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The Current Status of 
Open Access to Scholarship
in Japan


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2015 European Association of Japanese Resource Specialists Conference: Breaking barriers — unlocking Japanese resources to the world

Published in: Science
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The Current Status of 
Open Access to Scholarship
in Japan

  1. 1. The Current Status of 
 Open Access to Scholarship
 in Japan Shinji Mine (Mie University) 2015 European Association of Japanese Resource Specialists Conference: Breaking barriers ̶ unlocking Japanese resources to the world This slide is available at
  2. 2. Today’s Talk 1. Scientific Activities & Open Access 1. Rationales for Open Access to Scholarship(esp. Journals) 2. Current trends: How far we’ve come? 2. Open Access to Scholarship in Japan 1. Current Status of OA Movements 1. Institutional Repositories(IRs) 2. OA Journals 3. Policy Developments 4. Researchers and OA 3. Prospectives
  3. 3. Scientific Activities & Scholarly Communication • Scientific Activities’ aim •To make original contributions to the body of knowledge • “Communication is the essence of science” (Garvey 1979) •Research results need to be obtained and communicated throughout the process of research •Gift exchange (Hagstrom 1965): Impact rather than money • Scholarly Journals: Content as King/Kingmaker •Registration, Certification, Awareness,Archiving •Integration in the system of Journals Garvey,W.D. (1979) Communication:The Essence of Science. Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press. Hargstrom,W, O. (1965).The Scientific Community. NewYork: Basic Books,
  4. 4. Body of Knowledge in the field Research Plan Experiments Observations Surveys Publishing Results Scientific Community Source:Kurata, K. (2007) Scholarly Communication and Open Access. Tokyo, Keiso Shobo.
  5. 5. Scholarly Communication Goals (Shieber 2014) • Sustainability •scholarly communication system should be financially sound • Openness •widest possible distribution consistent with sustainability • Freedom •scholar choice in how to communicate should be upheld consistent with sustainability and openness • Efficiency •lowest cost consistent with sustainability, openness and freedom Source: Shieber, S. M. How scholarly communication goals affect the design of open access policies. "Institutional Open Access Policy : toward the development of Japanese models”. 2nd SPARC Japan Seminar. National Institute of Informatics. 2014/9/26.
  6. 6. Dysfunction in Scholarly Communication 0 1000 2000 3000 4000 5000 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 Chemistry Physics Engineering Biology Astronomy Food Science Botany Geology Zoology Technology Math & Comp Sci Health Science General Science Agriculture Geography Source:Library Journal Periodical Price Survey, 1997-2015
  7. 7. Open Access • Open Access means free online access to scholarly information (esp. peer-reviewed scholarly journals) • Old tradition + New technology = Open Access • Open access to scholarship may lead (e.g. Borgman 2015) •To improve the flow of information •To minimize restrictions on the use of intellectual resources •To increase the transparency of research practice •To demonstrate social return The Internet Willingness to publish research results in scholarly journals without payment Source: Borgman, C(2015). Big Data, Little Data, No Data: Scholarship in the Networked World. MIT Press
  8. 8. Open Access Matrix Vehicles Green Gold Barriers Gratis Self-archiving in repositories No Price Barriers OA Journals No Price Barriers Libre Self-archiving in repositories No Price Barriers Some Permission Barriers OA Journals No Price Barriers Some Permission Barriers How open is it? How is it delivered? Based on Suber, P. Open Access. MIT Press, 2012
  9. 9. OA Tipping Point Agriculture, Fisheries & Forestry Biology Biomedical Research Built Environment & Design Chemistry Clinical Medicine Communication & Textual Studies Earth & Environmental Sciences Economics & Business Enabling & Strategic Technologies Engineering General Arts, Humanities & Social Sciences General Science & Technology Historical Studies Information & Communication Technologies Mathematics & Statistics Philosophy & Theology Physics & Astronomy Psychology & Cognitive Sciences Public Health & Health Services Social Sciences Visual & Performing Arts 0 25 50 75 100 Green OA Gold OA Other OA Proportion of OA per field for papers published between 2011 and 2013 Source:Archambault , E. et al (2014). Proportion of Open Access Papers Published in Peer-Reviewed Journals at the European and World Levels—1996–2013.
  10. 10. Implementation of OA Policy • Sweep for OA among institutions, funding agencies and governments Year and Quarter NumberofPolicies Policies Adopted by Quarter Research organisation Funder Sub-unit of research organisation Funder and research organisation Multiple research organisations 2005-1 2005-2 2005-3 2005-4 2006-1 2006-2 2006-3 2006-4 2007-1 2007-2 2007-3 2007-4 2008-1 2008-2 2008-3 2008-4 2009-1 2009-2 2009-3 2009-4 2010-1 2010-2 2010-3 2010-4 2011-1 2011-2 2011-3 2011-4 2012-1 2012-2 2012-3 2012-4 2013-1 2013-2 2013-3 2013-4 2014-1 2014-2 2014-3 2014-4 2015-1 2015-2 2015-3 0 200 400 600 800 Source: ROARMAP
  11. 11. Open Access to Scholarship 
 in Japan
  12. 12. Institutional Repositories: Numbers 0 175 350 525 700 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 NII IR Program JAIRO Cloud Univ. based IRs Source: National Institute of Informatics 47.9% Japan USA UK Germany Spain France 0 175 350 525 700 Source: National Institute of Informatics, OpenDOAR Percentage of Japanese University adapted IRs 140MNumber of full text downloads in 2013 Source: MEXT World No.1 or 2? Source: MEXT 1.5MNumber of full text in 2015 Source: NII
  13. 13. 0 400000 800000 1200000 1600000 Institutional Repositories: Contents Others Departmental 
 Bulletin Source: National Institute of Informatics Journal Articles Thesis Data/Datasets Articles 151413121110090807
  14. 14. OA Journals • Major OA Journal Platforms by gov/public institution • JST J-STAGE & NII ELS(-2015) w/ CiNii Articles •1.8k(J) +1.4k(N) journals = 2.7M + 4.2M fulltext •J-STAGE Lite will take over NII-ELS • Digitization of Japanese Scholarly Journals (Kurata & Ueda, 2013) • Rate of •Digitization:49.3% •OA:20.1% • Reached the limits to growth? Source: Kurata, K & Ueda, S. Digitization of Japanese Scholarly Journals and its Hindrance: Survey of scholarly journals and Kiyo. Proceedings of Spring Research Meetings of the Japanese Society of Library and Information Science. 2013.
  15. 15. Policy Developments • Clear Endorsement of OA/Open Science MEXT JSPS CSTI Cabinet Office JST University Promotion of Open Access/Open Science Government Funder Instititution
  16. 16. Government OA policy • MEXT*(2013.4-) *Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology •Doctoral Dissertation OA mandate policy (within one year) •Federated search via CiNii Dissertations ( • Cabinet Office (2015-) • Expert Panel on Open Science Report • Promoting Open Science in Japan-Opening up a new era for the advancement of Science •The core principle of promoting open science in Japan is to enhance the utility of publicly funded research, including research papers and research data. • Each ministries to develop an OA policy for publications and data
  17. 17. Funder’s OA policy • JST (2013.4) •Green OA policy & Recommended • JSPS/MEXT KAKENHI • Grants-in-Aid for Scientific Research (2015-) •OA recommendation for funded research results •“In order that anyone can freely read scientific papers without charge using the internet, we are encouraging the Open Access publishing of papers that were written with KAKENHI funds” • Grant-in-Aid for Publication of Scientific Research Results(2013-) •Funds for supporting or launching OA journals •5 years contract
  18. 18. University’s OA policy • Pioneers •Hokkaido U.(2008, Strongly Recommended) •Okayama U.(2011, Intramural Research, Mandates) •Nitech(2012,Articles, Deposit in principles) • Kyoto Univ. OA policy (2015.4) • First university-wide OA mandate policy in Japan •mandates faculty members to publicize in principle their academic articles on the Internet by depositing them in IR • Kyushu Univ. & Nagoya Univ. will follow soon?
  19. 19. Researchers and OA • SPARC Japan 2013 Survey •2,500 responses from 44 universities in Japan • Main results •46.7% of respondents have ever published in OA journals in the past three years •Titles published in •PLOS ONE, Scientific Reports, Optics Express, Molecules, Journal of Veterinary Medical Science, etc. •11.4% of titles: predatory journal(?) •Reasons to publish in OA journals •Reputation, journals’ scope and readership, integrity of peer review
  20. 20. Researchers and OA • Pros •“Needs and importance of OA journal will be increasing” •“I appreciate major scholarly journals will be open access and can be accessed from office or at home” • Cons •“I will work hard to publish in long-established, low acceptance, top journals rather than pleased to be accepted in OA journals” •“OA journals have a harmful influence on society by producing scientifically unsound articles”
  21. 21. Milestones of Japanese OA Movements • Success of Library community “Hita-hita” approach •“to be tenacious, persevering and to work step by step without giving up” (Tsuchide et al 2012) •(2nd) largest number of IRs in the world • Policy developments • Government, funder and university OA policies • OA Adaption & confusion among researchers • About half of researchers published in OA journals Source:Tsuchide, I. et al. (2013). Hita-Hita: open access and institutional repositories in Japan ten years on.Ariadne. issue 71,
  22. 22. Prospectives
  23. 23. Promoting Open Science in Japan ds, images and visual data. bilities of Institutions Engaging in Research ctive institution must formulate regulations on science plans by posting them on its websit activity will be monitored by the Cabinet Off the Council for Science, Technology and Innov Correlation diagram of policy making and implementation Source: Promoting Open Science in Japan -Opening up a new era for the advancement of Science- S&T Basic Plan MEXT OA policy?
  24. 24. Acknowledgements • This talk is supported by; • Scholarly Information Usage in the age of digital environment (No. 25280119, PI:Yoshinori Sato) • Knowledge Infrastructures and Scholarly Communication in the age of Open Science and Digital Environment (No. 26280121, PI: Keiko Kurata) • Study on Developments of Open Access Movement Based on General Theory of Scientific/Intellectual Movement (No. 26330364, PI: Shinji Mine)