Parallel structure

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Parallel structure

  1. 1. Parallel Structure Parallel Structure means using the same pattern of words to show that two or more ideas have the same level of importance. This can happen at three levels: <ul><li>Word </li></ul><ul><li>Phrase </li></ul><ul><li>Clause </li></ul>
  2. 2. Words and Phrases Incorrect: Mary likes hik ing , swimm ing , and to ride a bicycle. Correct: Mary likes hik ing , swimm ing , and rid ing a bicycle.
  3. 3. More Examples: Words & Phrases Incorrect: The production manager was asked to write his report quick ly , accurate ly , and in a detailed manner . Correct: The production manager was asked to write his report quick ly , accurate ly , and thorough ly .
  4. 4. Examples continued: Incorrect: Angry ants, munched the marshmallows, crumbl ing coffeecake, and sipp ing syrup, headed off across the countertop. Correct: Angry ants, munch ing marshmallows, crumbl ing coffeecake, and sipp ing syrup, headed off across the countertop.
  5. 5. Clauses Parallel structure that begins with clauses must continue on with clauses. Incorrect: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and to do some warm-up exercises before the game. Correct: The coach told the players that they should get a lot of sleep, that they should not eat too much, and that they should do some warm-up exercises before the game
  6. 6. Lists after a colon Incorrect: The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings , pronunciations , correct spellings , and looking up irregular verbs . Correct: The dictionary can be used for these purposes: to find word meanings , pronunciations , correct spellings , and irregular verbs.
  7. 7. Other things to watch for: Use parallel structure with pairs of words or ideas. Examples: Granny’s method was tried and true Man proposes. God disposes.
  8. 8. Use parallel structure on both sides of coordinating conjunctions (and, but, yet, or, nor, for, so) Examples: She possessed all the wizard’s charm yet none of the wizard’s insight. Consult a doctor if your coughing persists or if your coughing worsens over the weekend.
  9. 9. Correct the sentences with improper parallel structure. Sabrina has wit, charm, and she has an extremely pleasant personality. Sabrina has wit, charm, and a pleasing personality.
  10. 10. Continued - In English class, Tashonda learned to read poems critically and she appreciated good prose. <ul><li>In English class, Tashonda learned to read poems critically and appreciate good prose. </li></ul>
  11. 11. Continued- Coach Espinoza was a brilliant strategist, a caring mentor, and friend. <ul><li>Coach Espinoza was a brilliant strategist, a caring mentor, and a wise friend. </li></ul>
  12. 12. Continued - We found the film repulsive, offensive, and we thought it was embarrassing. <ul><li>We found the film repulsive, offensive, and embarrassing. </li></ul>Mr. Tran kept his store clean, neat, and he had it conveniently arranged. <ul><li>Mr. Tran kept his store clean, neat, and conveniently arranged. </li></ul>
  13. 13. The End

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