Capri Cuba Conference 2008 Indira Rampersad Presentation On Food Security


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Capri Cuba Conference 2008 Indira Rampersad Presentation On Food Security

  2. 2. OVERVIEW Reorient the agenda from state security to human security Assess the food security dilemma in the Caribbean Examine Cuba’s initiative to alleviate it over time Review the new measures proposed by Raul Castro in the agricultural sector as a means to combating the Cuban food crisis Explore recent Anglo-Caribbean initiatives in soliciting Cuban assistance toward resolving the food security dilemma Evaluate the imperative for solutions in the context of traditional state security threats in the face of violent food riots across the globe Explore the potential for new avenues of methodological and theoretical pluralism emerge as traditional and non-security threats converge
  3. 3. FOOD SECURITY “Food security exists when all people, at all times, have physical and economic access to sufficient, safe and nutritious food to meet their dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.” (World Food Summit 1996) Food security refers to a situation where food production and distribution systems ensure a sustained food supply in sufficient quantities and quality at the national level, and is accessible to all members of the population (CARDI
  4. 4. RE-DEFINIG SECURITY The focus now is on an emerging post- positivist paradigm which underscores the notion of “human security” - a people- centered perspective of security which has become an imperative in recent times in order to achieve the universal objectives of national, regional and global stability. This entails a deviation from the traditional realist approach and the emergence of post- positivist perspectives focusing on military threats and the security of the state to an emphasis on the individual as the more appropriate referent for security in what is being defined as the New Global Disorder
  5. 5. THE CARIBBEAN’S FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMATIQUE Limited land-holdings: In the Caribbean the amount of land people own tends to run extremely small Farmers that have less that 1 acre of land make up fifty percent of the farming population and ninety percent of farmers own less than five acres Monoculture: Many of the farmers that farm more than 200 hectors grow their crops in monocultures Soil depletion: In smaller farms several crops are grown on the same piece of land Farmers harvest all year long, making production rates to be smaller due to soil depletion
  6. 6. THE CARIBBEAN’S FOOD SECURITY PROBLEMATIQUE (TRADITIONAL SOURCES) Agricultural pollution: Raise the costs of agricultural production through soil contamination, toxicity and pest resistance Natural disasters: Destruction of food crops by hurricanes and storms. After hurricanes and tropical storms fishing industry affected by sedimentation Neglect of the agricultural sector because food was cheap. Countries focused on other sectors
  7. 7. GLOBAL DYNAMICS Fundamental shift in food producing land usage Emerging bio- fuels market Emergence of China and India and changing patterns of consumption Global warming/Climate change
  8. 8. THE CUBAN EXPERIMENT Background to Cuba’s Food Crisis Urban agriculture Parmaculture Going green: organic/ semi-organic farms Bio-pesticides Bio-fertilizers State-controlled corporations/Modern Megafarms
  9. 9. RAUL’S NEW INITIATIVES Vigorously pursing a major expansion of the program to distribute underused and fallow farmland to private farmers and cooperatives in larger quantities Farmer-friendly policies Authorized state stores to sell supplies directly to farmers The state now providing free fertilizer and feed Local farming associations are being empowered to oversee the land reallocation
  10. 10. CARIBBEAN INITIATIVES TO COMBAT FOOD CRISIS Caricom on a two-year suspension of duties on a Embarked range of food and other items from milk to meats, and drastic reduction of tariffs in most of the trade bloc states for six months Held a Regional Agriculture Investment Forum on Jun. 6 aimed at bringing together venture capitalists, commercial bankers, farmers, agriculture experts, lobbyists, Caribbean policy makers, including prime ministers and presidents, and other experts in a single space to talk solely about agriculture PetroCaribe Seek to convert Petrocaribe into a type of anti-  hunger shield
  11. 11. CUBA TO THE RESCUE BILATERAL TRINIDAD & TOBAGO: Mega farms JAMAICA: Technical assistance for organic farming Protected agriculture Greenhouse Semi-protected technologies. GUYANA: Technical assistance Training on impact of climate change on the agricultural sector) Help make Guyana’s sugar industry more competitive
  12. 12. A HUNGRY MAN IS AN ANGRY MAN: CONVERGENCE OF TRADITIONAL AND NON TRADITIONAL SECURITY THREATS Wave of violent food riots across the globe Convergence of traditional and non- traditional security threats to both the individual and the state Implications for complementary realist and post-positivist pluralistic theoretical perspectives in International Relations
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