Millions fed


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Slideshow about the IFPRI 2020 Vision initiative project, "Millions Fed" highlighting successes in agricultural development.

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Millions fed

  1. 1. A 2020 Vision initiative led by The International Food Policy Research Institute with support from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  2. 4. Fighting a “Shifty Enemy” The international collaboration to contain wheat rusts 1955–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Author: H. J. Dubin and John P. Brennan Stem and leaf rust destroying wheat fields around the world Global effort leveraging modern science to breed rust-resistant varieties 117 million hectares of land protected from wheat rust; food security for 60-120 million rural households Jeremy Horner/PANOS
  3. 5. Transforming Agriculture The Green Revolution in Asia 1965–1985 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Author: Peter B. R. Hazell Asia facing enormous food deficits and threat of famine in the 1950s Breeding and dissemination of improved rice/wheat varieties, investment in irrigation and roads, and supportive policies Doubling of cereal yields and output, 1970-95; per capita income increases by 190%; improved food security for 1.8 billion people IRRI
  4. 6. Breeding an “Amaizing” Crop Improved maize in Kenya, Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe 1965–1990 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Melinda Smale and T. S. Jayne Smallholders cultivating low-yielding maize varieties and other crops, and facing food insecurity Breeding and disseminating improved maize varieties suited to local farming conditions and consumer preferences Annual yields gains of 1-5%; improved maize accounts for 75% of land under cereal cultivation CIMMYT
  5. 7. Resisting Viruses and Bugs Cassava in Sub-Saharan Africa 1971–1989 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Author: Felix Nweke Spread of mosaic virus disease and mealybug pest generating major losses for cassava, a staple food crop Breeding of disease-resistant cassava varieties, and introduction of a parasitic wasp to destroy mealybug Breeding increased yields by 40%; pest control prevented yield losses of 2.5 tons/hectare; 29 million additional people fed Debbie DeVoe/Catholic Relief Services
  6. 9. Seeing the Forest Through the Trees Community forestry in Nepal 1978–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Hemant Ojha, Lauren Persha, and Ashwini Chhatre Population growth and narrow policy focus on forest “conservation” pressure forests Policy reforms encourage community-based forest management and enterprise development One-third of Nepal’s population (1.7 million rural households) directly managing over one-fourth of national forest area Intercooperation
  7. 10. Re-Greening the Sahel Farmer-led innovation in Burkina Faso and Niger 1980–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Chris Reij, Gray Tappan, and Melinda Smale Crop failure and soil erosion due to droughts (and poor agricultural management techniques) Rediscovery and diffusion of traditional community-based agroforestry, water, and soil management practices More than 5 million hectares transformed; 3 million additional people fed Chris Reij/VU University Amsterdam
  8. 11. Innovating in the Pampas Zero-tillage soybean cultivation in Argentina 1989–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Eduardo Trigo, Eugenio Cap, Valeria Malach, and Federico Villarreal Intensive agricultural production threatens soil fertility in the Pampas region Improved soybean varieties and widespread adoption of zero-tillage cultivation practices 22 million hectares sustainably cultivated, contributing to low global prices; Argentina becomes a world leader in soybean production Jim Pickerell/World Bank
  9. 12. Leaving the Plow Behind Zero-tillage rice-wheat cultivation in the Indo-Gangetic Plains 1995–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Author: Olaf Erenstein Stagnating productivity growth in rice-wheat systems due to soil degradation and rising costs Introduction of new crop management techniques to conserve water and soil fertility and reduce costs New techniques adopted by 620,000 farmers cultivating 1.8 million hectares; annual income gains of up to $340 per household IRRI
  10. 14. Pumping up Production Shallow tubewells and rice in Bangladesh 1989–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Author: Mahabub Hossain Extreme population pressures on declining arable land and unpredictable monsoons, flooding, and drought Reduction of import restrictions on irrigation equipment and dissemination of improved dry season rice ( boro) 67% reduction in tubewell costs; doubling of rice production; 22 million additional people fed every year IRRI
  11. 15. Pushing the Yield Frontier Hybrid rice in China 1977-present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Jiming Li, Yeyun Xin, and Longping Yuan Declines in arable land, rapid population growth, and rising food demand makes increasing rice production a priority High-yielding hybrid rice developed and commercialized Average yield increases of 15-31%; 63% of rice cultivation now under hybrids; 60 million additional people fed annually Keith Weller/USDA
  12. 16. Improving Crops for Arid Lands Pearl millet and sorghum in India Mid-1960s–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Carl E. Pray and Latha Nagarajan Limited rainfall, irrigation and fertilizer in arid lands results in low cereal yields and output Breeding improved millet and sorghum varieties and liberalization of seed market regulations Increased yields, output, and incomes for 9 million households; improved varieties cover 80% of planted area Amanda King/IFPRI
  13. 17. Navigating through Reforms Cotton reforms in Burkina Faso 1992–2006 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Jonathan Kaminsky, Derek Headey, and Tanguy Bernard Gradual introduction of reforms: strengthening of farmers’ organizations, capacity building, and market liberalization Tripling of cotton production; 235,000 agricultural jobs created; 1.8 million additional people food secure Inefficient state management of cotton industry results in low returns to cotton farmers Arne Hoel/ World Bank
  14. 19. Unlocking the Market Fertilizer and maize in Kenya 1990–2007 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Joshua Ariga and T.S. Jayne Inefficient state management of maize and fertilizer markets limits returns to smallholders Reduction in government’s role in markets, dissemination of improved varieties, and investment in rural infrastructure 33% increased use of fertilizer by small farmers between 1996-2007; 18% increase in maize yields One Acre Fund
  15. 20. Counting on Beans Mungbean improvement in Asia 1980s–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Subramanyam Shanmugasundaram, J. D. H. Keatinge, and Jacqueline d'Arros Hughes Protein- and iron-rich legumes neglected, despite contribution to diets and soil fertility International research program with active farmer participation disseminating improved varieties suited to different agroecological conditions across Asia Yield gains of 28-55% for 1.5 million farmers; 35% increase in Asian mungbean production AVRDC-The World Vegetable Center
  16. 21. Conquering the Cattle Plague The global effort to eradicate rinderpest 1950–2001 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Peter Roeder and Karl Rich Highly contagious livestock disease killing 95% of the animals it infects as it spreads across Asia and Africa Coordinated global effort to develop improved vaccine, surveillance systems, and protect livestock-based livelihoods Only time an infectious disease has been eradicated since smallpox; 40 million poor livestock keepers benefitted Peter Roeder
  17. 22. Connecting the Milk Grid Smallholder dairy in India 1970–1996 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>I nnovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Author: Kenda Cunningham Dairy demand outpacing supply; smallholders unable to access national dairy markets Creation of a national milk grid and organization of dairy cooperatives to improve production and marketing India becomes a top global dairy producer; incomes double for 9 million direct beneficiaries, 73% of whom are landless farmers NDDB
  18. 23. Farming the Aquatic Chicken Improved tilapia in the Philippines 1988–1997 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Author: Sivan Yosef Overuse and overexploitation of marine fish stocks endangers fish supplies Selective breeding and wide distribution of genetically improved tilapia within the region Production increases of 186%; lower prices for tilapia benefitting 19-23 million consumers WorldFish
  19. 25. Crossing the River While Feeling the Rocks Land-tenure reform in China 1978–1984 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Author: John W. Bruce and Zongmin Li Widespread food shortages and low farm productivity after more than 30 years of collective agriculture Policy reforms reintroducing household farming, returning more than 95% of farmland to 160 million rural households 1978-84: increase in grain production by 34%; increase in rural incomes by 137%; reduction in rural poverty by 22% Qilai Shen/PANOS
  20. 26. Exiting from Collective Agriculture Land-tenure reform in Vietnam 1988–1993 <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Michael Kirk and Nguyen Do Anh Tuan Food insecurity resulting from low output under collective farming Reforms that led to decollectivization, land-tenure security, and new economic incentives Annual agricultural growth averaging 3.8% between 1986-2005; reduction in national poverty by 21% Jeremy Horner/PANOS
  21. 28. Diversifying into Healthy Diets Homestead food production in Bangladesh 1990–present <ul><li>Challenge: </li></ul><ul><li>Innovation: </li></ul><ul><li>Impact: </li></ul>Authors: Lora Iannotti, Kenda Cunningham, and Marie Ruel Micronutrient deficiencies and poor diet quality, especially among women and children Home gardening of micronutrient-rich vegetables, small livestock production, and nutrition education Tripling of vegetable production among program participants; improved food security for 5 million people Helen Keller International
  22. 29. A 2020 Vision initiative led by The International Food Policy Research Institute with support from The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
  23. 30. The case studies presented here are drawn from the Millions Fed book (2009). To access the book and other project resources, please visit: