Are We Talking About
the Same Networks?
Tommaso Venturini
Anders Kristian Munk
Mathieu Jacomy
Actor-Network
theory
Network...
6Pa _&CRad _ HUR _f 6CH Re NV U d ZNaR_VN i RZV aVP Rad _ P ZR
a TRaUR_ a NPa N N dU R HUR R Rad _ N_R a_N VR a ReV aV T V...
Actor-NetworkTheory (ANT) Re NV U d ZNaR_VN i RZV aVP Rad _ P ZR
a TRaUR_ a NPa N N dU R HUR R Rad _ N_R a_N VR a ReV aV T...
8N B ANd ? FV 6 21/
BN V T aUR 9f NZVP S GPVR PR N HRPU Tf A 3 BNPZV N
Where the conflation started
Instead of following t...
HUR aUR _RaVPN V RN aUNa P RPaVcR UR ZR N N_R OR a R P_VOR
a Of aURV_ bO aN PR Oba Of aURV_ _R NaV actor-network theory
HU...
N aUR _f dVaU ba ZRaU
NPa _& Rad _ aUR _f
A marriage made in heaven
N ZRaU dVaU ba aUR _f
PVN Rad _ N N f V+
N aUR _f dVaU ba ZRaU
NPa _& Rad _ aUR _f
…and in earth
N ZRaU dVaU ba aUR _f
PVN Rad _ N N f V+
D PR f b PN TRa V S _ZNaV...
KR a a aUR KRO a ab f bO VP RONaR PVR PR N aRPU Tf Oba dR S b
kV bR& Rad _ l V aRN ; dV T Uf R_ V NZ T NTR RN V T dVaU N T...
a V OcV b a a_f a N f aN N_ PVaNaV N N f V aRPU V bR a
aUR dRO l Uf R_aReabN PVaNaV a_bPab_R D R PN VZ f aUV S
RcR_f V N O...
N aUR _f dVaU ba ZRaU
NPa _& Rad _ aUR _f
From conflation comes power
(and responsibility)
N ZRaU dVaU ba aUR _f
PVN Rad _...
Are We Talking About
the Same Networks?
Are We Talking About
the Same Networks?
NO
Networks are not networks
EN_aVN Vaf S VTVaN V P_V aV
ANP S RaR_ TR RVaf S R N R TR
, ANP S FRcR_ VOV Vaf S R N Rad _
- 9f...
E NaS _Z N_R a aUR KRO
HUR KRO V a aUR aR_ Ra
HUR aR_ Ra V a aUR VTVaN
C a N V P_V aV N_R VTVaN
C a RcR_faUV T TRa V P_V a...
7 b VR_ 9 ) . E b_ R PVR PR PVN R R a_ V VpZR To o_NaV  3 R a_NPR
bZo_V bR Nbe _o V bR E B BR TR_ : 7VT 9NaN R a_R _V R Ra...
[an actor-network] is distinguished from a simple network because its elements are
both heterogeneous and are mutually def...
2. Heterogeneity of nodes and edges
(b) negative connections
7 __N : KR aRc_R R : 8VbPPN_R V E N aR O_b R_ 6 JR ab_V V H )...
H a_f a S d N NPa _& Rad _ V N OVa V R RSV V T N dNcR&P _ b P R V aUR
2,) 3 N f R aVaf PN OR RVgR RVaUR_ N N NPa _ N P _ b...
3. Reversibility of nodes and networks
(b) actors VS infrastructures
Reality is a process AV R N PURZVPN O f Va N R aU_ bTU bPPR VcR aNaR
8N B 21/O G ZR R RZR a S N PV Tf S a_N NaV 3 ZR aVPNa...
4. Dynamic of relational change
Rooting through networks
:b R_ 0,/
G baV _ O RZNaV N
TR ZRa_VNZ Vab R_aV R aV
4. Dynamic of relational change
From networks to streams
JR ab_V V H 7NfN ANSSVaR C 8 V aRa ? &E _Nf LNOON J 9R E_fP
) - H...
Are We Talking About
the Same Networks?
MAYBE
7 aU S aUR R N _ NPUR _RWRPa N _V _V _RVSVPNaV bPU N kaUR PVN l _
k PVRafl 7 aU S aUR R N _ NPUR P V R_ aUR _ bPaV S ZRN V...
Resonance not resemblance
6 VNT_NZ S N Rad _ aUR R
a V R N Rad _ Oba ZNV aNV
aUR NZR bN VaVR S _R NaV i
_ eVZVaVR RT_RR S ...
Networks as maps
(Jacob L. Moreno, April 3, 1933, The New York Times)
S dR RcR_ TRa a aUR V a S PUN_aV T N dU R PVaf _ N d...
?NP Zf B JR ab_V V H RfZN G 7N aVN B ) -
; _PR6a N N 8 aV b b _N U ANf ba 6 T _VaUZ
S _ N f CRad _ JV bN VgNaV 9R VT R S _...
A methodological application
Visual Network Analysis
JR ab_V V H ?NP Zf B
8N_cN U ER_RV_N 9 ) .
JV bN CRad _ 6 N f V
Zo VN...
From the Leviathan
to the Japanese rice
Continuous but not uniform
8 R _VPR PN OR RSV R
f Of N P a_N VPaV S
bO aN PR4 Va V Na PR
P UR VcR N RaNPUNO R4
Va bO aN aV...
E_ SR _ j f b U b a P Sb R aUR Rad _ aUNa V _Nd Of aUR
R P_V aV N aUR Rad _ aUNa V b R a ZN R aUR R P_V aV
Gab R a j 5
E_ ...
Actor‐Network Theory VS Network Analysis VS Digital Networks Are We Talking About the Same Networks?
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Actor‐Network Theory VS Network Analysis VS Digital Networks Are We Talking About the Same Networks?

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Presentation at the 4S-EASST 2016 Conference (http://www.sts2016bcn.org)

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Actor‐Network Theory VS Network Analysis VS Digital Networks Are We Talking About the Same Networks?

  1. 1. Are We Talking About the Same Networks? Tommaso Venturini Anders Kristian Munk Mathieu Jacomy Actor-Network theory Network Analysis Digital Networks
  2. 2. 6Pa _&CRad _ HUR _f 6CH Re NV U d ZNaR_VN i RZV aVP Rad _ P ZR a TRaUR_ a NPa N N dU R HUR R Rad _ N_R a_N VR a ReV aV T V N P aN a ZN V T N _R&ZN V Th _R NaV RR a OR _R RNaR f m R_S _ZR n _ aUR Rad _ dV V cR Uaa 3((R dV V R VN _T(dV V(G PVN M Rad _ G PVN CRad _ 6 N f V GC6 V cR aVTNaR PVN a_bPab_R aU_ bTU T_N U aUR _VR a PUN_NPaR_VgR a_bPab_R V aR_Z S R V VcV bN NPa _ R R _ aUV T dVaUV aUR Rad _ N aUR aVR _ R TR _R NaV UV _ V aR_NPaV aUNa P RPa aURZ Uaa 3((R dV V R VN _T(dV V(G PVN M Rad _ MN N f V 9VTVaN CRad _ A few definitions (from Wikipedia) HUR aR_ Ra V aUR T ON f aRZ S V aR_P RPaR P Z baR_ Rad _ a V N Rad _ S Rad _ S ZV V S _VcNaR bO VP NPN RZVP Ob V R N T cR_ ZR a Rad _ Uaa 3((R dV V R VN _T(dV V( aR_ Ra HUR K _ KV R KRO V N V S _ZNaV NPR dUR_R PbZR a N aUR_ dRO _R b_PR N_R V aR_ V R Of Uf R_aRea V N PN OR NPPR R cVN aUR aR_ Ra Uaa 3((R dV V R VN _T(dV V(K _ MKV RMKRO
  3. 3. Actor-NetworkTheory (ANT) Re NV U d ZNaR_VN i RZV aVP Rad _ P ZR a TRaUR_ a NPa N N dU R HUR R Rad _ N_R a_N VR a ReV aV T V N P aN a ZN V T N _R&ZN V Th _R NaV RR a OR _R RNaR f m R_S _ZR n _ aUR Rad _ dV V cR Uaa 3((R dV V R VN _T(dV V(G PVN M Rad _ Social Network Analysis (SNA) V cR aVTNaR PVN a_bPab_R aU_ bTU T_N U aUR _VR a PUN_NPaR_VgR a_bPab_R V aR_Z S R V VcV bN NPa _ R R _ aUV T dVaUV aUR Rad _ N aUR aVR _ R TR _R NaV UV _ V aR_NPaV aUNa P RPa aURZ Uaa 3((R dV V R VN _T(dV V(G PVN M Rad _ MN N f V Digital Networks A few definitions (from Wikipedia) HUR aR_ Ra V aUR T ON f aRZ S V aR_P RPaR P Z baR_ Rad _ a V N Rad _ S Rad _ S ZV V S _VcNaR bO VP NPN RZVP Ob V R N T cR_ ZR a Rad _ Uaa 3((R dV V R VN _T(dV V( aR_ Ra HUR K _ KV R KRO V N V S _ZNaV NPR dUR_R PbZR a N aUR_ dRO _R b_PR N_R V aR_ V R Of Uf R_aRea V N PN OR NPPR R cVN aUR aR_ Ra Uaa 3((R dV V R VN _T(dV V(K _ MKV RMKRO
  4. 4. 8N B ANd ? FV 6 21/ BN V T aUR 9f NZVP S GPVR PR N HRPU Tf A 3 BNPZV N Where the conflation started Instead of following the actors we may therefore follow the texts KR ZNf a V aUV dNf SV ba RcR_faUV T aUR_R V a d NO ba PVR aV a N NO _Na _VR dRcR_ aUR ab f S aRea V dR bVaR a b_ N_aVPb N_ N VZVaR aN 3 aUNa S ab fV T PVR aVSVP PUN TR The force of such texts also resides in the fact that they contain links with other texts (referencesto the literature),work and institutions bZ aRea ZN R VO R aUR P a_bPaV S V NTR ORadRR ReV aV T R aVaVR N aUR S _ZNaV S cR R aVaVR
  5. 5. HUR aUR _RaVPN V RN aUNa P RPaVcR UR ZR N N_R OR a R P_VOR a Of aURV_ bO aN PR Oba Of aURV_ _R NaV actor-network theory HUR ZRaU TVPN N RN S _ Rd aRPU V bR a N N f R N _R _R R a aUR P RPaV ORadRR PVN NPa _ network analysis , HUR V abVaV aUNa aUR V P_V aV RSa Of P RPaVcR NPaV P b OR _R& b_ R S _ PVN _R RN_PU network data ;R VPVa b f P S b R Of aUR NZOVTbVaf S aUR d _ k Rad _ l N P PR abN a Tf aUR NPR S P RPaV N R a aUR :bP V VN NPR S P _ V NaR N Ra S P Z baNaV aRPU V bR aUR ZNaURZNaVP S T_N U , N Uf R_&aReabN _TN VgNaV S V P_V aV aUR _R NaV N NaN Ra The 3 ingredients of the conflation
  6. 6. N aUR _f dVaU ba ZRaU NPa _& Rad _ aUR _f A marriage made in heaven N ZRaU dVaU ba aUR _f PVN Rad _ N N f V+
  7. 7. N aUR _f dVaU ba ZRaU NPa _& Rad _ aUR _f …and in earth N ZRaU dVaU ba aUR _f PVN Rad _ N N f V+ D PR f b PN TRa V S _ZNaV N O _R OfaR Z RZ P Ra PNO R N f b UNcR NPabN f N Z _R ZNaR_VN dNf S V T Na dUNa UN R V G PVRaf Virtual Society thus, is not a thing of the future, it’s the materialisation, the traceability of Society a _R R_ cV VO R ORPNb R S aUR O R VcR RPR Vaf S ZNaR_VN V V T V S _ZNaV V a PNO R V a NaN ANa b_ 7 221 HU bTUa Re R_VZR a V PVN PVR PR3 S_ Z aUR PVN P a_NPa a cV_abN PVRaf a JV_abN G PVRaf5 6 bN EbO VP ARPab_R 7_b R I VcR_ Vaf A +
  8. 8. KR a a aUR KRO a ab f bO VP RONaR PVR PR N aRPU Tf Oba dR S b kV bR& Rad _ l V aRN ; dV T Uf R_ V NZ T NTR RN V T dVaU N TVcR V bR dR S b aUNa aUR R V _ cV R N ZRN a RZN_PNaR aUR Rad _ aUNa P b OR NV a OR aNTV T aUR P a_ cR_ f V aUR Rd ZR VbZ BN__R C F TR_ F )). FRPV R S _ H_NPV T aUR ;NaR S bR N aURV_ EbO VP aUR KRO A 7_b E KRVOR : BN V T HUV T EbO VP N_ _bUR(8NZO_V TR BN 3 L B(B H E_R Exploiting the relationality of digital traces for social sciences
  9. 9. a V OcV b a a_f a N f aN N_ PVaNaV N N f V aRPU V bR a aUR dRO l Uf R_aReabN PVaNaV a_bPab_R D R PN VZ f aUV S RcR_f V N ORV T V R N NPN RZVP PVaNaV ENTR A 7_V G FNWRRc B HR__f K 221 HUR ENTRFN 8VaNaV FN V T3 7_V TV T D_ R_ a aUR KRO And the other way around
  10. 10. N aUR _f dVaU ba ZRaU NPa _& Rad _ aUR _f From conflation comes power (and responsibility) N ZRaU dVaU ba aUR _f PVN Rad _ N N f V aUR ZNW _ aRPU TVPN N RP ZVP V cNaV S aUR PR ab_f VTVaN Rad _ +
  11. 11. Are We Talking About the Same Networks?
  12. 12. Are We Talking About the Same Networks? NO
  13. 13. Networks are not networks EN_aVN Vaf S VTVaN V P_V aV ANP S RaR_ TR RVaf S R N R TR , ANP S FRcR_ VOV Vaf S R N Rad _ - 9f NZVP S _R NaV N PUN TR
  14. 14. E NaS _Z N_R a aUR KRO HUR KRO V a aUR aR_ Ra HUR aR_ Ra V a aUR VTVaN C a N V P_V aV N_R VTVaN C a RcR_faUV T TRa V P_V aR 1. Partiality of digital inscriptions (a) Not everything is digitally traced
  15. 15. 7 b VR_ 9 ) . E b_ R PVR PR PVN R R a_ V VpZR To o_NaV  3 R a_NPR bZo_V bR Nbe _o V bR E B BR TR_ : 7VT 9NaN R a_R _V R Ra PVR PR PVN R EN_V 3 D R : VaV E_R 1. Partiality of digital inscriptions (b) Tracing is also translating 1st generation 2nd generation 3rd generation Concept of social Society/(ies) Opinion(s) Vibration(s) Type of inscription FRTV aR_ ( bV_VR 6b VR PR(E H_NPR (JVO_NaV Validation principle :eUNb aVcR R FR _R R aNaVcR R H_NPRNOV Vaf Major players GaNaR HUR ZN ZR VN 7_N Operational Actors CNaV N aVabaR E V T _TN V NaV KRO NaS _Z Authors 9b_ URVZ N b ANgN_ SR 8N ANa b_ ANd
  16. 16. [an actor-network] is distinguished from a simple network because its elements are both heterogeneous and are mutually defined in the course of their association. 8N B 21/ HUR G PV Tf S N 6Pa _&CRad _ 3 HUR 8N R S aUR : RPa_VP JRUVP R B 8N ? ANd 6 FV : BN V T aUR f NZVP S PVR PR N aRPU Tf 2i,- A 3 BNPZV N 2. Heterogeneity of nodes and edges (a) heterogeneous nodes and parallel edges
  17. 17. 2. Heterogeneity of nodes and edges (b) negative connections 7 __N : KR aRc_R R : 8VbPPN_R V E N aR O_b R_ 6 JR ab_V V H ) . G PVRaN 8 a_ cR_ VR V KV V R VN 6_aVP R E_ PRR V T S aUR ,,_ 6 bN 68B 8 SR_R PR bZN ;NPa _ V 8 Z baV T Gf aRZ Uaa 3((ddd P a_ R VN Ra( RZ
  18. 18. H a_f a S d N NPa _& Rad _ V N OVa V R RSV V T N dNcR&P _ b P R V aUR 2,) 3 N f R aVaf PN OR RVgR RVaUR_ N N NPa _ N P _ b P R _ N N Rad _ N dNcR It is in this complete reversibility—an actor is nothing but a network, except that a network is nothing but actors—thatresides the main originality of this theory ANa b_ 7 ) ) CRad _ G PVRaVR G UR_R 3 FRS RPaV S N 6Pa _&CRad _ HUR _V a aR_ NaV N GRZV N_ D CRad _ HUR _f3 CRad _ Bb aV VZR V N Vaf HUR 9VTVaN 6TR 6 R OR_T GPU S _ 8 ZZb VPNaV N ? b_ N V Z A 6 TR R I VaR GaNaR 3. Reversibility of nodes and networks (a) Ego-networks VS global networks Uaa 3((ddd V R UN_R Ra(TPUR V aV ( PVN & Rad _ &N N f V & , 0,)-.
  19. 19. 3. Reversibility of nodes and networks (b) actors VS infrastructures
  20. 20. Reality is a process AV R N PURZVPN O f Va N R aU_ bTU bPPR VcR aNaR 8N B 21/O G ZR R RZR a S N PV Tf S a_N NaV 3 ZR aVPNaV S aUR PN N aUR SV UR_ZR S Ga 7_VRbP 7Nf ? ANd : E dR_ NPaV N OR VRS3 N Rd PV Tf S d R TR5 2/i , A 3 F ba R TR 4. Dynamic of relational change (a) The puzzle of dynamic networks ANa b_ 7 BNbTbV E HRV 22 6 C aR G PV & aRPU VPN _N U G PVN Gab VR S GPVR PR
  21. 21. 4. Dynamic of relational change Rooting through networks :b R_ 0,/ G baV _ O RZNaV N TR ZRa_VNZ Vab R_aV R aV
  22. 22. 4. Dynamic of relational change From networks to streams JR ab_V V H 7NfN ANSSVaR C 8 V aRa ? &E _Nf LNOON J 9R E_fP ) - HU_RR ZN N aU_RR ZV b R_ aN V T 36 VTVaN ZN V T S P VZNaR V ZNPf 7VT 9NaN G PVRaf
  23. 23. Are We Talking About the Same Networks? MAYBE
  24. 24. 7 aU S aUR R N _ NPUR _RWRPa N _V _V _RVSVPNaV bPU N kaUR PVN l _ k PVRafl 7 aU S aUR R N _ NPUR P V R_ aUR _ bPaV S ZRN V T N N NPaVcVaf S P RPaV T( V P RPaV T N N N f R U d NPa _ P ZR a OR P_RNaR aU_ bTU P NO _NaV S aUR_ NPa _ V VSSR_R a P aRea ; _ O aU N _ NPUR aUR aVR _RPR R aUR R 101 BbagR G ))2 CRad _ N 8b ab_N f 8 aVabaR E_ PR R 3 6 8 Z N_V S FR NaV N G PV Tf N 6Pa _& Rad _ HUR _f 8b__R a G PV Tf .0 C cRZOR_ ))2 10 i110 Uaa 3(( V _T( ) 00()) ,2 )2,- , The ties precede the node and the network
  25. 25. Resonance not resemblance 6 VNT_NZ S N Rad _ aUR R a V R N Rad _ Oba ZNV aNV aUR NZR bN VaVR S _R NaV i _ eVZVaVR RT_RR S R N_NaV N S _aU i aUNa N Rad _ N _R bV_R V _ R_ a S _Z FR RZO N PR U b UR_R OR P V R_R N _R NaV T _NaUR_ aUN N UVR_N_PUf - Bb aR_ 6 ) , 6 6R aUR VN S CRad _ 8NZO_V TR BN 3 B H E_R
  26. 26. Networks as maps (Jacob L. Moreno, April 3, 1933, The New York Times) S dR RcR_ TRa a aUR V a S PUN_aV T N dU R PVaf _ N dU R NaV dR d b UNcR N V a_VPNaR ZNgR S fPU TVPN _RNPaV dUVPU d b _R R a N VPab_R S N cN a N_ f aRZ S V aN TVO R a_bPab_R dR_Sb fV S bR PV T P bPa N T_NcVaNaV R O VR V NPR GbPU N V cV VO R a_bPab_R b R_ VR PVRaf N UN V V S bR PR V RaR_ZV V T aUR P bPa S PVRaf N N dU R
  27. 27. ?NP Zf B JR ab_V V H RfZN G 7N aVN B ) - ; _PR6a N N 8 aV b b _N U ANf ba 6 T _VaUZ S _ N f CRad _ JV bN VgNaV 9R VT R S _ aUR R UV G SadN_R E G D R Force Vector Spatialisation
  28. 28. A methodological application Visual Network Analysis JR ab_V V H ?NP Zf B 8N_cN U ER_RV_N 9 ) . JV bN CRad _ 6 N f V Zo VN NO d _ V T N R_
  29. 29. From the Leviathan to the Japanese rice
  30. 30. Continuous but not uniform 8 R _VPR PN OR RSV R f Of N P a_N VPaV S bO aN PR4 Va V Na PR P UR VcR N RaNPUNO R4 Va bO aN aVN R aV NaV V aUR S_NTZR a aUR P bZ 4 aUR c NaV R P T ZR_NaR Va P aVabaR V aUR VPab_R N P Z NPa dUVaR R T_N b N_ N fRa S_VNO R3 dUNa P ZR a aUR aNO R R R N abP a TRaUR_ P ZR b R Na N a bPU S aUR PU aVP aU bTU dVaU ba RcR_ PNaaR_V T N VS VcV V PPb__R f a _ bPR aV N aUR_ V__R bPVO RP UR V F N 7N_aUR 20) HUR :Z V_R S GVT
  31. 31. E_ SR _ j f b U b a P Sb R aUR Rad _ aUNa V _Nd Of aUR R P_V aV N aUR Rad _ aUNa V b R a ZN R aUR R P_V aV Gab R a j 5 E_ SR _ j 7ba fR ! Gb_R f f bl NT_RR aUNa _NdV T dVaU N R PV V a aUR NZR aUV T N _NdV T aUR UN R S N R PV al aUR NZR dVaU aUV NZOVTb b d _ Rad _ ANa b_ 7 )), D b V T 6CH S _ ab fV T V S _ZNaV f aRZ 3 N ZRdUNa G P_NaVP VN TbR 8 6cTR_ b 8 8VO __N ; ; AN : HUR G PVN Gab f S S _ZNaV N 8 ZZb VPNaV Gab f DeS _ 3 I VcR_ Vaf E_R

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