloth of Gold, 1520 • War with France, 1522-1525
  12. 12. Painting of the Field of the Cloth of Gold, British School, 1545, Royal Collection.
  13. 13. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Map from John Davies, A History of Wales. • Henry and foreign policy • Wales • Edward Stafford, duke of Buckingham, ex. 1521 • Rhys ap Gruffudd of Dinefwr, ex. 1531 • Council of the Marches of Wales • Rowland Lee, bishop of Coventry and Lichfield, appointed head of council of Wales in 1534 • Act of Union, 1536 • Act of Union, 1543
  14. 14. The Act of Union (Wales) • His Highness therefore of a singular Zeal, Love and Favour that he beareth towards his Subjects of his said Dominion of Wales, minding and intending to reduce them to the perfect Order, Notice and Knowledge of his Laws of this Realm, and utterly to extirp all and singular the sinister Usages and Customs differing from the same, and to bring the said Subjects f this his Realm, and of his said Dominion of Wales, to an amicable Concord and Unity, hath by the deliberate Advice, Consent and Agreement of the Lords Spiritual and Temporal and the Commons, in this present Parliament assembled, and by the Authority of the same, ordained, enacted and established, that his said Country or Dominion of Wales shall be, stand and continue for ever from henceforth incorporated, united and annexed to and with this his Realm of England… • All Welsh were to have the “singular Freedoms, Liberties, Rights, Privileges and Laws” as the English • The Principality and Marcher lordships were to be “united, annexed and joined to divers of the Shires of England”
  15. 15. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Silken Thomas Fitzgerald, water color copy of the original, by Sarah Countess of Essex, in Lucy Aiken’s Memoirs of the Court of Queen Elizabeth, 1825. • Henry and Ireland • Gerald FitzGerald, ninth earl of Kildare • Made governor of Ireland in 1513 • Recalled to court in 1519 for acting outside English authority; restored to office in 1524 • Recalled to court in 1533, imprisoned, died in 1534 • “Silken Thomas” FitzGerald, Lord Offaly, son of Gerald FitzGerald • Raised a revolt against Henry VIII in 1534 • Captured in 1535, executed in 1537
  16. 16. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Map of Ireland c. 1450, from Wikipedia. • Henry and Ireland • Ireland’s new order • Lord Leonard Grey, appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1536 • Archbishop of Dublin, George Browne, appointed in 1536 • Dublin parliament called in 1536- 7, Henry acknowledged as head of the Irish church; English reforms brought to Dublin • Anthony St. Leger, appointed Lord Deputy of Ireland in 1540 • Henry VIII declared king of Ireland, 1541 • “Surrender and regrant” • O’Neills recognized as earls of Tyrone in 1542
  17. 17. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of James IV, 16th century, Scottish National Portrait Gallery, Edinburgh. • Henry and Scotland • The Auld Alliance • Scotland and France • James IV, r. 1488-1513 • Battle of Flodden, 1513 • James V, r. 1513-1542 • Marriage to Mary of Guise, 1536 • Henry VIII’s “rough wooing” of Scotland, 1542-1550 • Support for MacDonald lord of the isles revolt (had been abolished in 1493 by James IV) • Proposed marriage of Edward and Mary of Scotland • Battle of Pinkie, 1547
  18. 18. Henry VIII on his deathbed, passing the throne to Edward VI, unknown artist, 16th century, National Portrait Gallery, London.
  19. 19. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Map of Reformation Europe, from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
  20. 20. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portraits of Edward VI: left by Hans Holbein the Younger, 1538, National Gallery of Art; right by Master John, 1547, National Portrait Gallery, London. • Edward VI, r. 1547-1553 • Archbishop Thomas Cranmer, r. 1533-1555, d. 1556 • Edward Seymour, Lord Protector and Duke of Somerset, 1547-1552 • 1547 Injunctions • Book of Common Prayer, 1549 • Act of Uniformity, 1549
  21. 21. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Somerset, by unknown artist, 1540s, Weston Park. • Edward VI, r. 1547-1553 • John Dudley, Earl of Warwick and Duke of Northumberland, 1550-1553 • Somerset deposed, imprisoned, executed, 1552 • Crown lands sold or given to Northumberland’s supporters • Would have provided the crown roughly £40,000/year • Second Book of Common Prayer, 1552 • Second Act of Uniformity, 1552 • The Forty-Two Articles, 1553
  22. 22. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE An engraving of Robert Kett and his followers beneath the “oak of reformation”, by Samuel Wale, 1785, at (The Land Is Ours, UK). • England’s economy under Edward VI • Kett’s Rebellion, 1549 • Enclosure • The woolen trade bubble • Export of wool and woolen cloth tripled from 1500 to 1550; decreased by nearly ½ in 1551 • Debasement of shillings, 1530s- 1550s
  23. 23. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Mary I, by Master John, 1544, National Portrait Gallery, London. • Lady Jane Grey • Placed on the throne on July 10, deposed July 19, executed February 1554 • Mary I, r. 1553-1558 • Declared illegitimate, 1533 • Reinstated as a successor, second to Prince Edward, 1544 • Northumberland’s revolt, July 1553 (Northumberland executed) • Stephen Gardiner, Lord Chancellor, 1553-1555 (Bishop of Winchester) • Parliament repealed all religious legislation of Edward VI’s reign, 1553 • Parliament restored papal authority and heresy laws, 1554 • 287 Protestants burned at the stake, 1555-1558 • Re-founding of two monasteries, two nunneries, and two friaries • No missionary movement in England to restore Catholic loyalties
  24. 24. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Mary I and Philip II, by Hans Eworth, 1558, Woburn Abbey. • Mary I, r. 1553-1558 • Marriage to Philip II of Spain • Dissolution of Parliament after protest, late 1553 • Marriage treaty signed in January 1554 • Sir Thomas Wyatt’s revolt, January- February 1554 • Parliament confirmed the treaty, April 1554 • Philip II arrived in July 1554, stayed in England until August 1555, returned briefly in March 1557
  25. 25. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Map of English plantations in Ireland, Wikipedia. • Mary I and foreign policy • War with Scotland ended under Edward VI, but the Auld Alliance was set against England’s alliance with Spain • Scotland’s Catholic regent, Mary of Guise, encouraged English Protestants • Plantation of Offaly and Laois in Ireland, 1556 • Aimed at the O’Moore and O’Connor clans • England drawn into war with France by Philip II, 1557-1559 • Calais lost in January 1558 • 1558 parliament refused to vote for financial support for the war
  26. 26. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Coronation portrait of Elizabeth I, by unknown artist, c. 1600, National Portrait Gallery, London. • Elizabeth I, r. 1558-1603 • Declared illegitimate, 1536 • At court with Mary, 1553-1554 • Recognized as Mary’s heir on November 6; succeeded on November 17 • Other contenders in 1558 • Lady Catherine Grey, sister of Lady Jane • Granddaughter of Mary Tudor • Mary Queen of Scots • Granddaughter of Margaret Tudor • Margaret Douglas, Countess of Lennox • Daughter of Margaret Tudor’s 2nd marriage; mother of Henry Stuart, Lord Darnley • Henry Hastings, 3rd Earl of Huntingdon • Great-great-grandnephew of Edward IV
  27. 27. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Elizabeth I and the three goddesses, by Hans Eworth, 1569, Royal Collection. • The question of marriage • Spanish/Hapsburg contenders • Philip II • Archduke Charles of Austria • Eric XIV of Sweden • James Hamilton, 3rd Earl of Arran • French contenders • Henry, duke of Anjou (reigned as Henry III of France, 1573-1575) • Francis, duke of Anjou and Alençon • Robert Dudley, 1st Earl of Leicester • The question of female rulership • John Knox and The First Blast of the Trumpet Against the Monstrous Regiment of Women, 1558
  28. 28. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Elizabeth at prayer, from Christian Prayers and Meditations in English, French, Italian, Spanish, Greeke and Latine, 1569, Lambeth Palace Library. • The Elizabethan religious compromise • William Cecil, Secretary of State, 1558-1572; Lord High Treasurer, 1572-1598 • The Acts of Supremacy and Uniformity, 1559 • Elizabeth as “Supreme Governor” of the Church of England • Reintroduction of a Common Book of Prayer • The Thirty-Nine Articles, 1563 • The struggle against Puritanism, 1560s- onward • First Welsh Bible in 1588 • Reformation presented as a ‘return’ to the old ‘Celtic Church’ • ~250 Catholics executed for treason, most later in Elizabeth’s reign
  29. 29. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Elizabeth, by Nicholas Hilliard, 1572, National Portrait Gallery, London. • Elizabeth I and France • The Treaty of Câteau-Cambrésis, 1559 • The Scottish War, 1559-1560 • The Lords of the Congregation • Mary of Guise, d. 1559 • The Treaty of Edinburgh, 1560
  30. 30. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Francis II of France and Mary Stuart, by unknown artist, 1558, Bibliothèque Nationale de France. • Elizabeth I and Scotland • John Knox and Presbyterianism • Mary Queen of Scots, r. 1542-1567 • In France, 1548-1561 • In Scotland, 1561-1567 • Marriage to Henry, Lord Darnley, 1565-1567 • Deposed and exiled to England, 1568-1587 • James VI, r. 1567-1625
  31. 31. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Portrait of Elizabeth I, by Marcus Gheeraerts the Younger, 1592, National Portrait Gallery, London. • Catholic plots and conspiracies • The Northern Rebellion of 1569 • Marriage of Mary Queen of Scots to Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk • Norfolk pardoned for his part in the revolt • The Papal plot, 1570 • Pope Pius V, r. 1566-1572 • The Ridolfi plot, 1571 • Norfolk was executed after the plot was uncovered • The Throckmorton plot, 1583 • Dr. Parry’s plot, 1585 • The Babington plot, 1586 • Trial and execution of Mary Queen of Scots, 1587
  32. 32. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Painting of English ships and the Spanish Armada, unknown painter of the English school, 1588, National Maritime Museum. • Elizabeth I and Spain • Conflict in the Netherlands, 1567 • Diplomatic efforts, 1574-1585 • English support for the Netherlands against Spain, 1585 • The Treaty of Nonsuch, 1585 • The Spanish Armada, 1588 • 130 ships total, 8,000 sailors, and 14,000 soldiers • Only ½ of the ships returned to Spain
  33. 33. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Map of English plantations in Ireland, Wikipedia. • Elizabeth I and Ireland • Act of Uniformity (Ireland), 1560 • Plantation of Munster, 1584 • Reaction to a revolt led by the FitzGerald earls of Desmond • Nine-Year War, 1595-1603 • O’Neill earls of Tyrone and O’Donnells • Robert Devereux, Earl of Essex and Lord Deputy of Ireland, 1599 • Essex’s rebellion, 1601
  34. 34. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE • Elizabeth’s domestic policies • Parliament called 13 times in 44 years • Parliament was for voting for taxes, passing laws, and giving advice • House of Commons increased in size and influence • Reminting of coinage • Extension of patronage to the nobility • Justices of the peace and the quarter sessions • Rise of the gentry class • The Elizabethan economy • Improvements in cloth industry • New Draperies and fustian • The coal boom • Agricultural productivity increased • Population increased • Inflation and rising prices
  35. 35. Tudor-Stuart England, 1485-1714 CE Second replica of the Golden Hind/Pelican, 2003, in Brixham Harbour. • Elizabeth and renewed interest in exploration • Sir Francis Drake, d. 1596 • Circumnavigated the globe, raiding and trading, 1573-1580 • Brought home 25 million pounds (modern currency) in gold, silver, etc. • Sir Walter Raleigh, d. 1618 • Founding of Virginia colony and Roanoke, 1584 • The East India Company, 1600 • Elizabethan theater, literature, and music • Christopher Marlowe, d. 1593 • William Shakespeare, d. 1616 • Edward de Vere, 17th Earl of Oxford (d. 1604) the real Shakespeare? • Edmund Spenser, d. 1599 • William Byrd, d. 1623
  36. 36. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Portrait of James VI/I, by Jan de Critz, 1606, National Maritime Museum, London. • James I, r. 1603-1625 • Ruled as James VI of Scotland, r. 1567-1625 • His mother in exile in England, 1568- 1587; executed by Elizabeth I in 1587 • Treaty of Berwick, 1586 • Raised as a Protestant • Ruled over a religiously divided Scotland • Protestant/Presbyterian south • Catholic north • The Trew Law of Free Monarchies, 1598
  37. 37. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I John Knox statue, by Pittendrigh MacGillivray, 1904, St. Giles Cathedral, Edinburgh. • James I and the problem of the Scottish Kirk • Episcopalianism versus Presbyterianism • John Knox and the Lords of the Congregation • Many Presbyterians either moved to Ulster in 1608 (Plantation of Ulster) or formed their own local churches • Scots Gaelic Bible printed in 1606
  38. 38. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Contemporary engraving of the Gunpowder Plot conspirators, by Crispin van de Passe the Elder, National Portrait Gallery. • James I and the Church of England • The Millenary Petition, 1603 • Hampton Court Conference, 1604 • Episcopalianism versus Presbyterianism • Guy Fawkes and the Gunpowder Plot, 1605 • Oath of Allegiance, 1606 • The King James Bible, 1611
  39. 39. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I The Union Jack, image from Wikipedia. • James I and the problem of Scotland • Unification plans • “One king, one people, one law” • The proposed union • Abolish mutually hostile laws • Establish free trade • All Scots resident in England before James’ rule to be naturalized as English • Create a common currency, the Unite • Use of the Great Union/Union Jack
  40. 40. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I First page of the play Macbeth, from the Second Folio collection of Shakespeare’s plays, 1632, Folger Library Digital Image Collection. • James I and the problem of Scotland, contd. • The Gunpowder Plot, 1605 • “Remember, remember the fifth of November, the gunpowder treason and plot. I know of no reason, why the gunpowder treason, should ever be forgot.” • Production of Macbeth • The instrument of union, 1606-1607 • Abolition of mutually hostile laws (only proposal accepted) • Establishment of free trade • Mutual naturalization of James’ Scottish and English subjects • Anglo-Scottish extradition treaty
  41. 41. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Portrait of James I, by Daniel Mytens, 1621, National Portrait Gallery. • James I and English government • The Form of Apology and Satisfaction, 1603 • The Book of Rates, 1608, and impositions • Impositions declared illegal by House of Commons in 1610 and 1614 • The Great Contract, 1610 • The struggle with the judiciary, 1610-1616 • Protestation of 1621 • James I dissolved parliament • Act of Monopolies, 1624 • War with Spain, 1624-1630
  42. 42. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Portrait of Villiers as Lord High Admiral, by Daniel Mytens, c. 1619, National Maritime Museum. • James and his court favorites • Robert Cecil, Earl of Salisbury, Secretary of State, 1590-1612 • The Howard party, 1604-1619 • Henry Howard, 1st Earl of Northampton, d. 1614; Thomas Howard, 1st Earl of Suffolk, d. 1626; Charles Howard, 1st Earl of Nottingham, d. 1624 • Robert Carr, Viscount Rochester, Earl of Somerset, 1611-1615, d. 1645 • George Villiers, 1st Duke of Buckingham, 1619-1628, d. 1628
  43. 43. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Republic of Ireland postage stamp commemorating the flight of the earls in 1607, issued in 2007. • Continuing conflict in Ireland • The Nine Years War, 1595-1603 • Hugh O’Neill, Earl of Tyrone, d. 1608 • Red Hugh O’Donnell, d. 1601 • Submission of O’Neill and Rory O’Donnell (younger brother of Red Hugh) to James I, 1603 • O’Donnell named Earl of Tyrconnell, d. 1616 • Flight of the Earls, 1607 • Ulster Plantation, 1608-1610
  44. 44. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I • The consequences of the plantation of Ulster • 2 million acres seized; only 50,000 regranted to native Irish • 200,000 acres to “undertakers,” who were to build castles, maintain garrisons, and not sublet to native Irish • 100,000 acres to the Protestant Church of Ireland • County and town of Derry seized and given into control of London companies, who organized settlement • Much of this land bought by speculators, who rented lands back to native Irish tenants • Native Irish tenants had no protection against eviction; English and Scottish settlers could not be evicted without just cause • In 1613, the Dublin parliament abolished Brehon law and replaced it with English Common law and English courts
  45. 45. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Portrait of Charles I, by Gerrit van Honthorst, 1628, National Portrait Gallery. • Charles I, r. 1625-1649 • Charles’ Scottish rule • Commission for Surrenders and Teinds, 1625 • The Edinburgh tax, 1625 • The Scottish Kirk Canons, 1636 • The Scottish prayer book, 1637 • General Assembly of the Kirk, 1638 • Scottish Presbyterians rejected Episcopalianism • Charles’ Scottish war, 1639-1640 • Treaty of Ripon, 1641
  46. 46. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Charles I and Henrietta Maria as Apollo and Diana, Gerrit van Honthorst, 1628, Hampton Court Palace, Surrey. • Charles I, r. 1625-1649 • Charles’ English rule • Tonnage and poundage, 1625 • Billeting of troops on civilians and martial law, 1625-1627 • The Five Knights’ Case, 1627 • Petition of Right, 1628 • Dismissal of Parliament, 1629 • Royal sale of monopolies • “Ship money” • Pro-Catholic policies • Arminian clergy • Archbishop of Canterbury, William Laud, 1633- 1640, executed in 1645 • “Popery” at court • The Long Parliament, 1640-1660 • Grand Remonstrance, 1641 • Militia Bill, 1641
  47. 47. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Embroidery illustrating of the martyrdom of Charles I, 1750, Victoria and Albert Museum, London. • The English Civil War, 1642-1646 • Cavaliers versus Roundheads • The New Model army • Siege of Oxford, April 1646 • Charles I submitted to the Scots, but was handed back to the English in January 1647 • Charles I tried for treason and executed, January 1649 • Charles II crowned king of Scotland but driven into exile by Cromwell and the English army • Parliamentary factions • The Presbyterian Party and the Independent Party • Oliver Cromwell, d. 1658
  48. 48. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Portrait of Oliver Cromwell, by Robert Walker, 1649, National Portrait Gallery. • The Commonwealth, 1649-1660 • The “Rump” Parliament, 1649-1653 • Abolition of the House of Lords • Religious tolerance, but rejection of democracy • The Levellers • The Diggers • Expulsion of the Rump, 1653 • The Instrument of Government • Oliver Cromwell as “Lord Protector” • Council of State • Parliament • Government enforced by military power • Cromwell succeeded by his son Richard, 1658-1660
  49. 49. Engraving of Cromwell pulling down the royal oak of Britain. From the Compleat History of Independency. Upon the Parliament, 1661, British Library.
  50. 50. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I Depiction of the massacre of Protestants in Ulster, 1641, The Mansell Collection. • The English Civil War and Ireland • The Revolt of 1641 • 4000 Protestants in Ulster killed • Catholic Confederation of Kilkenny, 1641 • Rebels declared Ireland independent and declared support for Charles I • James Butler, 12th Earl of Ormond declared truce with the confederation on behalf of Charles I, 1643 • By 1645, Ireland divided between the Catholic Confederation, the earl of Ormond, and the Protestants in Ulster • In 1648, Ormond surrendered Dublin to London’s parliament
  51. 51. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I • Cromwell’s policies in Ireland • Massacres at Drogheda and Wexford, 1649-1650 • Act of Parliament, 1652 • Ireland proclaimed part of the Commonwealth • 10 million acres seized and granted to English settlers • 80% of all land in Ireland; 50% of the arable land • 12,000 Irish transported as prisoners to the West Indies; 34,000 sent abroad as foreign mercenaries • Bardic schools closed • Cromwell’s policies in Scotland • English garrisons in all of lowland Scotland • Punitive taxation • Scottish public records seized and taken to London • Scottish monarchy declared “redundant” • Scotland’s royal arms ritually hanged on gallows in Edinburgh • Scottish parliament dissolved, 30 MPs sent south to London
  52. 52. The First Stuarts: James I and Charles I • The economy • Royal debt: £300,000 at the accession of Elizabeth I; £365,000 at the accession of James I; £600,000 by James’ third year on the throne; nearly eliminated by 1638 due to Charles I’s impositions • The wool trade • From 1603-1614, wool trade increased by ¼, made up 90% of English exports • King’s Merchant Adventurers monopoly on exporting finished cloth, 1614-1617 • By 1640, wool trade decreased by nearly 2/3 • Coal industry thrived 1603 onward (England producing 3x as much as all Europe) • Population increased 25% from 1600-1640 • Inflation increased • Purchasing power for laborers by 1615 at the lowest point in English history • Under the Commonwealth, the government abolished monopolies and ceased regulation of wages and guilds • Navigation Act of 1651
  53. 53. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Portrait of Charles II, by William Dobson, 1642, Scottish National Gallery. • Charles Stuart, exiled prince and king • Fought with the Cavalier forces in 1645 • Exile in France and the Netherlands, 1646- 1650 • Hope for assistance from his mother’s French relations and his sister’s Dutch husband (Mary and William of Orange) • Proclaimed king of Scotland in February 1649, on condition that he accept Presbyterianism throughout his realm • Solemn League and Covenant • Charles agreed, arrived in Scotland in June 1650, and was crowned in January 1651 • Battle of Worcester, September 1651 • Return to exile in the Netherlands, October 1651-May 1660
  54. 54. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Coronation portrait of Charles II, by John Michael Wright, c. 1661, Royal Collection, Hampton Court Palace. • The Restoration • Death of Oliver Cromwell in 1658 and accession of Richard Cromwell as Lord Protector • Conflict between the New Model army, the Council of State, and parliament • George Monck, military governor of Scotland, 1651-1660 • The convention parliament and the reconstituted House of Lords offered the crown to Charles II • The Declaration of Breda • Arrival of Charles II, May 1660 • Coronation in April 1661
  55. 55. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Portrait of Charles II, by John Wright, c. 1665, National Portrait Gallery. • Charles II, r. 1660-1685 • Edward Hyde, the earl of Clarendon, chief minister to Charles II, 1660-1667 (d. 1674) • The “Cavalier” Parliament, May 1661-January 1679 • Act of Indemnity and Oblivion, 1661 • Burning of the Solemn League and Covenant • Repeal of the Bishops Exclusion Act (passed in 1642), 1661 • The Corporation Act, 1661 • Act of Uniformity, 1662 • Conventicle Act, 1664 • File Mile Act, 1665 • The Clarendon Code • Militia Act, 1661 • The court given a fixed annual income of £1.2 million per year • The Hearth Tax, 1662
  56. 56. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Map of London in 1665, Wenceslaus Hollar, University of Toronto Wenceslaus Hollar Digital Collection. • Charles II, r. 1660- 1685 • The Great Plague, 1665 • The Great Fire, 1665
  57. 57. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Portrait of James Butler, 1st duke of Ormonde, by William Wissing, c. 1670, National Portrait Gallery. • The Restoration in Scotland • Restoration of Scottish parliament • Act Rescissory, 1661 • Scottish Kirk placed in the hands of Episcopalians • Scottish government in hands of English officials • Charles Maitland, 3rd Earl of Lauderdale, d. 1691 • Campbell earls of Argyll highly placed in Scottish government • The Restoration in Ireland • Dublin parliament restored, but rarely summoned after 1666 • Catholics barred from parliament • Governing power in the hands of a Viceroy • Office held by the earls of Ormond for much of the period 1660-1685
  58. 58. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Portrait of Nell Gwynne, by Peter Lely, 1665, National Portrait Gallery. • British culture under Charles II • Restoration theater and literature • John Dryden • Aphra Behn • Female actors allowed • Nell Gwynne • Restoration music • Henry Purcell • The Scientific Revolution • Robert Boyle, Isaac Newton, Edmund Halley • The Royal Society, founded in 1660
  59. 59. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Painting of the Dutch attack on the Medway, Second Dutch War, by Pieter Cornelisz van Soest, 1667, Royal Greenwich Museum. • Charles II, r. 1660-1685 • Personal rule, 1667-1685 • The Second Dutch War, 1665-1667 • The fall of Clarendon, 1667 • The Treaty of Dover, 1670 • War against the Dutch, 1672- 1674 • The Declaration of Indulgence, 1672 • Test Act, 1673 • Charles’ pro-French, pro- Catholic stance • Tories versus Whigs • Charles II and the succession • Marriage to Catherine of Braganza, but no children • At least 14 illegitimate children • The Exclusion Crisis, 1679-1681
  60. 60. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Portrait of James II, by Nicholas de Largilliere, 1685, National Maritime Museum. • James II, r. 1685-1688 • Marriage to Anne Hyde, 1660-1671 • Marriage to Mary of Modena, 1673-1701 • Parliament voted James a fixed income of £1.5 million/year plus £400,000 for five years • Attempted repeal of the Test Act, 1685 • Dissolution of parliament, 1686 • Appointment of Catholics to military, political, judicial, and university posts • Declaration of Indulgence, 1687 • Re-issuance of the Declaration of Indulgence, 1688 • The Cause of the Seven Bishops, 1688
  61. 61. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Coronation image of William III and Mary II, from the Guild Book of the Barber Surgeons of York, 1689. • The Glorious Revolution, 1688 • Mary II, r. 1689-1694, and William III (William of Orange), r. 1689-1702 • The Declaration of Rights, 1689 • The Bill of Rights, 1689 • Parliament voted William and Mary a smaller income, forcing them to call on parliament for funds • The Toleration Act, 1689 • War with France, 1689-1697 • Louis XIV, r. 1643-1715 • The League of Augsburg, 1686 • Austria, Spain, Sweden, Bavaria, Saxony, the Palatinate • England and the Netherlands, 1689 • The Treaty of Ryswick, 1697
  62. 62. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne A Lost Cause: the flight of James II after the Battle of the Boyne, by Andrew Carrick Gow, 1888, Tate Art Gallery. • The Glorious Revolution in Ireland • Jacobites • Latin for James = Jacobus • Battle of the Boyne, 1690 • Native and Anglo-Irish supporters of James II versus supporters of William and Mary • The “Orangemen” = supporters of William of Orange in Ulster • By the reign of William III and Mary II, 12 million (out of 15 million) acres in Ireland had been seized and granted to Protestants; 4/5 of the population still Catholic. • Catholics required to pay tithe to the Church of Ireland (Protestant)
  63. 63. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Letter to Capt. Robert Campbell of Glenlyon ordering the Massacre of Glencoe, 1692, Wikipedia. • The Glorious Revolution in Scotland • Scottish oath of loyalty to William and Mary, announced August 1691; intended to take effect January 1, 1692 • Massacre of Glencoe, February 13th 1692 • MacDonalds of Glencoe • John Dalrymple, Master of Stair and Secretary of State for Scotland, d. 1707 • Act of Settlement, 1701 • Formally barred Catholic Stuarts from the throne
  64. 64. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Portrait of Anne, by Michael Dahl, 1705, National Portrait Gallery, London. • Anne, r. 1702-1714 • The War of the Spanish Succession, 1701-1714 • John Churchill, Duke of Marlborough, d. 1722 • Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt, 1713-1714 • Act of Union, 1707 • Abolition of Scottish privy council, 1708 • Queen of Great Britain, 1707-1714 • Succeeded by George, Elector of Hanover as George I, r. 1714-1727
  65. 65. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Bonnie Prince Charlie entering Holyroodhouse, by John Pettie, 1898, Palace of Holyroodhouse. • First Jacobite revolt, 1715-1716 • James Francis Edward Stuart (d. 1766) proclaimed James III and VIII (aka “The Old Pretender”) • Second Jacobite revolt, 1745-1746 • Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, d. 1788 (aka “The Young Pretender”)
  66. 66. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Frontispiece of Hobbes’ Leviathan, engraving by Abraham Bosse, 1651, Library of Congress. • Political theory • Thomas Hobbes, d. 1679, Leviathan, published in 1651 • Human life “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” • Only absolute royal power can create order • John Locke, d. 1704, Two Treatises of Government (written c. 1680, but only published in 1690) • Humans enter into a contract in which they relinquish political power to a monarch • But that monarch must protect “life, liberty, and property”
  67. 67. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Map of European expansion and trade, from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 2, 4th edition. • English colonization in the Americas • Charter, crown, and proprietary colonies • Rhode Island, Connecticut, and Massachusetts Bay were charter colonies • New York and Pennsylvania were proprietary colonies • Virginia, North and South Carolina, and Georgia were crown colonies • Hudson’s Bay Company and Rupert’s Land • Newfoundland and Nova Scotia • West Indies • South America • British Guiana • ~70,000 English migrated to the North American and Caribbean colonies from 1617-1650 • By 1713, there were 350,000 British settlers in North America
  68. 68. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Guinea issued in 1686 for the Royal African Company: James II and elephant and castle emblem on obverse; arms of England, Scotland, Ireland, and Wales on reverse. From coins of the UK, Tony Clayton. • English colonization in Africa and Asia • Gambia, West Africa, 1588/1618 • Royal African Company, 1660 • India • English East India Company, 1600 • Company trading posts in Madras, Bombay, and Calcutta, 1600-1750
  69. 69. The Last Stuarts: Charles II, James II, Mary, and Anne Harvesting Tobacco at Jamestown c. 1650, by Sidney E. King, c. 1954, Colonial National Historical Park, Virginia.• The economy • Mercantilism • Navigation Acts, 1651 onward • Trade Acts, 1663 onward • Staple Act, 1663, Plantation Duty Act, 1673, Woolens Act, 1699 • Irish merchants forbidden from shipping goods to the American colonies or to England for direct sale, 1663-1699 • American colonies forbidden from shipping goods for sale to Ireland, 1670 • Exports and domestic trade • Wool, coal, salt, bricks, grain, iron • Imports • India/Asia (tea, spices, silk); North America (tobacco, beaver pelts); Africa (ivory, slaves, dyewood); Baltic Sea (hemp, tar, timber) • From 1660-1700, exports rose from £4.1 to 6.4 million/year; imports from £4.4 to 5.8 million/year
  70. 70. Chart showing numbers of slaves brought into various American territories from 1701-1810, from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition. • John Winthrop, first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, to Nathaniel Rich, May 22, 1634. • “For the natives, they are nearly all dead of smallpox, so as the lord hath cleared our title to what we possess.” • By 1700, the Royal African Company was shipping 100,000 slaves/year to the Caribbean and North American colonies