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Why Web 2.0 is Good for Learning and for Research: Principles and Prototypes


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Talk about Web 2.0 and technology-supported learing at the World Wide Web Conference 2008 (WWW2008)

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Why Web 2.0 is Good for Learning and for Research: Principles and Prototypes

  1. Why Web 2.0 is Good for Learning and for Research: Principles and Prototypes Carsten Ullrich, Kerstin Borau, Heng Luo, Xiaohong Tan, Liping Shen, Ruimin Shen Shanghai Jiao Tong University
  2. Overview <ul><li>Motivation </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 from a learning perspective </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 as a research tool </li></ul><ul><li>Examples </li></ul><ul><ul><li>social bookmarking for learning object annotation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>microblogging for language learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Lessons learned </li></ul>
  3. <ul><li>Technology </li></ul>Pedagogy
  4. Class room in 文庙 (Confucian Temple Wén Miào), Shanghai Teacher Students
  5. Technology-Enhance Learning <ul><li>Learning Management Systems </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“Administered Learning” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If a lesson is mastered, then allowed to continue </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>≈ Behaviorism </li></ul></ul>
  6. Technology-Enhance Learning <ul><li>Learning Management Systems </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive Tutors </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cognitive Learning Theories </li></ul></ul>
  7. Web 2.0 and Learning? <ul><li>Often associated with constructivism </li></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learners play the active role </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning takes place in context and collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teachers provide assistance, advice </li></ul></ul><ul><li>不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知之, 知之不若行之。 </li></ul><ul><li>荀子 (300–230 BC) </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I'll understand“ </li></ul><ul><li>Xún Zǐ (300–230 BC) </li></ul>Picture by ryyo
  8. What is Web 2.0? <ul><li>Until now, no analysis of the technological foundations of Web 2.0 from an educational perspective </li></ul><ul><li>What is Web 2.0? Tim Berners-Lee: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Works on the same standards as Web 1.0 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Web always a tool for collaboration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But the Web of today is different from the Web 5 years ago </li></ul>
  9. Characterization of Web 2.0 <ul><li>In 2005, term “Web 2.0” became popular </li></ul><ul><li>Used by Tim O’Reilly to capture principles of Web sites/services that distinguish themselves from earlier ones </li></ul><ul><li>Here: From an educational perspective </li></ul><ul><ul><li>teacher/learner </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>researcher </li></ul></ul>
  10. Stimulation of Individual Creativity <ul><li>Enable and facilitate active participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>pictures, videos, text, bookmarks, slides </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>good usability </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Highly interesting for educational research & practitioners. Variety of </li></ul><ul><ul><li>ways for students to express themselves </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new tools for teaching </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Facilitates constructivist learning </li></ul>
  11. Harnessing the Power of the Crowd <ul><li>Value of a Web 2.0 service increases the more people are using it </li></ul><ul><ul><li>explicitly & implicitly </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Social Networks </li></ul><ul><li>Education: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>large amounts of potential peers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>member of a community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitates collaborative learning </li></ul></ul>Photo by wishymom
  12. Diverse Data on an Epic Scale <ul><li>Huge variety of data available </li></ul><ul><li>Accessible via browser & API </li></ul><ul><li>Often annotated </li></ul><ul><li>Semantic Web: LinkedData </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lots of information sources to read and to combine </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>data from real contexts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>facilitates learning/teaching in real contexts </li></ul></ul>
  13. Architecture of Assembly <ul><li>Web 2.0 makes data and functionality accessible </li></ul><ul><li>Access via browser and API </li></ul><ul><li>Functionality exported via Widgets </li></ul><ul><li>Functionality on high level of abstraction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>e.g., Open Calais </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Students: combining data sources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Research: building prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning environments can be extended easily </li></ul></ul>
  14. Personal Learning Environments Pic by Scott Wilson
  15. PLE for Language Learning
  16. Perpetual Beta <ul><li>Software development: Web 2.0 applications constantly refined </li></ul><ul><li>Education </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improvement not a bad thing but can be confusing & distracting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>adapting manuals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>developers open to feedback </li></ul></ul>
  17. Additional Principles <ul><li>Independent access to data </li></ul><ul><li>Leveraging the Long Tail </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight models </li></ul>
  18. Web 2.0 for Learning <ul><li>Analysis has shown that the defining principles of Web 2.0 enable social & active learning </li></ul><ul><li>Best used for teaching & learning when exploiting these principles </li></ul><ul><li>Active role for teacher </li></ul>
  19. Web 2.0 for Research <ul><li>Wealth of functionality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>multitude of services (freely) available </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>high-level functionality </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Architecture of assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easy to combine/access services </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Quick assembly of prototypes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>allow evaluation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>assessing research hypotheses </li></ul></ul>
  20. Social Bookmarking for Learning Object Annotation <ul><li>Authoring learning resources is time consuming and difficult task </li></ul><ul><li>Our goal: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>support lecturers with no or little knowledge about learning resources and metadata standards </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>integration in existing workflow & LMS </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: social bookmarking can simplify integration of existing learning material in courses </li></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>lecturers bookmark resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use predefined tags </li></ul></ul>
  21. Predefined Tags <ul><li>Predefined tags </li></ul><ul><ul><li>concepts and relationships of subject domain </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>instructional type </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>difficulty level </li></ul></ul><ul><li>To minimize noise: use of prefix </li></ul><ul><li>sjtu:type:exercise, sjtu:kp:linear_list, sjtu:difficulty:easy </li></ul>
  22. Implementation <ul><li>Usage of </li></ul><ul><li>LMS: For each page about concept c , look up resources in and add them on the page </li></ul><ul><li>Implementation effort of prototype: almost none </li></ul>
  23. Results <ul><li>Lecturers’ feedback </li></ul><ul><ul><li>easy to use </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>use it for students </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Students don’t look up external resources if the textbook is good enough </li></ul><ul><li>Currently re-implemented in LMS with additional functionality </li></ul>
  24. Micro-Blogging for Language Learning <ul><li>Context: distant university of SJTU </li></ul><ul><ul><li>vocational learners: limited time, seldom active, shy </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Goal: provide practice possibilities </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis: Micro-blogging </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increases sense of community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reduces transactional distance to teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quick & easy way for active participation </li></ul></ul>
  25. Twitter
  26. Implementation <ul><li>Twitter-update downloader </li></ul><ul><ul><li>stores all Twitter updates in database </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>automatic grading based on number of updates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on Twitter API </li></ul><ul><ul><li>some effort due to API limitations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not all functionality available through Web interface was in API </li></ul></ul>
  27. Quantitative Results <ul><li>English Listening & Speaking </li></ul><ul><ul><li>98 students out of 110 participated </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5574 updates during 7 weeks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>35 students sent 1 to 19 updates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>39 students sent 20 to 99 updates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>12 students sent more than 100 updates </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regular homework: 6 ‘originals’, rest are copies </li></ul>
  28. Qualitative Results <ul><li>Questionnaire at the end of the lecture </li></ul><ul><li>Only 5% of the students disagreed with the statements that Twitter... </li></ul><ul><ul><li>improved the overall atmosphere </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>relaxed of communication with teacher </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>improved sense of community </li></ul></ul><ul><li>“ This &quot;TWITTER&quot; same as schoolyard~~~” </li></ul><ul><li>50% stated they communicated with native speakers </li></ul><ul><li>Monologues and discussions of events </li></ul><ul><li>Main criticism: seldom correction of mistakes </li></ul>
  29. Lessons Learned: Learning in the Web 2.0 <ul><li>Individual creativity: Web 2.0 services can stimulate active participation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Usage of Twitter continued after lecture was over </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Power of the crowd: social dimension was important </li></ul><ul><ul><li>students encouraged each other to participate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>discussions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>But: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>not task-centered (posts in other languages) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pejorative messages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li> Teacher as moderator & participator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Independent access: seldom mobile usage </li></ul><ul><li>Architecture of assembly: not used by students </li></ul>
  30. Lessons Learned: Web 2.0 for Prototypes <ul><li>Architecture of assembly </li></ul><ul><ul><li>quick prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><li> collecting feedback, requirements, suggestions </li></ul><ul><li>BUT </li></ul><ul><ul><li>you become dependent of third-party API </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rate limits (were removed upon request) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not all functionality is available as API </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>yet another login, yet another social network </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>changing user interfaces/metaphors </li></ul></ul><ul><li> Fine for prototypes, be careful in case of regular usage </li></ul>
  31. Conclusion <ul><li>Web 2.0 tools & learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>less suited for designed instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>have potential to stimulate active participation & improve sense of community </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>learners will think of unanticipated ways of usage </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>requires active teacher: stimulation & monitoring </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one becomes dependent of third-party tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 & research </li></ul><ul><ul><li>functionality at high level of abstraction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>quick way to assemble prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>one becomes dependent of third-party tools </li></ul></ul>
  32. Thank You <ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul><ul><li>Slides: </li></ul>