Open Access and Dissemination of Scholarly Information in Japan

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Presentation in 2010 Open Access Korea (OAK), October 22, 2010, Seoul Korea

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Open Access and Dissemination of Scholarly Information in Japan

  1. 1. Open access and dissemination of scholarly information in Japan National Institute of Informatics Prof. Hideaki Takeda, Dr.Eng. National Institute of Informatics, JAPAN 22 October 2010 2010 Open Access Korea Conference
  2. 2. National Institute of Informatics 1 Issues on Scholarly Publishing in Japan Promotion of Journals to the world wide – Local to Global Shift from analog (paper) to electronic publishing – Many small-scale journals (mainly in Japanese) Promotion of university activities with publishing – Evaluation of universities
  3. 3. National Institute of Informatics 2 Strategy Various access models to reach open access – Not simply “open access” – Provide various models to fit community’s demands • Embargo, site license, … • E-journal platform, digitization of past articles, institutional repositories
  4. 4. National Institute of Informatics 3 Scholarly Publishing in Japan  International Journals (English)  Domestic Journals (Japanese)  Misc. publications – Doctor thesis (Japanese/English) – Faculty Bulletins (Japanese) – Technical Reports (Japanese/English)  (Oversea Journals)  SPARC Japan  ELS/CiNii(NII), J-Stage(JST)  Institutional Repositories Self archiving
  5. 5. National Institute of Informatics 4 Three activities for the Open Access SPARC Japan – Development of business models of journal publishing. ELS/CiNii – Digitization and dissemination of the journals of academic society. Institutional Repositories Program – Support for developing the IRs – Publish the in-house journals by IRs
  6. 6. SPARC Japan: Background and objectives
  7. 7. National Institute of Informatics 6 Background of SPARC US Advanced dissemination of scholarly information driven by digitization of journals by commercial publishers Soaring price due to oligopoly and monopoly Activities to reform scholarly communication to keep researchers’ outcomes in their hands SPARC* ※Launched in 1998 by ARL (Association of Research Libraries) in US SPARC: the Scholarly Publishing and Academic Resources Coalition countermeasures
  8. 8. National Institute of Informatics 7 Start of the operation Started in FY2003. “International Scholarly Communication Initiative” – Named “SPARC Japan” in 2006 on the basis of MOU with ARL (Association of Research Libraries) Objectives Development of business models Promotion of international collaboration Development of advocacy activities
  9. 9. National Institute of Informatics 8 SPARC Japan Publishing Partners 1/2 Physics Journal of the Physical Society of Japan Japanese Journal of Applied Physics Applied Physics Express Progress of Theoretical Physics The Physical Society of Japan The Japan Society of Applied Physics The Japan Society of Applied Physics Publication Office, Progress of Theoretical Physics Electrical and Electronic Engineering IEICE Transactions on Fundamentals of Electronics, Communications and Computer Sciences IEICE Transactions on Communications IEICE Transactions on Electronics IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems IEICE Electronics Express The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers Journal of Information Processing Information Processing Society of Japan Chemistry Analytical Sciences The Japan Society for Analytical Chemistry Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering The Society for Biotechnology, Japan Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan The Society of Chemical Engineers, Japan Polymer Journal The Society of Polymer Science, Japan Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry Japan Society for Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Agrochemistry Biological Sciences UniBio Press -Current Herpetology -Journal of Mammalian Ova Research -Mammal Study -Zoological Science -Ornithological Science -Paleontological Research UniBio Press -The Herpetological Society of Japan -The Japanese Society of Mammalian Ova Research -The Mammalogical Society of Japan -The Zoological Society of Japan -The Ornithological Society of Japan -The Palaeontological Society of Japan Humanities/ Social Sciences Monumenta Nipponica Sophia University 45 Journals, Feb 2010
  10. 10. National Institute of Informatics 9 SPARC Japan Publishing Partners 2/2 Mathematics Project Euclid -Hiroshima Mathematical Journal -Journal of Mathematical Society of Japan -Kodai Mathematical Journal -Nagoya Mathematical Journal -Osaka Journal of Mathematics -Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series A: Mathematical Sciences -Tohoku Mathematical Journal Cornell University Library, Duke University Press -Department of Mathematics, Graduate School of Science, Hiroshima University -The Mathematical Society of Japan -Department of Mathematics, Tokyo Institute of Technology -Graduate School of Mathematics, Nagoya University -Department of Mathematics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka University / Department of Mathematics, Graduate School of Science, Osaka City University -The Japan Academy -Mathematical Institute, Tohoku University Publications of Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences, Kyoto University Materials Science Materials Transactions Collaborative publication of 11 materials related institutes including The Japan Institute of Metals Medicine The Journal of Physiological Sciences The Physiological Society of Japan Allergology International Japanese Society of Allergology Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics Engineering Journal of Fluid Science and Technology Journal of Thermal Science and Technology Journal of Biomechanical Science and Engineering Journal of Environment and Engineering Journal of Solid Mechanics and Materials Engineering Journal of System Design and Dynamics Journal of Advanced Mechanical Design, Systems, and Manufacturing Journal of Power and Energy Systems Journal of Computational Science and Technology Journal of Space Engineering Journal of Mechanical Systems for Transportation and Logistics The Japan Society of Mechanical Engineers
  11. 11. SPARC Japan: Principal Activities and Outcomes in the 1st and 2nd phases
  12. 12. National Institute of Informatics 11 (1) Support for Electronic Journals  All publishing partners are now publishing electronic English-language editions of their journals – Some new electronic-only journals as well (ELEX, JIP, JSME Journals)  Support for digitization of back issues – 37 journals have completed digitization back to their inaugural editions – Remaining 8 are part-way through the process  Support for introduction of online manuscript submission and peer-review systems – Self-authored systems, J-STAGE, commercial systems (Scholar One’s Manuscript Central), etc. – Already introduced by many publishing partners (32 journals) (Mostly financial support)
  13. 13. National Institute of Informatics 12 Support for digitization of back issues Support for introduction of online manuscript submission and peer-review systems J- STAGE: 3, 9% Elsevier Editorial System: 1, 3% Manu- script Central: 5, 16% IPEC: 1, 3% Self- authored 22, 69% Yes 32 71% No 13 29% 70% have introduced online submission and peer-review systems ・Self-authored systems, commercial systems (Scholar One’s Manuscript Central), J-STAGE, etc.: Already introduced in many cases Fully digitized back to inaugural issue: 82% Partially digitized: 18% 80% have completed digitization back to inaugural editions ・Others are part-completed ・Work on digitization is ongoing All publishing partners now publish English-language electronic editions Publication of English-Language electronic journals
  14. 14. National Institute of Informatics 13 (2) Support for Business Model Development  Creation of e-journal packages / Site license agreements with university libraries consortia – UniBio Press: Package of 6 biological society journals – IEICE (The Institute of Electronics, Information and Communication Engineers): Package of 4 Transactions journals – UniBio Press and IEICE have concluded contractual negotiations with the Japan Association of National University Libraries (JANUL) and the Public and Private University Libraries Consortium (PULC)  Collaboration with BioOne – Sale in the BioOne.2 collection – Site licenses at 178 institutions outside Japan (163 in North America, 15 elsewhere) (Support for forming communities and sharing experience)
  15. 15. National Institute of Informatics 14 Journal Name Access Plan Tohoku Mathematical Journal Euclid Select Journal of the Mathematical Society of Japan Euclid Select Kodai Mathematical Journal Euclid Prime Hiroshima Mathematical Journal Open Access Nagoya Mathematical Journal Open Access Osaka Journal of Mathematics Open Access Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series A, Mathematical Sciences Open Access Publications of the Research Institute for Mathematical Sciences Open Access (3) Development of International Partnerships  Collaboration with SPARC (U.S.) – March 2006: Exchanged MOU – November 2008, 2010: Co-hosted SPARC Digital Repository Meeting (Baltimore, U.S.)  Collaboration with Project Euclid – 8 mathematical journals published on the mathematical sciences on the Project Euclid platform
  16. 16. National Institute of Informatics 15 (4) Advocacy activities  Seminars for academic society journal editors, librarians and researchers – SPARC Japan Seminars (40 times from FY2005 to FY2009) – International symposia, ALPSP training courses, etc.  Newsletters – SPARC Japan Newsletter (Launched in 2009 / Quarterly)  Research, evaluation, etc. – Surveys on researcher trends (FY2004 survey of trends in submission of manuscripts to 3 academic societies; FY2005 survey of attitudes to open access among researchers at national universities – Evaluation of project and publishing partners by university libraries (FY2007-08)  Domain-wide Collaborative Promotion  Biology, Chemistry, Mathematics
  17. 17. National Institute of Informatics 16 Basic Outlook for the 3rd stage  Realizing improvements in scholarly communication for all stakeholders, including members of the researchers, university libraries, and academic societies.  Basic policies for the Phase 3 – Deepen collaboration between research libraries and academic societies to advance open access systems tailored to Japan’s specific features of scholarly communication. – Establishment of societies and libraries as the twin pillars of open access development.
  18. 18. ELS/CiNii Digitization and dissemination of the journals of academic society
  19. 19. National Institute of Informatics 18 NII-ELS+CJP+ NDL journal article index+IR+ J-STAGE/Journal@rchive= About 12 million articles Article DB Academic society journals/research bulletins, etc. About 3.2 million articles FullText DB Digitization (Electronic library) (Scholarly and academic information navigator) Academic societies /universities, etc. Compilation/publication Dispatching Research infrastructure of researchers and students throughout the world Outline What is CiNii? (1)  Article information service that serves as a part of Japan’s academic information infrastructure March 2008
  20. 20. National Institute of Informatics 19 Coverage and simultaneous search of all information on academic articles in Japan Journal article index database National Diet Library J-STAGE National Institute of Informatics NII ELS Institutional repositoryUniversities, etc. Fulltext link Overlapping of article information (“noise”) is eliminated to the utmost extent. With integration of data from multiple institutions, more texts can be reached. Japan Science and Technology Agency Fulltext link Fulltext link Other (Japana Centra Revuo Medicina, etc.) Related institutions Dataidentificationandlinking What is CiNii? (2) March 2008
  21. 21. National Institute of Informatics 20 National Institute of Informatics Number of academic conferences Number of magazines Completely free 178 462 Fixed-price contract cases 113 401 Metered charge 38 156 March 2008 About 90% of articles can be freely accessed based on institutional fixed-price contracts. What is CiNii? (3)  Free access to approx. half of all articles significantly.
  22. 22. National Institute of Informatics 21 0 1,000,000 2,000,000 3,000,000 4,000,000 5,000,000 6,000,000 7,000,000 Apr-… Jul-05 Oct-… Jan-… Apr-… Jul-06 Oct-… Jan-… Apr-… Jul-07 Oct-… Jan-… Apr-… Jul-08 Oct-… Jan-… Apr-… Jul-09 Oct-… Jan-… Apr-… Jul-10 Number of text DLs Search frequency 2009/10 (maximum) Search 656 mill. 2007/04 Collabo with Google 2009/04 System renewal Increasing usages of CiNii  More than 2 million download of PDF per month from 2007/04 More than 3 million CiNii articles became searchable on Google.  From 2009/04 system performance improved significantly.
  23. 23. NII Institutional Repositories Program (NII-IRP)
  24. 24. National Institute of Informatics 23 Funding (1)  NII-IRP (Institutional Repositories Program) http://www.nii.ac.jp/irp/en/ − 1st period: FY2005-2007 − 2nd period: FY2008-2009 − 3rd period: FY2010-2012 Three categories of funding • Area 1: Content creation for new IRs (24 institutions) • Area 2: Research and development (8 projects)  Case study to accelerate the deposit of content (e.g. Theses and Dissertations, Government-funded research publications)  Development of new added-value services, etc. • Area 3: next page
  25. 25. National Institute of Informatics 24  NII-IRP (Institutional Repositories Program) 3rd period (FY2010-2012) – Three categories of funding • Area 3: Support for community activities (5 projects)  DRF; Community of repository managers (include international collaboration; participation in COAR)  SCPJ; Development of the OA policy of academic societies in Japan (include collaboration with SPARC Japan)  ShaRe; Promote the shared repository, etc. – Development of NII’s system infrastructure • Provide low-cost system resources by provisioning cloud computing facilities such as an ASP (Application service provider) services. Funding (2)
  26. 26. National Institute of Informatics 25  Outline – Investigate Japanese scholarly societies’ open access(OA) policies and release results on SCPJ (Societies Copyright Policies in Japan) database. – http://scpj.tulips.tsukuba.ac.jp/ Two Features of SCPJ database − The only database cover OA policies of almost all Japanese academic societies (about 1,800) − No policy is a policy: Regard responses of “under consideration” or “No response” as one of the policies SCPJ Database (1) SAITO Mika, HIRATA Kan, MORI Ichiro, HOSOKAWA Maki, TSUKUI Yuko, NAKAYAMA Takahiro. "New SCPJ: Let's develop an open access policy database together!" DRF International Conference 2009, Poster Session, 3- 4 December, 2009, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Japan.
  27. 27. National Institute of Informatics 26 SCPJ Database (2) Colo r OA policy Num Gree n Author can archive both Pre-prints & Post-prints 44 Blue Author can archive only Post-prints 252 Yello w Author can archive only Pre-prints 4 White Author can not archive 157 Gray Under consideration 1,379  Color coding of OA policy in SCPJ database  Two big change in 2010 − The OA policy will be displayed not only by academic societies but also by journals − Repository staff who got approval from the officials of the academic societies will be able to update the policy information
  28. 28. National Institute of Informatics 27 Growth of Number of IRs (1) 1 6 38 62 72 73 75 0 0 1 4 11 13 16 1 3 11 27 38 52 63 1110 1 7 9 23 30 34 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 2 10 57 102 144 168 188 March-05 March-06 March-07 March-08 March-09 March-10 September-10 Others Private Public Ntional
  29. 29. National Institute of Informatics 28  Breakdown by kinds of universities and colleges (Sep. 2010) - Regionally shared repository is very effective for middle and small institutions which have difficulties in establishing their own repository. - * include 2 shared repositories - ** include 8 shared repositories - *** include 31 shared repositories - **** include 25 shared repositories - NII funds the “Shared Repository project (ShaRe)”. - Leading Institution: Hiroshima University http://www.lib.hiroshima-u.ac.jp/share/share.html IRs Number of universities and colleges Percentage (A) (B) (A/B) National *75 86 87% Public **16 95 17% Private ***63 597 11% Subtotal 154 778 20% Others ****34 - - Total 188 - - Growth of Number of IRs (2)
  30. 30. National Institute of Informatics 29 Open DOAR: Directory of Open Access Repositories http://www.opendoar.org/ (2010/10/01)  World total:1737 – Japan is the fourth with 83 Actually, Japan is the 2nd with 188 Growth of Number of IRs (3)
  31. 31. National Institute of Informatics 30 Growth of content deposited 30  Number of materials deposited  NII Institutional Repositories DataBase Contents Analysis http://irdb.nii.ac.jp/analysis/index_e.php (Last accessed:2010/10/01) NII Institutional Repositories DataBase Contents Analysis (2010/09/30 Number of Organizations 161, Number of records: 1,010,311) 24% 5% 43% 6% 1% 2% 0% 2% 4% 0% 0% 1% 0% 12% Journal article content types Number of records Ratio of full text Journal Article 238,638 46.9% Thesis or Dissertation 49,011 54.2% Departmental Bulletin Paper 437,155 88.2% Conference Paper 58,529 18.5% Presentation 8,571 30.8% Book 18,426 46.7% Technical Report 5,995 85.3% Research Paper 16,784 86.9% Article 39,057 82.4% Preprint 333 90.4% Learning Material 5,153 35.6% Data or Dataset 13,586 99.0% Software 8 25.0% Others 119,065 92.5% SUM 1,010,311 71.6% Departmental Bulletin paper Thesis or DissertationConference Paper Others セルフ アーカイビング 発信
  32. 32. National Institute of Informatics 31 Portal services of Japanese IRs (1)  NII harvests almost all Japanese IRs - JAIRO is a “gyroscope” of IR content - Use it to search all IRs in Japan at once! - IRDB Content Analysis shows how content is growing and gives details about each IR. - CiNii is the largest database of academic journal articles in Japan. - Metadata on journal articles and departmental bulletins goes to CiNii and is linked to the full texts in the IRs. OAI-PMH - junii2 is “Dublin Core” application profile for institutional repository with a OpenURL compliant schema. -It has been adopted by almost all IRs in Japan. http://www.nii.ac.jp/irp/en/archive/pdf/junii2_en_20090213.pdf 31 junii2
  33. 33. National Institute of Informatics 32 Portal services of Japanese IRs (2)  JAIRO : Japanese Institutional Repositories Online Narrow search by content type Narrow search by organization To know the detail of each IR
  34. 34. National Institute of Informatics 33 Portal services of Japanese IRs (3)  IRDB Content Analysis System 33
  35. 35. Toward the future
  36. 36. National Institute of Informatics 35 Academic SocietyAcademic SocietyAcademic Society ReaD (JST) Google ScholarGoogle Official reports of Grants-in-aid For scientific research 0.61 million reports KAKEN Resolving and linking service for researchers' names 0.15 million researchers Researcher Name Resolver NII-ELS Refereed and Un-refereed articles from societies or bulletins 3.4 million articles Electronic journal repositories for universities 3.5 million articles NII-REO Book Catalogs 108 million +α records Comprehensive metadata harvester for Japanese IRs 0.5 million articles JAIRO indexing service for academic papers 12 million records CiNii Institutional Repository Institutional Repository Institutional Repository Institutional Repository Institutional Repository University Researcher Database Institutional Repository Institutional Repository Institutional Repository Institutional Repository Institutional Repository University Researcher Database University Researcher Database University Researcher Database University Researcher Database University Researcher Database Universities and Institutes Other Services Information on Researchers Information on Papers (130 organizations) (43 organizations) University Library University Library University Library University Library University Library University Library University Library University Library University Library University LibraryInformation on Books J-Stage (JST) NDL Other DB Services Informatics Square Society support with publishing and communication in Informatics area Powered by OLCer Springer CrossRef Projects BooksPapers NACSIS CAT Researchers profiles and SNS People ResearchMap WebcatPlus R&D Center for Scientific Information Resources Scholarly and Academic Information Division 35 Scholarly information services in NII
  37. 37. National Institute of Informatics 36 Collaboration SPARC Japan and IRP FY2008 FY2009 FY2010-2012 SPARC Japan Started in 2003 IRP: Institutional Repositories program Started in 2005 2nd period (2006-2008) Preparatory period 2nd period (2008-2009) Collaboration 3rd period (2010-2012) 3rd period (2010-2012)  A new community is emerging − We are jointly planning seminars to learn from each other − Function enhancement of the “Society Copyright Policies in Japan: SCPJ” database. (Leader Institution; Tsukuba University) Even closer collaboration to realize OA business model
  38. 38. National Institute of Informatics 37 Stance on OA and IR To permit posting of the post-print (publisher version) Embargo of less than or equal to one year To recommend author pay model for open access Permission of posting in institutional repositories highly recommended (Repository-friendly publishing)
  39. 39. National Institute of Informatics 38 SPARC Japan partners’ policy 1/2 Subject Journal Title Access IR Reference Physics Journal of the Physical Society of Japan A On condition Japanese Journal of Applied Physics ? Applied Physics Express ? Progress of Theoretical Physics A Electrical and Electronic Engineering IEICE Transactions P 4 journals: half a year embargo IEICE Electronics Express ● P Half a year embargo Journal of Information Processing ● P Chemistry Analytical Sciences ● P Journal of Biosciences and Bioengineering A Journal of Chemical Engineering of Japan A Polymer Journal A Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry ● P Biological Sciences Mammal Study ● P One year embargo Journal of Mammalian Ova Research ● P One year embargo Zoological Science ● P One year embargo Ornithological Science ● P One year embargo ●: Fee Access ●: back issue Open Access P: Publisher version A: Author version ×: Not permitted ?: Under consideration
  40. 40. National Institute of Informatics 39 SPARC Japan Partners’ Policy 2/2 Subject Journal Title Access IR Reference Biological Sciences Paleontological Research ● P One year embargo Current Herpetology ● P Mathematics Tohoku Mathematical Journal ● A Kodai Mathematical Journal ● P 5 year embargo Nagoya Mathematical Journal ● ? Proceedings of the Japan Academy, Series A ● P Osaka Journal of Mathematics ● P Publications of RIMS ● ? Hiroshima Mathematical Journal ● A Journal of Mathematical Society of Japan ● P/A Humanities/ Social Sciences Monumenta Nipponica ? Materials Science Materials Transactions P Medicine The Journal of Physiological Sciences ● A Allergology International ● × Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics ● × Engineering JSME Journals ● P 11 journals ●: Open Access ●: back issue Open Access P: Publisher version A: Author version ×: Not permitted ?: Under consideration
  41. 41. National Institute of Informatics 40  Outline – Consolidation of two Japanese e-journals consortia with the cooperation of NII (13 October 2010) – For creating a new organization for strengthening the existing consortia for electronic journals – In order to acquire and provide electronic journals required for research activities in Japan in a stable manner Members – JANUL(Japan Association of National University Libraries) – PULC(Private and Public University Libraries Consortium) – NII → approx. 500 members Latest News! Launch of a new Consortium of Libraries
  42. 42. National Institute of Informatics 41  Comprehensive agreement 1. Building a framework for acquiring electronic journals including back files and ensuring permanent access to them 2. Establishing a system for disseminating knowledge created in universities through institutional repositories 3. Expanding the Union Catalog Database including digital information resources 4. Developing human resources concerning acquisition and dissemination of scholarly information 5. Promoting international cooperation regarding acquisition and dissemination of scholarly information 6. Other efforts for achieving the objectives Latest News! Launch of a new Consortium of Libraries
  43. 43. National Institute of Informatics 42 Regenerate the “Circle of Gift” - Submit - Peer review - Edit - Publish - Delivery - Added-value service - Collect - Organize - Stock - Preserve - Provide - Support for OA activities Community of academia + Support by research libraries Research libraries Researchers as authors and readers Academic societies Publishers
  44. 44. National Institute of Informatics 43 Contact sparc@nii.ac.jp http://www.nii.ac.jp/sparc/en/

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