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Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations.
Map from Coffin and Stacey, Western Civilizations, Volume I, 2005.
The Archaic Age in Athens and Sparta
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
The Archaic Age in Athens and Sparta
Bust of Hesiod, British Museum.
• The Dark Ages, 1100-
800 BCE
– Homer, The Iliad (80...
Early geometric art
Left—Pyxis, mid-8th century BCE, Metropolitan Museum of
Art; right—amphora, late-8th century BCE, Louv...
Attic geometric krater, Dipylon cemetery, Athens, c. 740
BCE, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
Mantiklos Apollo,
Thebes c. 700-680 BCE.
Bronze 8 inch high,
Museum of Fine Arts,
Boston.
The Archaic Age in Athens and Sparta
• Socio-political organization
– The polis (pl. poleis)
• Synoikismos (uniting of oik...
The Archaic Age in Athens and Sparta
• Social and political change
– From monarchy to oligarchy
• Archon, prytanis, basile...
Greek colonialism
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
L to R: Mentemhet, Karnak, Egypt, c. 650 BCE, Egyptian Museum,
Cairo. Kouros, Attica, 600 BCE, Metropolitan Museum of New ...
L: Peplos kore, Athens Acropolis, 530 BCE, Acropolis Museum,
Athens.
R: reconstruction of Peplos kore as Artemis, goddess ...
Attic amphora, Ajax and Achilles playing a game, Orvieto,
525-520 BCE, (L: Black figure side, R: red-figure side),
Museum ...
Attic red-figure calyx-krater, Heracles wrestling Antaios,
Cerveteri, 510 BCE, Louvre, Paris.
Archaic Athens
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
• Athens
– Theseus
• Hero who killed the...
Archaic Athens
• Conspiracy of Cylon, c. 632
• Draco and the codification of law, c. 620
• Solon (c. 594)
– Hektamoroi and...
Archaic Athens
Image of an Athenian silver coin, minted c.450 BCE, British Museum.
Photo B. McManus, Vroma.org.
• Tyranny,...
Archaic Athens
Statues of Harmodias and Aristogeiton, killers of Hipparchus, Roman
copies of Athenian originals, National ...
Acropolis of Athens
Image from Raymond V. Schroder S.J., Ancient Greece from the Air.
Archaic Sparta
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
• Sparta (Lacedaemon)
– Homoioi
– Laconi...
Society and culture during the Archaic Age
• Average lifestyle in ancient Greece
– Male average lifespan 45 years (usually...
Left—Panathenaic amphora depicting a race, c. 530 BCE;
right—psykter depicting athletes and their trainers
practicing, c. ...
Left—hydria depicting women at a fountain, c. 500 BCE;
right—lekythos depicting women weaving, c. 550 BCE.
Both in the Met...
Society and culture during the Archaic Age
• Children, property, and inheritance
– Exposure of children
• Possibly as much...
Society and culture during the Archaic Age
• Heterosexuality and homosexuality
– Marriage was for the purpose of producing...
Left—kylix depicting a hetairai and symposiast, c. 490-480
BCE, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; right– kalathos
depicting Sap...
Society and culture during the Archaic Age
• Sparta versus Athens
– Spartan males separated from family at age 7; raised i...
Left—bronze statue of a running Spartan girl, c. 500 BCE, British
Museum; right—lead figure of a winged goddess (Artemis O...
Kylix with birds and winged figure (Nike?), c. 550-530 BCE,
Laconia, British Museum.
Phoenician civilization.
Map from Coffin and Stacey, Western Civilizations, Volume I, 2005.
Early Greek Civilization
Map from Hunt, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures,
Volume I, 2008.
• Neolithic Revoluti...
Minoan palace complex at Knossos,
Crete, 1700-1400 BCE
Image from Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 1996.
Minoan bull leaping fresco, Knossos, c. 1450 BCE
In the Archeological Museum, Herakleion.
Minoan snake goddess, Knossos, c. 1600 BCE
In the Archeological Museum, Herakleion.
Dolphin fresco from Knossos, c. 1500 BCE
In the Archaeological Museum, Heraklion.
Minoan fresco from Thera, 1650 BCE
In the National Archeological Museum, Athens.
Minoan octopus jar, from Palaikastro, c. 1500 BCE
In the Archeological Museum, Herakleion.
Linear A
From www.ancientscripts.com
Mycenaean Greece, 1600-1100 BCE
Map from Hunt, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures,
Volume I, 2008.
• Mycenae
– H...
Grave Circle A, Mycenae,
c. 1600-1500 BCE
Mycenaean funerary mask from
Grave Circle A, c. 1500 BCE
In the National Archeological Museum, Athens.
The Lion Gate, Mycenae
c. 1300-1250 BCE
The Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae,
1250 BCE
Left—Mycenaean vase, Metropolitan Museum of
Art, c. 1400-1370 BC; right—Mycenaean vase with
bull and bird, British Museum,...
Linear B
From www.ancientscripts.com
The End of the Mycenaean Age
• The Trojan War, c. 1200 BCE
– Agamemnon, Menelaus, Helen, Paris, and Achilles
• “Peoples of...
Mycenaean and Dark Age religious beliefs
• Greek creation stories
– Uranus and Gaia
– The Titans—Cronus and Rhea
• Olympia...
Dark Age religious practices
• Religious rituals
– Funeral games, evidenced in The Iliad
– The Olympic Games, first held i...
Gaia (l) and Poseidon (c)
Image from the Antikensammlung, Berlin, Germany, 410-400 BCE
Cronus and Rhea
Image from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 5th century BCE
Left—Hera, from the Museum of Art, Rhode Island School
of Design, New York, c. 500-475 BC; right—Zeus, from the
Louvre Mus...
Demeter
Left—image from the Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe, Germany,
480 BCE; right—image from the National Museum, Ath...
Left—Poseidon with trident, Williams College Museum of
Art, Williamstown, Mass., 500-475 BCE; right—Ares
advancing on Hera...
Athena
Left--image from the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania,
460-450 BCE; right—the birth of Athena, image f...
Apollo
Left—riding a tripod across the sea, Museo Gregorio Etrusco, Vatican
City, 5th century BCE; right—Mantiklos Apollo,...
Artemis
Left—image from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 470 BCE; right—
image from the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Fi...
Left—Hestia (with veil) and Demeter, 500 BCE; right—
Aphrodite and Helen, 430 BCE. Both images from the
Antikensammlung, B...
Judgment of Paris: l-r Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, Hermes,
and Paris. Image from the Antikensammlung,
Berlin, 440 BCE
The Classical Age
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
• The Persian Empire
– Zoroastrianism...
Persepolis
Image from Lindsay Allen, The Persian Empire.
Bull guardian at gate
of Xerxes,
Persepolis, photo by
Antoine Sevreguin,
c. 1900.
Image from Lindsay Allen, The
Persian Em...
The Persian War
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
• Athenian alliance with
Persia, 507
• ...
Reconstruction of a Greek trireme.
Image from the Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.
Classical Athens:
Democracy and Empire
• Moderate democracy, 508-462
• Delian League, 477-454
– A league aimed at limiting...
Map from Sarah Pomeroy, A Brief History of Ancient Greece,
2nd edition.
Classical Athens:
Democracy and Empire
• Unofficial war, 460-445
– Megara conflict, 459
• Megara left Peloponnesian League...
Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, 447-438 BCE.
Image from Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 10th editio...
The Peloponnesian War
• The Peloponnesian War, 431-404
– The Athenian Empire vs. The Peloponnesian League
– Outbreak of pl...
Melian Dialogue
From Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War.
• Athenians: “…when these matters are discussed by prac...
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, volume I, 3rd edition.
Science in the Archaic Age
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1, 3rd edition.
• Rationalism
– Historia and...
The geocentric universe
Image from Peter Apian’s Cosmographia, 1544.
Science in the Classical Age
• Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, c. 500-428
– Matter composed of tiny, divisible particles; the su...
Philosophy in the Classical Age
• Sophists
– Nomos (custom or convention) and physis (nature or reality)
• Nomos an artifi...
Plato’s Apology of Socrates
• “[My accusers say] Socrates is an evil-doer; a meddler
who searches into things under the ea...
Plato’s Republic
• The Republic: “[A]ll of of you in this land are brothers;
but the god who fashioned you mixed gold in t...
Classical Athenian art
Left—Mourning Athena frieze, Acropolis Museum, Athens, 460 BC;
right—Myron, Diskobolos, Museo Nazio...
Classical Athenian art
Left—Kresilas, Pericles, Vatican Museums, Rome, 429 BC; right—
Phidias, Athena Parthenos, Royal Ont...
Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, volume I, 3rd edition.
• The Thirty...
Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age
Ivory head of Philip II, Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki.
Map from Lynn H...
Pebble mosaic of a stag hunt, Pella, Macedon, 300 BCE
Battle of Issus, Roman copy of a mosaic at Pompeii c. 310
BCE, Museo Nazionale, Naples.
Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age
Bust of Alexander the Great from Pella, c. 200-150 BCE, Archaeological
Museum, ...
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1,
3rd edition.
Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age
Gold double Daric minted by Alexander, 326 (photo in Sarah Pomeroy, A Brief
His...
An argument between Alexander and his men
(from Plutarch’s Life of Alexander, ch. 50-1)
• Thereupon Cleitus, who had alrea...
Plutarch’s assessment of Alexander’s empire (from On the
Fortune of Alexander, ch. 4-8)
• “Alexander… will be revealed as ...
Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age
• Post-classical philosophy
– Aristotle (384-322)
• Studied under Plato at the ...
Aristotle’s Politics
• “It remains therefore that both functions [warriors and
legislators] should be entrusted by the ide...
Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age
• Hellenistic or “Greek-like” culture
• Ptolemy in Egypt, Ptolemaic dynasty
• S...
Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1,
3rd edition.
Women in the Hellenistic period
• Queens
– Olympias of Epirus, d. 316
– Laodice, wife of Antiochus II, d. circa 240-230
– ...
Left—gold medallion depicting Olympias as an ancestor of Roman
Emperor Caracalla, Walters Art Museum; right—Egyptian coin
...
Culture in the Hellenistic period
• Expansion of Greek language and culture
– International trade
• Britain to China
• Koi...
Left—Capitoline Isis, 138-117 BCE. Marble, Capitoline Museum,
Rome; right—statue of Mithras slaying a bull, 1st century CE...
• Gaulish chieftain and his
wife, c. 230-220 BCE.
Marble copy of a bronze
original from Pergamum,
Museo Nazionale
Romano, ...
The Dying Gaul, 230-220 BCE. Roman marble copy of a bronze
original from Pergamum. Museo Capitolino Rome.
The Boxer, c. 100-50 BCE. Bronze, Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.
Old market woman, c. 150-100 BCE. Roman marble copy of
Hellenistic original, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
Nike (Victory) of Samothrace, c. 190 BCE. Marble, Louvre, Paris.
Laocoön and his sons, c. 150-100 BCE.
Marble, Vatican Museum, Rome.
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Ancient Greece Lectures by Dr. Lizabeth Johnson - The University of New Mexico Continuing Education

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This presentation was part of the "Ancient Greece" lectures by Dr. Lizabeth Johnson for the Osher Lifelong Learning Institute at the University of New Mexico.

Ancient Greece was one of the most formative civilizations in Western history. While never an Empire, the Greeks, and particularly the people of Athens, developed and put into practice early concepts of democracy and legal equality. Aristophanes and Sophocles wrote classic plays describing issues important to Athenians of the fifth century BC, but which still resonate today - the social cost of warfare and the contest between loyalty to one’s family and obedience to one's government. Even after the end of the Classical period, when Athens and other Greek city-states fell under the control of Macedon and Rome, the Greeks continued to make their mark on the ancient Western world through the development of Hellenistic art, science, philosophy and religious cults. We'll examine the history of Greece from its prehistoric period through the Classical period and into the Hellenistic Age with a particular focus on the political and intellectual advances made by the Greeks and inherited by all of Western society.

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Ancient Greece Lectures by Dr. Lizabeth Johnson - The University of New Mexico Continuing Education

  1. 1. Mesopotamian and Egyptian civilizations. Map from Coffin and Stacey, Western Civilizations, Volume I, 2005.
  2. 2. The Archaic Age in Athens and Sparta Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
  3. 3. The Archaic Age in Athens and Sparta Bust of Hesiod, British Museum. • The Dark Ages, 1100- 800 BCE – Homer, The Iliad (800) and The Odyssey (750) • The Archaic Age, 800-480 BCE – Hesiod, Theogony and Works and Days, c. 700 • Zeus as a god interested in justice • Renewed interest in trade • Growing importance of agriculture and land
  4. 4. Early geometric art Left—Pyxis, mid-8th century BCE, Metropolitan Museum of Art; right—amphora, late-8th century BCE, Louvre.
  5. 5. Attic geometric krater, Dipylon cemetery, Athens, c. 740 BCE, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  6. 6. Mantiklos Apollo, Thebes c. 700-680 BCE. Bronze 8 inch high, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  7. 7. The Archaic Age in Athens and Sparta • Socio-political organization – The polis (pl. poleis) • Synoikismos (uniting of oikoi) • Oikos (pl. oikoi) – Klēros – Thes (pl. thētes) • Urban center and countryside – Athens and Attica – Sparta, Laconia, and Messenia • Demos – Ethnos • Areas/peoples of Greece without poleis – Dorian versus Ionian Greeks
  8. 8. The Archaic Age in Athens and Sparta • Social and political change – From monarchy to oligarchy • Archon, prytanis, basileus; polemarchos; boulē, areopagus; ecclesia – Colonialism • Metropolis (mother polis); apoikia (colony); oikistes (founder of the colony) – Written law • Laws published in centers of poleis – Hoplite warfare • Hoplon (shield); phalanx (military unit) • The Hoplite revolution? – The age of tyrants, 670-500 BCE • Hoi agathoi (the good), hoi kakoi (the bad), and hoi polloi (the many)
  9. 9. Greek colonialism Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition.
  10. 10. L to R: Mentemhet, Karnak, Egypt, c. 650 BCE, Egyptian Museum, Cairo. Kouros, Attica, 600 BCE, Metropolitan Museum of New York. Kroisos of Anavysos, 530 BCE, National Archeological Museum, Athens.
  11. 11. L: Peplos kore, Athens Acropolis, 530 BCE, Acropolis Museum, Athens. R: reconstruction of Peplos kore as Artemis, goddess of the hunt, Museum of Classical Archaeology, Cambridge.
  12. 12. Attic amphora, Ajax and Achilles playing a game, Orvieto, 525-520 BCE, (L: Black figure side, R: red-figure side), Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
  13. 13. Attic red-figure calyx-krater, Heracles wrestling Antaios, Cerveteri, 510 BCE, Louvre, Paris.
  14. 14. Archaic Athens Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition. • Athens – Theseus • Hero who killed the Minotaur and united Athens and Attica – Oligarchy • Areopagus • Archons – Archon – Basileus – Polemarchos – Thesmothetai – Eupatridae • Ecclesia • Oikoi, phylai, phratries, and genē
  15. 15. Archaic Athens • Conspiracy of Cylon, c. 632 • Draco and the codification of law, c. 620 • Solon (c. 594) – Hektamoroi and debt slavery – Pentakosiomedimnoi, hippeis, zeugitae, thētes – Boulē (now a council of 400) – Heliaia – Axones
  16. 16. Archaic Athens Image of an Athenian silver coin, minted c.450 BCE, British Museum. Photo B. McManus, Vroma.org. • Tyranny, 560-510 – Pisistratus 546-528 • Public works to win favor of the thetes • Production of “owl” coins – Hippias and Hipparchus 528-510
  17. 17. Archaic Athens Statues of Harmodias and Aristogeiton, killers of Hipparchus, Roman copies of Athenian originals, National Archaeological Museum, Naples. • Beginning of democracy, 510-500 – Cleisthenes d. circa 500 • Trittys • Boulē (now 500 men) • Strategoi • Ostracism
  18. 18. Acropolis of Athens Image from Raymond V. Schroder S.J., Ancient Greece from the Air.
  19. 19. Archaic Sparta Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition. • Sparta (Lacedaemon) – Homoioi – Laconia and Messenia • Perioikoi and Helots – Lycurgus – Kings – Gerousia – Ephors • Krypteia – Assembly – Ephebes – Syssition – Peloponnesian league, founded c. 550 BCE
  20. 20. Society and culture during the Archaic Age • Average lifestyle in ancient Greece – Male average lifespan 45 years (usually married at 30) – Female average lifespan 36.2 years (usually married at 15-18) • Average number of children 4.3, of which 2.7 survived infancy – Males raised to become citizens and soldiers • Citizen militia = hoplite phalanx • Military status dependent on wealth – Females raised to be wives and mothers • Management of household, slaves, children most important; wool working a common occupation
  21. 21. Left—Panathenaic amphora depicting a race, c. 530 BCE; right—psykter depicting athletes and their trainers practicing, c. 520-510. Both in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  22. 22. Left—hydria depicting women at a fountain, c. 500 BCE; right—lekythos depicting women weaving, c. 550 BCE. Both in the Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  23. 23. Society and culture during the Archaic Age • Children, property, and inheritance – Exposure of children • Possibly as much as 20% of newborn females exposed; males usually raised unless showing physical deformities – Klēros – Family lands passed to sons; females often excluded from inheritance • Athenian epiklēros • Gortynian patrōïōkos • In Gortyn, sons received 2/3 of inheritance and daughters received 1/3 • Athenian Laws of Solon limited a woman’s personal property to three items of clothing – Kyrios • Citizens versus foreigners (known as metics in Athens) and slaves
  24. 24. Society and culture during the Archaic Age • Heterosexuality and homosexuality – Marriage was for the purpose of producing heirs – Males could engage in extramarital affairs with slaves, other men, and prostitutes • Men had little in common with women because of stark contrast in daily occupations and forged emotional and physical relationships with other men – Female adultery punishable by divorce (rape treated similarly) • “Paternal confidence” • Sappho of Lesbos (fl. 7th century) • Athenian practices – Symposia – Hetairai • Male teenagers (erōmenos) often educated about the world by older males (erastēs)
  25. 25. Left—kylix depicting a hetairai and symposiast, c. 490-480 BCE, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston; right– kalathos depicting Sappho (r) and Alcaeus (l), c. 470 BCE, Staatliche Antikensammlungen, Munich.
  26. 26. Society and culture during the Archaic Age • Sparta versus Athens – Spartan males separated from family at age 7; raised in military barracks with other boys – Spartan females encouraged to exercise and compete in athletic competitions – Spartan females not married until 18, when physically mature – Spartan married couples lived separately until husband’s retirement from military duty – Spartan men could encourage wives to have sex with other, stronger men to produce strong children – Spartan wives allowed to have sex with helots when population low, to produce a new generation of citizens – Spartan lands owned by state, granted out to male citizens for their lifetime only
  27. 27. Left—bronze statue of a running Spartan girl, c. 500 BCE, British Museum; right—lead figure of a winged goddess (Artemis Orthia), 7th century, Laconia, Metropolitan Museum of Art.
  28. 28. Kylix with birds and winged figure (Nike?), c. 550-530 BCE, Laconia, British Museum.
  29. 29. Phoenician civilization. Map from Coffin and Stacey, Western Civilizations, Volume I, 2005.
  30. 30. Early Greek Civilization Map from Hunt, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, Volume I, 2008. • Neolithic Revolution, 7000 BCE – Settled agriculture and domestication of animals • Bronze Age, 3000 BCE • Minoan Greece, 2200- 1400 BCE – Sir Arthur Evans, 1900 CE – The myth of the Minotaur – Crete – Knossos – Linear A
  31. 31. Minoan palace complex at Knossos, Crete, 1700-1400 BCE Image from Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 1996.
  32. 32. Minoan bull leaping fresco, Knossos, c. 1450 BCE In the Archeological Museum, Herakleion.
  33. 33. Minoan snake goddess, Knossos, c. 1600 BCE In the Archeological Museum, Herakleion.
  34. 34. Dolphin fresco from Knossos, c. 1500 BCE In the Archaeological Museum, Heraklion.
  35. 35. Minoan fresco from Thera, 1650 BCE In the National Archeological Museum, Athens.
  36. 36. Minoan octopus jar, from Palaikastro, c. 1500 BCE In the Archeological Museum, Herakleion.
  37. 37. Linear A From www.ancientscripts.com
  38. 38. Mycenaean Greece, 1600-1100 BCE Map from Hunt, The Making of the West: Peoples and Cultures, Volume I, 2008. • Mycenae – Heinrich Schliemann, 1876 CE – Conquest of Minoan palace complexes, c. 1490 – Linear B • Michael Ventris, 1953 CE – Wanax • Lawagetas • Qasireu (becomes basileus) • Damos (demos)
  39. 39. Grave Circle A, Mycenae, c. 1600-1500 BCE
  40. 40. Mycenaean funerary mask from Grave Circle A, c. 1500 BCE In the National Archeological Museum, Athens.
  41. 41. The Lion Gate, Mycenae c. 1300-1250 BCE
  42. 42. The Treasury of Atreus, Mycenae, 1250 BCE
  43. 43. Left—Mycenaean vase, Metropolitan Museum of Art, c. 1400-1370 BC; right—Mycenaean vase with bull and bird, British Museum, c. 1300 BC
  44. 44. Linear B From www.ancientscripts.com
  45. 45. The End of the Mycenaean Age • The Trojan War, c. 1200 BCE – Agamemnon, Menelaus, Helen, Paris, and Achilles • “Peoples of the countries of the sea” • The Dark Ages, 1100-800 BCE – Collapse of palace complexes – Drastic drop in population – But, birth of the Iron Age, c. 1000 – Power in the hands of local chief or qasireu/basileus • Council = boulē • Homer’s Iliad (c. 800) and Odyssey (c. 750)
  46. 46. Mycenaean and Dark Age religious beliefs • Greek creation stories – Uranus and Gaia – The Titans—Cronus and Rhea • Olympian deities (many attested in Linear B tablets) – Zeus, chief god – Hera, sister and consort to Zeus – Poseidon, god of oceans and seas – Demeter, goddess of agriculture and animal fertility – Hades, god of the underworld and the dead – Hestia, goddess of hearth and home – Apollo, sun god and associated with arts and medicine – Artemis, sister of Apollo and goddess of the hunt – Athena, goddess of wisdom and warfare – Ares, god of war – Aphrodite, goddess of love and human fertility – Hermes, messenger of the gods – Hephaestus, smith god
  47. 47. Dark Age religious practices • Religious rituals – Funeral games, evidenced in The Iliad – The Olympic Games, first held in 776 BCE – Games of Hera – Elusinian mysteries, festival of Demeter, for men and women – Thesmophoria, festival of Demeter, for women only – Dionysia, festival for Dionysius, god of grapes and wine – Panathenaea, festival of Athens held in Athens – Carnea, festival of Apollo held in Sparta – Oracles • Delphi and Apollo • Dodona and Zeus
  48. 48. Gaia (l) and Poseidon (c) Image from the Antikensammlung, Berlin, Germany, 410-400 BCE
  49. 49. Cronus and Rhea Image from the Metropolitan Museum of Art, 5th century BCE
  50. 50. Left—Hera, from the Museum of Art, Rhode Island School of Design, New York, c. 500-475 BC; right—Zeus, from the Louvre Museum, 470-460 BCE
  51. 51. Demeter Left—image from the Badisches Landesmuseum, Karlsruhe, Germany, 480 BCE; right—image from the National Museum, Athens, Greece, 450-425 BCE
  52. 52. Left—Poseidon with trident, Williams College Museum of Art, Williamstown, Mass., 500-475 BCE; right—Ares advancing on Herakles, Worcester Art Museum, Mass., 515-500 BCE
  53. 53. Athena Left--image from the University Museum, University of Pennsylvania, 460-450 BCE; right—the birth of Athena, image from the Louvre Museum, 570-565 BCE
  54. 54. Apollo Left—riding a tripod across the sea, Museo Gregorio Etrusco, Vatican City, 5th century BCE; right—Mantiklos Apollo, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 700-680 BCE
  55. 55. Artemis Left—image from the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston, 470 BCE; right— image from the Museo Archeologico Nazionale di Firenze, Florence, Italy, 570-560 BCE
  56. 56. Left—Hestia (with veil) and Demeter, 500 BCE; right— Aphrodite and Helen, 430 BCE. Both images from the Antikensammlung, Berlin.
  57. 57. Judgment of Paris: l-r Hera, Athena, Aphrodite, Hermes, and Paris. Image from the Antikensammlung, Berlin, 440 BCE
  58. 58. The Classical Age Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition. • The Persian Empire – Zoroastrianism • Zarathustra, fl. 600 • Ahuramazda and Ahriman – Cyrus II, r. 553-529 • Conquered Media, Lydia, Babylon • Satrapies (provinces) – Cambyses, r. 530-522 • Conquered Egypt – Darius I, r. 521-485 • Conquered Thrace • Founded Persepolis • Minted gold and silver coins (Darics) – Xerxes, r. 485-465
  59. 59. Persepolis Image from Lindsay Allen, The Persian Empire.
  60. 60. Bull guardian at gate of Xerxes, Persepolis, photo by Antoine Sevreguin, c. 1900. Image from Lindsay Allen, The Persian Empire.
  61. 61. The Persian War Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume I, 3rd edition. • Athenian alliance with Persia, 507 • Ionian revolt, 499-494 • Herodotus, the “Father of History,” 485-424 • Battle of Marathon, 490 • Battle of Thermopylae, 480 – Athenian fleet at Artemisium • Battle of Salamis, 480 • Battle of Plataea, 479 • Battle of Mycale, 479 • Peace of Callias in 449
  62. 62. Reconstruction of a Greek trireme. Image from the Perseus Digital Library, Tufts University.
  63. 63. Classical Athens: Democracy and Empire • Moderate democracy, 508-462 • Delian League, 477-454 – A league aimed at limiting Persian influence in the eastern Mediterranean – 150 members, with Athens as leader – Members contributed ships or money to build ships • Lesbos, Samos, Chios, Naxos, and Thasos contributed ships • Cleruchies • Revolt of Naxos, 470; revolt of Thasos, 465 • Radical democracy in Athens, 462-403 • Pericles (active 461-429, d. 429) – Thetes – Salaries for jurors, elected officials, assembly duty • Democratia, Isegoria, Isonomia
  64. 64. Map from Sarah Pomeroy, A Brief History of Ancient Greece, 2nd edition.
  65. 65. Classical Athens: Democracy and Empire • Unofficial war, 460-445 – Megara conflict, 459 • Megara left Peloponnesian League for Delian League – Boeotia conflict, 457 • Sparta lost territory to Athens in the Peloponnese • Athenian Empire, 454-403 • Thirty Years’ Peace, 445-432 – Loss of Megara and Boeotia, 445 – Revolt of Samos and Byzantium, 440 – Corcyra conflict, 435-433 – Potidaea conflict, 433-431 – Megara conflict, 432 • Peloponnesian League threatens war, 432 – “Free the Greeks”
  66. 66. Iktinos and Kallikrates, Parthenon, Acropolis, Athens, 447-438 BCE. Image from Gardner’s Art Through the Ages, 10th edition.
  67. 67. The Peloponnesian War • The Peloponnesian War, 431-404 – The Athenian Empire vs. The Peloponnesian League – Outbreak of plague in Athens, 430-429; production of Sophocles’ play Oedipus Rex • Thucydides (exiled in 424, d. 395) – History of the Peloponnesian War • Pericles, (active 461-429, d. 429) • Cleon, (active 429-422, d. 422) – Parodied in Aristophanes’ play Knights • Plataea, 429-427 • Mytilene, 428-427 • Melos, 416 • Syracuse, 413 – Production of Aristophanes’ play Lysistrata, 411 • The oligarchic coup in Athens, 411-410 • The thirty tyrants, 404-403
  68. 68. Melian Dialogue From Thucydides, History of the Peloponnesian War. • Athenians: “…when these matters are discussed by practical people, the standard of justice depends on the equality of power to compel and that in fact the strong do what they have the power to do and the weak accept what they have to accept.” • Melians: “…in the case of all who fall into danger there should be such a thing as fair play and just dealing.” • Athenians: “We do not want any trouble in bringing you into our empire, and we want you to be spared for the good both of yourselves and of ourselves.” • Melians: “And how could it be just as good for us to be the slaves as for you to be the masters?” • Athenians: “You, by giving in, would save yourselves from disaster; we, by not destroying you, would be able to profit from you… your hatred is evidence of our power… It is rather a question of saving your lives and not resisting those who are far too strong for you.”
  69. 69. Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, volume I, 3rd edition.
  70. 70. Science in the Archaic Age Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1, 3rd edition. • Rationalism – Historia and theoria • Thales of Miletus (fl. 6th century BCE) – Mathematician and astronomer – Believed water was the first principle of life – Argued that the earth was spherical • Anaximander of Miletus (fl. 6th century BCE) – Argued that nature is governed by laws just like human society – Argued for the geocentric theory of the universe • Pythagorus of Samos (fl. 6th century BCE) – Author of the Pythagorean Theorem – Argued that the universe was spherical
  71. 71. The geocentric universe Image from Peter Apian’s Cosmographia, 1544.
  72. 72. Science in the Classical Age • Anaxagoras of Clazomenae, c. 500-428 – Matter composed of tiny, divisible particles; the sun not a deity, but a white-hot stone • Empedocles of Sicily, c. 493-433 – Theory of four primary elements (earth, air, fire, water) and forces of attraction (love and strife) • Leucippus (fl. mid-5th century) and Democritus of Thrace, c. 460-370 – Matter composed of tiny, non-divisible (atoma) particles; particles in a void and collided to create matter • Hippocrates of Cos, c. 460-377 – Rational explanations for medical conditions – Environmental factors as determinants of health
  73. 73. Philosophy in the Classical Age • Sophists – Nomos (custom or convention) and physis (nature or reality) • Nomos an artificial restraint on physis – Aristophanes’ play The Clouds • Socrates (c. 469-399) • Plato (c. 428-348) – The Academy – Theory of Forms – Dualism • Ideal forms versus physical/tangible examples of forms – Writings • The Apology, The Republic, The Laws • Xenophon (c. 430-355) – Anabasis, Laws and Customs of the Spartans, Oeconomicus
  74. 74. Plato’s Apology of Socrates • “[My accusers say] Socrates is an evil-doer; a meddler who searches into things under the earth and in heaven, and makes the worse appear the better cause, and teaches the aforesaid practices to others… [Others say] that Socrates is a doer of evil inasmuch as he corrupts the youth, and does not receive the gods whom the state receives, but has a new religion of his own… Men of Athens, I honour and love you… and while I have life and strength I shall never cease from the practice and teaching of philosophy… [I] am a sort of gadfly, given to the state by God; and the state is a great and noble horse who is tardy in his motions owing to his very size, and requires to be stirred into life.”
  75. 75. Plato’s Republic • The Republic: “[A]ll of of you in this land are brothers; but the god who fashioned you mixed gold in the composition of those among you who are fit to rule, so that they are of the most precious quality; and he put silver in the Auxiliaries, and iron and brass in the farmers and craftsmen. Now, since you are all of one stock, although your children will generally be like their parents, sometimes a golden parent may have a silver child or a silver parent a golden one.” • “Therefore, my friend, there are no governmental responsibilities that fall to a female because she is a female, or to a male because he is male, but in the same way the natural abilities are divided up in both sexes, and females by nature share all responsibilities, and so do males, except that in all of them a female is a weaker being than a male…Women and men have the same nature as far as the guardianship of the city is concerned, except in those aspects where they are by nature weaker or stronger.”
  76. 76. Classical Athenian art Left—Mourning Athena frieze, Acropolis Museum, Athens, 460 BC; right—Myron, Diskobolos, Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome, 450 BC
  77. 77. Classical Athenian art Left—Kresilas, Pericles, Vatican Museums, Rome, 429 BC; right— Phidias, Athena Parthenos, Royal Ontario Museum, Toronto, 438 BC
  78. 78. Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, volume I, 3rd edition. • The Thirty Tyrants, 404-403 BCE • Military changes – Peltasts and mercenaries • The Corinthian War, 394-386 – Sparta vs. Athens, Corinth, Thebes, Persia • The King’s Peace, 386 • Rise of Thebes – Pelopidas (d. 364) – Epaminondas (d. 362) – The Sacred Band • Battle of Leuctra, 371 – Thebes vs. Sparta • Battle of Mantinea, 362 – Athens and Sparta vs. Thebes
  79. 79. Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age Ivory head of Philip II, Archaeological Museum of Thessaloniki. Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1, 3rd edition. • Philip II of Macedon, r. 359- 336 – Macedonian phalanx • Long pike = sarissa – The Companions – Conquest of Illyria, Chalcidice, and Thrace, 358-341 – Battle of Chaeronea, 338 – League of Corinth • Olympias of Epirus, d. 316 • Alexander III, r. 336-323
  80. 80. Pebble mosaic of a stag hunt, Pella, Macedon, 300 BCE
  81. 81. Battle of Issus, Roman copy of a mosaic at Pompeii c. 310 BCE, Museo Nazionale, Naples.
  82. 82. Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age Bust of Alexander the Great from Pella, c. 200-150 BCE, Archaeological Museum, Pella. • Destruction of Thebes, 335 – Except for house and relations of Pindar • Battle at Granicus River, 334 • Battle of Issus, 333 • Sieges of Tyre and Gaza, 332 • Foundation of Alexandria, Egypt, 331
  83. 83. Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1, 3rd edition.
  84. 84. Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age Gold double Daric minted by Alexander, 326 (photo in Sarah Pomeroy, A Brief History of Ancient Greece, 2nd edition) • Visit to temple of Zeus-Ammon, 331 • Battle of Gaugamela, 331 – Death of Darius III • Sogdiana, Bactria and India, 330- 326 – Roxane of Sogdiana • Battle at Hydaspes River, 326 • Mutiny at Hyphasis River, 326 • Retreat through Gedrosia desert, 325 • Illness and death in Babylon, 323
  85. 85. An argument between Alexander and his men (from Plutarch’s Life of Alexander, ch. 50-1) • Thereupon Cleitus, who had already drunk too much and was rough and hot-tempered by nature, became angrier than ever and shouted that it was not right for Macedonians to be insulted in the presence of barbarians and enemies, even if they had met with misfortune, for they were better men than those who were laughing at them… [Cleitus said,] “it was my cowardice that saved your life [Alexander], you who call yourself the son of the gods, when you were turning your back to Spithridates’ sword. And it is the blood of these Macedonians and their wounds which have made you so great that you disown your father Philip and claim to be the son of Ammon!” These words made Alexander furious. “You scum,” he cried out, “do you think that you can keep on speaking of me like this, and stir up trouble among the Macedonians and not pay for it?” “Oh, but we Macedonians do pay for it,” Cleitus retorted. “Just think of the rewards we get for all our efforts. It’s the dead ones who are happy, because they never lived to see Macedonians being beaten with Median rods, or begging the Persians for an audience with our own king.”
  86. 86. Plutarch’s assessment of Alexander’s empire (from On the Fortune of Alexander, ch. 4-8) • “Alexander… will be revealed as a philosopher by what he did and by what he taught… he taught marriage to the Hyrcanians, he showed the Arachosians how to farm, he persuaded the Sogdianians to support their fathers instead of killing them, and he induced the Persians to respect their mothers and not to marry them. What an admirable philosophy, which caused the Indians to bow down before the gods of Greece, the Scythians to bury their dead instead of devouring them!... Those whom Alexander conquered were more fortunate than those who escaped, because there was no one to correct their foolish way of life, while the conqueror forced his subjects to live in prosperity… If philosophers really set such store by refining and altering rough and ignorant dispositions, then Alexander, who is seen transforming countless races and natural savages, ought truly to be regarded as a very great philosopher… He conducted himself as he did out of a desire to subject all the races in the world to one rule and one form of government, making all mankind a single people.”
  87. 87. Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age • Post-classical philosophy – Aristotle (384-322) • Studied under Plato at the Academy until 347 • Tutor to Alexander the Great, 343-335 • Founding of the Lyceum in Athens, 335 • Telos (purpose or goal) • Universe in constant state of motion • Poetics • Ethics • Politics
  88. 88. Aristotle’s Politics • “It remains therefore that both functions [warriors and legislators] should be entrusted by the ideal constitution to the same persons—not, however, at the same time, but in the order prescribed by nature, who has given to young men strength and to older men wisdom. Such a distribution of duties will be practical and also just, and is founded upon a principle of conformity to merit. Besides, the ruling class should be the owners of property, for they are citizens, and the citizens of a state should be in good circumstances; whereas mechanics or any other class which is not a producer of virtue have no power in the states.”
  89. 89. Philip, Alexander, and the Hellenistic Age • Hellenistic or “Greek-like” culture • Ptolemy in Egypt, Ptolemaic dynasty • Seleucus in Asia, Seleucid dynasty – Syria, Palestine, Mesopotamia, western Persia • Antigonus in Macedon and Greece, Antigonid dynasty • Pergamum in Asia Minor, Attalid dynasty • Achaean League • Aetolian League • Urbanization – Alexandria – Seleucia – Antioch
  90. 90. Map from Lynn Hunt, The Making of the West, Volume 1, 3rd edition.
  91. 91. Women in the Hellenistic period • Queens – Olympias of Epirus, d. 316 – Laodice, wife of Antiochus II, d. circa 240-230 – Arsinoë II, wife of Ptolemy II, d. 270 • Noblewomen – Phile of Priene, 1st century – Aristodama of Smyrna, 2nd century
  92. 92. Left—gold medallion depicting Olympias as an ancestor of Roman Emperor Caracalla, Walters Art Museum; right—Egyptian coin depicting Arsinoë II and a cornucopia, forumancientcoins.com.
  93. 93. Culture in the Hellenistic period • Expansion of Greek language and culture – International trade • Britain to China • Koine – Philosophy and religion • Stoicism • Epicureanism • Cynicism • Skepticism – Mystery religions • Elusinian mysteries • Mithraism • Isis and Serapis
  94. 94. Left—Capitoline Isis, 138-117 BCE. Marble, Capitoline Museum, Rome; right—statue of Mithras slaying a bull, 1st century CE. Marble, British Museum, London.
  95. 95. • Gaulish chieftain and his wife, c. 230-220 BCE. Marble copy of a bronze original from Pergamum, Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.
  96. 96. The Dying Gaul, 230-220 BCE. Roman marble copy of a bronze original from Pergamum. Museo Capitolino Rome.
  97. 97. The Boxer, c. 100-50 BCE. Bronze, Museo Nazionale Romano, Rome.
  98. 98. Old market woman, c. 150-100 BCE. Roman marble copy of Hellenistic original, Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York.
  99. 99. Nike (Victory) of Samothrace, c. 190 BCE. Marble, Louvre, Paris.
  100. 100. Laocoön and his sons, c. 150-100 BCE. Marble, Vatican Museum, Rome.

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