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At lecture for fresh(wo)men on learning theories, learning theories and language learning, using Twitter for language learning, building a personal learning environment in 10 minutes, building a personal learning environment in 10 seconds, Artificial Intelligence for learning support.
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  • Sjtu221107

    1. 1. Supporting Active Learning and Education by Artificial Intelligence and Web 2.0 Kerstin Borau Carsten Ullrich Photo by Lutz-R. Frank
    2. 2. Kerstin Borau/ Carsten Ullrich <ul><li>Kerstin Borau </li></ul><ul><li>Master degree in Applied English Linguistic </li></ul><ul><li>Certified foreign language teacher. </li></ul><ul><li>English/German teacher at SJTU Network Education College </li></ul><ul><li>Research interests: Computer Assisted Foreign Language Learning, new technologies and approaches in Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Carsten Ullrich </li></ul><ul><li>PhD in Computer Science at Saarland University </li></ul><ul><li>2004-2007 researcher at the DFKI (German Research Center for Artificial Intelligence) , one of the largest AI research institutes worldwide </li></ul><ul><li>Now researcher at E-Learning Lab of SJTU </li></ul><ul><li>About 50 publications in the area of Artificial Intelligence and Education </li></ul><ul><li>Research interests: Artificial Intelligence, technology-enhanced learning, Semantic Web, Web 2.0 </li></ul>
    3. 3. Overview <ul><li>Learning Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories and Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for Active Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence for Learner Support </li></ul>
    4. 4. Learning Theories
    5. 5. Timeline of Learning Theories By Serhat Kurt
    6. 6. Behaviorism (1910) <ul><ul><li>How do you react? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stimulus-Response coupling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Psychology should deal with objective, observable subject matter  behavior </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner (1904-1990) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The Technology of Learning (1968) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    7. 7. Behaviorism: Programmed Instruction (1950) <ul><li>Principles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Positively reinforced behavior will reoccur  “Praise is good for learning!” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Break down complex skills in small bits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teach each bit separately </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is given and absolute </li></ul>
    8. 8. Programmed Instruction: Example <ul><li>The important parts of a flashlight are the battery and the bulb. When we &quot;turn on&quot; a flashlight, we close a switch which connects the battery with the _______ . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When we turn on a flashlight, an electric current flows through the fine wire in the _______ and causes it to grow hot. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bulb </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When the hot wire glows brightly, we say that it gives off or sends out heat and ________ . </li></ul><ul><ul><li>light </li></ul></ul>
    9. 9. Test <ul><li>The scientist _______ is one of the fathers of Behaviorism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Skinner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The educational technology ________ is based on Behaviorism. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Programmed Instruction </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It is based on ______ correct answers and ____ incorrect answers. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rewarding, punishing </li></ul></ul>Would you like to learn this way? For what subject matters is this appropriate?
    10. 10. Behaviorism: Summary <ul><li>No explicit treatment of/ interest in mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>Learner merely responds to the &quot;demands&quot; of the environment </li></ul><ul><li>Knowledge is viewed as given and absolute </li></ul>
    11. 11. Learning Theory: Cognitivism <ul><li>What happens in your head? </li></ul><ul><li>Mental processes are primary object of study </li></ul><ul><li>Goal: discover and model the mental processes </li></ul><ul><li>Jean Piaget (1896-1980) </li></ul><ul><li>Teaching should respect the mental processes </li></ul>
    12. 12. Learning Theories: Constructivism <ul><li>Behaviorism/Cognitivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>get something in the head of the learners </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructivists </li></ul><ul><ul><li>create opportunities to discover! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>knowledge: result of individual learning; cannot be transmitted, must be (re)constructed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exploration/discovery/group-learning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Learner is in control / Teacher is moderator </li></ul><ul><li>Learning in context and collaboration </li></ul><ul><li>Solve realistic and meaningful problems </li></ul>
    13. 13. Learning Theories: Summary <ul><li>Behaviorism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How do you react? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cognitivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What happens in your head? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Constructivism </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Create opportunities to learn & discover! </li></ul></ul>
    14. 14. Behaviorism and language learning <ul><li>Audio-lingual method and audiovisual method </li></ul><ul><li>focuses on spoken language for everyday communication </li></ul><ul><li>content: everyday dialogues </li></ul><ul><li>level: simple </li></ul><ul><li>exercises: pattern drill </li></ul>
    15. 15. Behaviorism and language learning <ul><li>Sample Dialoges: </li></ul><ul><li>谢谢你! </li></ul><ul><li>不用谢! </li></ul><ul><li>Vielen Dank! </li></ul><ul><li>Keine Ursache! </li></ul>
    16. 16. Behaviorism and language learning <ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Enables speaking without learning complicated grammar </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><li>Pattern drills are boring </li></ul><ul><li>Restricted language use </li></ul>
    17. 17. Constructivism and language learning <ul><li>focus: Everything that interests the learners, e.g., own projects </li></ul><ul><li>content: Everything that interests the learners </li></ul><ul><li>level: broad level, determined by the topics and the level of the learners </li></ul>
    18. 18. Constructivism and language learning <ul><li>Advantages: Prepares learners for “real” interaction </li></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: None </li></ul>
    19. 19. Constructivism and language learning <ul><li>How did he learn to play basketball? </li></ul>
    20. 20. <ul><li>不闻不若闻之,闻之不若见之,见之不若知之,知之不若行之。 </li></ul><ul><li>荀子 </li></ul><ul><li>&quot;Tell me, and I'll forget. Show me, and I may remember. Involve me, and I'll understand“ </li></ul><ul><li> Xun Zi </li></ul>
    21. 21. Communicative competence <ul><li>Linguistic aspects </li></ul><ul><li>• Phonology and orthography (pronunciation & spelling) </li></ul><ul><li>• Grammar (syntax) </li></ul><ul><li>• Vocabulary (words) </li></ul><ul><li>• Discourse (comprehending texts) </li></ul>
    22. 22. Communicative competence <ul><li>Pragmatic aspects </li></ul><ul><li>• Functions ( communication purposes ) </li></ul><ul><li>• Variations (different styles/ appropriate social meaning ) </li></ul><ul><li>• Interactional skills ( knowing and using the mostly-unwritten rules for interaction in various communication situations ) </li></ul><ul><li>• Cultural framework ( to understand behavior from the standpoint of the members of a culture) </li></ul>
    23. 23. Communicative competence <ul><li>How to acquire communicative competence? </li></ul><ul><li>o Lots of exposure to language you can understand </li></ul><ul><li>o A chance to negotiate meaning with speakers of the language </li></ul><ul><li>o A chance to observe and participate in a variety of real communication situations </li></ul><ul><li>o A chance to get to know what people who speak the language think and believe </li></ul>
    24. 24. Communicative competence <ul><li>How to acquire communicative competence? </li></ul><ul><li>o Base structured work on events you participate in such as </li></ul><ul><ul><li>a shared meal, or </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>working with somebody in the field. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>o Build basic vocabulary using action-based approaches and games. </li></ul>
    25. 25. Communicative competence <ul><li>How to acquire communicative competence? </li></ul><ul><li>o Use your social skills to make relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>o Spend lots of time doing things with people. </li></ul><ul><li>o Find creative ways to practice using the language. </li></ul><ul><li>o Use a lot of communicative activities. </li></ul>
    26. 26. Tools for Learning: Twitter <ul><li>Twitter: </li></ul><ul><li>a constructivist approach to acquire communicative competence </li></ul>
    27. 28. Web 2.0 <ul><li>Twitter: example of Web 2.0 application </li></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 applications </li></ul><ul><ul><li>take full advantage of the network nature of the Web </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>encourage participation </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inherently social and open </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Example: Amazon </li></ul>
    28. 29. Web 1.0 / Web 2.0
    29. 30. Web 2.0: Some Examples
    30. 31. Photo by vincos
    31. 32. Web 2.0 & Learning <ul><li>Web 1.0 Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Learning Management Systems </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Administered learning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher/Institution centered </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Web 2.0 Learning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Student centered </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Student contribute/communicate </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Teacher moderates/creates learning opportunities </li></ul></ul>
    32. 33. Personal Learning Environment <ul><li>Use Web 2.0 applications to create your own learning environment for language learning </li></ul><ul><li>In 10 minutes! </li></ul><ul><li>Done </li></ul>
    33. 50. PLE: Too Much Work? <ul><li>10 minutes ok </li></ul><ul><li>But let’s do it in 10 seconds </li></ul><ul><li>Done </li></ul>
    34. 54. PLE: Additional Support <ul><li>PLE may be confusing for new learners </li></ul><ul><ul><li>how to master the tools </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>when to use which tool </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>what tools are available </li></ul></ul><ul><li>That is where the teacher comes in </li></ul><ul><ul><li>has knowledge of tools and how to use them </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>implement this knowledge in the computer </li></ul></ul>
    35. 55. Learning Supported by Artificial Intelligence
    36. 56. <ul><li>Traditional books/courses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one size fits all </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>non-adaptive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>ignores your knowledge & goals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Adapt learning materials (course) with respect to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>individual variables (learning goals, knowledge, emotions, …) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>context (location, device, …) </li></ul></ul>
    37. 57. Artificial Intelligence <ul><li>Extract human expert knowledge </li></ul><ul><li>Formalize it </li></ul><ul><li>Apply it </li></ul>
    38. 58. AI Supported Learning <ul><li>What does the computer need to know? </li></ul>Domain/Content Model User Model Teaching/Pedagogical Model
    39. 59. Course Generation: Motivation <ul><li>Eva wants to learn about calculus: “ derivative ” </li></ul><ul><li>Web-search: Google </li></ul>
    40. 60. Motivation: Results of Web-Search <ul><ul><li>too many results </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>all kinds of resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>not adapted to individual capabilities and goals </li></ul></ul>
    41. 61. Motivation: Course Generation (CG) Repository “ derivation”
    42. 62. Motivation: Course Generation Repository “ derivation” Course Generator
    43. 63. Resources from Several Repositories Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator
    44. 64. Integration of Learning-Supporting Tools Course Generator Repositories “ derivation” Tool Tool Tools
    45. 65. CG as a Service Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator Tool Tool Tools
    46. 66. Modeling of Pedagogical Knowledge / Adaptivity Repositories “ derivation” Course Generator <ul><li>Discover “derivation” </li></ul><ul><li>Train Competencies “derivation” </li></ul><ul><li>Exam Simulation “derivation” </li></ul><ul><li>Illustrate “derivation” </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate “derivation” </li></ul>Tool Tool Tools
    47. 67. Course Generation: Pedagogical Knowledge
    48. 68. Course Generation: Framework <ul><li>AI: planning, multi agent systems, expert systems </li></ul><ul><li>(HTN) planning: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goal directed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hierarchical approach easily understandable </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Efficient </li></ul></ul>
    49. 69. Basics of Hierarchical Task Network Planning <ul><ul><li>How it plans: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>methods decompose tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>down to primitive tasks performed by operators </li></ul></ul></ul>
    50. 70. Basic Knowledge <ul><li>Inserting references to </li></ul><ul><ul><li>educational resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Generating structure </li></ul><ul><li>Accessing information about </li></ul><ul><ul><li>educational resources </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the learner </li></ul></ul><ul><li>About 70 rules </li></ul>
    51. 71. Example / Exercise Selection <ul><li>About 60 methods </li></ul><ul><li>Take into account </li></ul><ul><ul><li>competency level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>educational level </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fields of interest </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>novelty </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>motivation & anxiety </li></ul></ul>
    52. 72. Exercise Selection <ul><li>Selecting an exercise, high motivation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(>= ?m 4) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasField ?field) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Selecting an exercise, adequate competence level </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasField ?field) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>(equivalent ?cl ?ex_cl) </li></ul></ul>
    53. 73. Exercise Selection <ul><li>(:method (trainWithSingleExercise! ?c) </li></ul><ul><li>((learnerProperty hasMotivation ?c ?m) </li></ul><ul><li>(>= ?m 4) </li></ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasField ?field) </li></ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) </li></ul><ul><li>(learnerProperty hasCompetencyLevel ?c ?cl) </li></ul><ul><li>(equivalent (call + 1 ?cl) ?ex_cl) </li></ul><ul><li>(assign ?unsortedExercises </li></ul><ul><li>(call GetResources </li></ul><ul><li>((class Exercise) </li></ul><ul><li>(relation isFor ?c) </li></ul><ul><li>(property hasLearningContext ?el) </li></ul><ul><li>(property hasCompetencyLevel ?ex_cl) </li></ul><ul><li>(property hasField ?field)))) </li></ul><ul><li>(sortByAlreadySeen ?exercises ?unsortedExercises) </li></ul><ul><li>(assignIterator ?exercise ?exercises)) </li></ul><ul><li>((insertWithVariantsIfReady! ?exercise ?c))) </li></ul>
    54. 74. Formalized CG Knowledge: Scenarios <ul><li>Moderate constructivist scenarios: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Discover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Rehearse </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Connect </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train Intensively </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Train Competencies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Exam Simulation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Based on guidelines of instructional design </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Guided Tour </li></ul></ul><ul><li>≈ 300 methods and operators </li></ul>
    55. 75. Scenario “Discover” (discover deriv) (:method (discover ?f) () ((!startSection Discover ?f) (descriptionScenarioSection ?f) (learnFundamentalsDiscover ?f) (reflect ?f) (!endSection))) (:method (learnFundamentalDiscover ?c) () ((!startSection Title (?c)) (introduceWithPrereqSection ?c) (developFundamental ?c) (proveSection ?c) (practiceSection ?c) (showConnectionsSection ?c) (!endSection))) Introduce Develop Prove Practice Connect
    56. 76. Scenario “Discover” (:method (introduceWithSection! ?c) () ((!startSection Introduction (?c)) (text Introduction (?c)) (motivate! ?c) (problem ?c) (insertIntroductionExample ?c) (!endSection))) (:method (introduceWithPrereqSection! ?c) () ((introduceWithSection! ?c) (learnPrerequisitesFundamentalsShort ?c))) (introduceWithPrereqSection! deriv) Introduce Develop Prove Practice Connect Motivate Problem Illustrate Prerequisites
    57. 77. Scenario Discover (:method (motivate! ?c) ((learnerProperty hasEducationalLevel ?el) (learnerProperty hasAnxiety ?c ?an) (?an <= 2) (GetElement ((class Exercise) (class Introduction) (relation isFor ?c) (property hasLearningContext ?el) (property hasDifficulty very_easy)))) ((insertAuxOnceIfReady! ?element))) Introduce Develop Practice Connect Reflect Motivate Problem Illustrate Prerequisites
    58. 80. Course Generation: Results <ul><li>Average time for course generation (filled cache, no LM, complete expansion): </li></ul>1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83
    59. 81. Course Generation: Results 1/37/6 4/105/19 8/262/36 12/254/52 20/365/83
    60. 82. AI-Supported Learning: Summary <ul><li>Artificial Intelligence </li></ul><ul><ul><li>to select learning objects </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to select tools </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Does not replace teacher but helps him/her </li></ul><ul><li>Current research question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>How to use AI for Web 2.0 </li></ul></ul>
    61. 83. Summary <ul><li>Learning Theories </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Theories and Language Learning </li></ul><ul><li>Tools for Personalized Learning </li></ul><ul><li>How AI supports your Learning </li></ul>
    62. 84. How to Continue <ul><li>Contact us for any question: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>[email_address] </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Use the personal learning environment we created during the lecture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// = en&source = stb&stid =112236995533256220287916fa6930de17d7449a322608f0e32e3 </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Even better: visit iGoogle and build your personal learning environment </li></ul><ul><ul><li>http:// =en </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Read and comment the slides: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Create an account on Twitter </li></ul><ul><ul><li> </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>our Twitter names: kerstinlaoshi & ullrich </li></ul></ul>