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Crop Vocabulary(CVO) : Core Vocabulary of Crop Names
Hideaki Takeda, Sungmin Joo
National Institute of Informatics(NII)
Akane Takezaki, Tomokazu Yoshida
National Agriculture and Food Research
Organization(NARO) JAPAN
1
Agricultural ICT systems are widely adopted to manage and record in the
agriculture fields efficiently. Interoperability among these systems is needed to
integrate and analyze such records to improve productivity of agriculture.
 Background
#イネ #米 #水稲 #riceplant
#OryzaSativa #rice #koshihikari
Data in agricultural ICT systems is
nonetheless not easy to federate and
integrate since the languages to
describe data are not unified.
It prevents federation and integration
of these systems and their data.
To provide the core vocabulary for crop names.
 Purpose
Standardization of crop names
2
- Species is not crop!
- A single species is treated in different ways
by different stakeholders
by different market need
as different food
 Issues of crop names(1)
Standardization of crop names
#イネ #米 #水稲
#rice plant
#玄米 #米 #米 #koshihikari #ライス
Crop? Food?
#rice
Crop? Food?
“Scientific name : Oryza Sativa“ on food chain
3
Three existing vocabularies in Japan issued by government agencies.
 Issues of crop names(2)
Standardization of crop names
① Agricultural chemical use reference(農薬登録における適用農作物名)
issued by Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(MAFF)
② Agricultural chemical residue reference(農産物等の食品分類表)
issued by Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry(MHLW)
③ Food names in food composition database(日本食品標準成分表)
issued by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT)
#イネ #米 #水稲
#rice plant
#玄米 #米 #米 #ライス
#rice
① ②
③
#koshihikari
4
Synonyms of existing vocabularies.
 Issues of crop names(2)
Standardization of crop names
① Agricultural chemical use reference
“わさびの根茎”
Root of wasabi
“わさびの葉”
Leaf of wasabi
“わさびの花”
Flower of wasabi
“わさび(根茎)”
Wasabi(root)
“わさび”
Wasabi
② Agricultural chemical residue reference
③ Food names in food composition database
“わさび”
Wasabi
ワサビの根茎
Root of wasabi
ワサビの葉
leaf of wasabi
ワサビの花
flower of wasabi
ワサビ
(Wasabi,
or Japanese horse-radish)
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ワサビ
5
Designing of Crop Vocabulary(CVO)
Crop name(edible part)
Crop name(generic) Crop name(edible part1)
Crop name(edible part2)
......
 Define Crop names
Define activities with scientific name, synonyms,
mature/immature, edible part, cultivation method and cultivar
property.
ex) Okra(fruits) ,Okra(flower)
 Define hierarchy
ex) Okra(generic) Okra(fruits)
Okra(flower)
The hierarchy of crop names is organized by edible part.
6
How to build CVO – collecting terms
Vocabulary Issued by terms
Agricultural chemical use reference Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and
Fisheries(MAFF)
893
Agricultural chemical residue reference Health, Labour and Welfare
Ministry(MHLW)
1,179
Food names in food composition database Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports,
Science and Technology(MEXT)
625
Cultivar list CAVOC 30,202
- Farmers
- Agricultural chemical experts
- Market operators
- Food distribution companies
- JA(Japan Agricultural cooperatives)
 Survey and interview to stakeholders
 Existing resource
7
How to build CVO
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical use reference
NCBI taxonomy Database
AGROVOC
Wikipedia
Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system
Cultivar listAgricultural chemical residue reference
Crop name(ja)
Species name
synonym
Scientific name English name
property
 Data-driven
Ver. Date initiated terms
0.91 2017/09/14 1,198
1.00 2017/10/19 1,188
1.05 2017/11/16 1,187
1.12 2018/01/10 1,191 8
 Okra(fruits) of CVO
ダウンロード
(Turtle形式)
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実)
Outline of Crop Vocabulary
List of crop names
Link to URI of ..
Agricultural chemical use reference
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical residue reference
NCBI taxonomy Database
AGROVOC ID
Wikipedia
Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system
Crop name
Species name
English name
Synonym
Scientific name
Broader concept
Crop Information
SKOS/Turtle 9
1,191 terms
(version 1.15)
 Okra(fruits) of CVO
ダウンロード
(Turtle形式)
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実)
Outline of Crop Vocabulary
List of crop names
Link to URI of ..
Agricultural chemical use reference
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical residue reference
NCBI taxonomy Database
AGROVOC ID
Wikipedia
Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system
Crop name
Species name
English name
Synonym
Scientific name
Broader concept
Crop Information
SKOS/Turtle 10
1,191 terms
(version 1.15)
 Okra(fruits) @en
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実)
URI of Crop Names
オクラ Okra, Gumbo, lady finger
11
 Okra of “Agricultural Chemical Use Reference”
URI of Crop Names
List of crop names
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/tekiyou_nousakumotu/オクラ
Link to URI of CVO
Crop Information
SKOS/Turtle
Crop name
Group name
Property value edible part : fruits
12
 Okra of “Agricultural Chemical Use Reference”
URI of Crop Names
List of crop names
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/tekiyou_nousakumotu/オクラ
Link to URI of CVO
Crop Information
SKOS/Turtle
Crop name
Group name
Property value edible part : fruits
13
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_bunrui/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_genryou/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/hinsyu_meisyou/あじさい属_ノウム
Crop guideline for agriculture IT systems
Cultivar list
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/nousakumotumei_guideline/オクラ
URI of Crop Names
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical residue reference
14
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_genryou/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/tekiyou_nousakumotu/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_bunrui/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実)
CVO
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/nousakumotumei_guideline/オクラ
Wikipedia
AGROVOC
Taxonomy DB
(NCBI)
オクラ
455045
オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実).ttl
Federation of Crop data
Crop guideline for agriculture IT systems
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical residue reference
Agricultural chemical use reference
15
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_genryou/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/tekiyou_nousakumotu/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_bunrui/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実)
CVO
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/nousakumotumei_guideline/オクラ
Wikipedia
AGROVOC
Taxonomy DB
(NCBI)
オクラ
455045
オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実).ttl
Federation of Crop data
Crop guideline for agriculture IT systems
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical residue reference
Agricultural chemical use reference
16
API based on CVO
Crop names in Agricultural chemical use reference has
crop name, class name and property value.
Food names in Food composition database has
food name, food number, English name and scientific name.
http://cavoc.org/cvo/api/CVO_TekiyounousakumotuToCVO.php?term=いちょう(種子)
{"group": "イチョウ科", "scientific_name": "Ginkgo biloba"} (json)
Input : crop name in Agricultural chemical use reference
Output : English name and Scientific name
17
API based on CVO
Crop name
English Name
Scientific name
Cultivar Information
CVO
Crop name
Class name 1
Class name 2
Property value
Food name
English name
Scientific name
Food Name
Food type
AGROVOC
Wikipedia
NCBI
Agricultural chemical use reference
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical residue reference
NCBI taxonomy Database
AGROVOC ID
Wikipedia
Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system Group name 3
Group name 1
Group name 2
Food number
Crop name in Agricultural chemical use reference
English name and scientific name in Food composition database
18
API based on CVO
Crop name
English Name
Scientific name
Cultivar Information
CVO
Crop name
Class name 1
Class name 2
Property value
Food name
English name
Scientific name
Food Name
Food type
AGROVOC
Wikipedia
NCBI
Agricultural chemical use reference
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical residue reference
NCBI taxonomy Database
AGROVOC ID
Wikipedia
Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system Group name 3
Group name 1
Group name 2
Food number
Crop name
English name
Scientific name
Crop name in Agricultural chemical use reference
English name and scientific name in Food composition database
Crop name in CVO
19
International interoperability using CVO
CVO Agricultural chemical use reference
Food names in food composition database
Agricultural chemical residue reference
NCBI taxonomy Database ID : 455045
AGROVOC ID : c_8557
Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/tekiyou_nousakumotu/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実) http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_bunrui/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_genryou/オクラ
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/nousakumotumei_guideline/オクラ
https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/オクラ
Wikipedia
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Bro
wser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=455045
http://artemide.art.uniroma2.it:8081
/agrovoc/agrovoc/en/page/c_8557?cl
ang=en
20
Issues of International interoperability(1)
NCBI
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/ワサビ
Wasabi is the most well known Japanese condiments. However…
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Br
owser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=75806
Taxonomy DB
ID :75806
ワサビ(Wasabi)
X
ワサビダイコン(Horseradish)
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/ワサビダイコン
AGROVOC
https://pl.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plik:Armoracia_rusticana_03_ies.jpg
21
Issues of International interoperability(2)
Shiso is a very popular herb in Japan.
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/シソ
Egoma
Scientific name : Perilla frutescens var. crispa
Scientific name : Perilla frutescens
http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/エゴマ
Taxonomy DB
ID :48386
NCBI
Redirect??
AGROVOC
22
Future works and conclusion
 Addition and verification of new crops
Survey more documents and domains to collect crop names. By adding these
terms, properties and their values will be verified and extended if necessary.
 International interoperability
We would like to improve the international interoperability through discussion
with international standards for domestic crop names.
We provide the Crop VOcabulary(CVO) so as to standardize the vocabulary
for crop names. By using CVO, it is possible to improve interoperability
beyond the linguistic diversity of the vocabulary for agricultural ICT
systems.
23

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Crop vocabulary (CVO): Core vocabulary of crop names

  • 1. Crop Vocabulary(CVO) : Core Vocabulary of Crop Names Hideaki Takeda, Sungmin Joo National Institute of Informatics(NII) Akane Takezaki, Tomokazu Yoshida National Agriculture and Food Research Organization(NARO) JAPAN 1
  • 2. Agricultural ICT systems are widely adopted to manage and record in the agriculture fields efficiently. Interoperability among these systems is needed to integrate and analyze such records to improve productivity of agriculture.  Background #イネ #米 #水稲 #riceplant #OryzaSativa #rice #koshihikari Data in agricultural ICT systems is nonetheless not easy to federate and integrate since the languages to describe data are not unified. It prevents federation and integration of these systems and their data. To provide the core vocabulary for crop names.  Purpose Standardization of crop names 2
  • 3. - Species is not crop! - A single species is treated in different ways by different stakeholders by different market need as different food  Issues of crop names(1) Standardization of crop names #イネ #米 #水稲 #rice plant #玄米 #米 #米 #koshihikari #ライス Crop? Food? #rice Crop? Food? “Scientific name : Oryza Sativa“ on food chain 3
  • 4. Three existing vocabularies in Japan issued by government agencies.  Issues of crop names(2) Standardization of crop names ① Agricultural chemical use reference(農薬登録における適用農作物名) issued by Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(MAFF) ② Agricultural chemical residue reference(農産物等の食品分類表) issued by Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry(MHLW) ③ Food names in food composition database(日本食品標準成分表) issued by Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) #イネ #米 #水稲 #rice plant #玄米 #米 #米 #ライス #rice ① ② ③ #koshihikari 4
  • 5. Synonyms of existing vocabularies.  Issues of crop names(2) Standardization of crop names ① Agricultural chemical use reference “わさびの根茎” Root of wasabi “わさびの葉” Leaf of wasabi “わさびの花” Flower of wasabi “わさび(根茎)” Wasabi(root) “わさび” Wasabi ② Agricultural chemical residue reference ③ Food names in food composition database “わさび” Wasabi ワサビの根茎 Root of wasabi ワサビの葉 leaf of wasabi ワサビの花 flower of wasabi ワサビ (Wasabi, or Japanese horse-radish) https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/ワサビ 5
  • 6. Designing of Crop Vocabulary(CVO) Crop name(edible part) Crop name(generic) Crop name(edible part1) Crop name(edible part2) ......  Define Crop names Define activities with scientific name, synonyms, mature/immature, edible part, cultivation method and cultivar property. ex) Okra(fruits) ,Okra(flower)  Define hierarchy ex) Okra(generic) Okra(fruits) Okra(flower) The hierarchy of crop names is organized by edible part. 6
  • 7. How to build CVO – collecting terms Vocabulary Issued by terms Agricultural chemical use reference Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries(MAFF) 893 Agricultural chemical residue reference Health, Labour and Welfare Ministry(MHLW) 1,179 Food names in food composition database Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology(MEXT) 625 Cultivar list CAVOC 30,202 - Farmers - Agricultural chemical experts - Market operators - Food distribution companies - JA(Japan Agricultural cooperatives)  Survey and interview to stakeholders  Existing resource 7
  • 8. How to build CVO Food names in food composition database Agricultural chemical use reference NCBI taxonomy Database AGROVOC Wikipedia Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system Cultivar listAgricultural chemical residue reference Crop name(ja) Species name synonym Scientific name English name property  Data-driven Ver. Date initiated terms 0.91 2017/09/14 1,198 1.00 2017/10/19 1,188 1.05 2017/11/16 1,187 1.12 2018/01/10 1,191 8
  • 9.  Okra(fruits) of CVO ダウンロード (Turtle形式) http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実) Outline of Crop Vocabulary List of crop names Link to URI of .. Agricultural chemical use reference Food names in food composition database Agricultural chemical residue reference NCBI taxonomy Database AGROVOC ID Wikipedia Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system Crop name Species name English name Synonym Scientific name Broader concept Crop Information SKOS/Turtle 9 1,191 terms (version 1.15)
  • 10.  Okra(fruits) of CVO ダウンロード (Turtle形式) http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実) Outline of Crop Vocabulary List of crop names Link to URI of .. Agricultural chemical use reference Food names in food composition database Agricultural chemical residue reference NCBI taxonomy Database AGROVOC ID Wikipedia Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system Crop name Species name English name Synonym Scientific name Broader concept Crop Information SKOS/Turtle 10 1,191 terms (version 1.15)
  • 11.  Okra(fruits) @en http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実) URI of Crop Names オクラ Okra, Gumbo, lady finger 11
  • 12.  Okra of “Agricultural Chemical Use Reference” URI of Crop Names List of crop names http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/tekiyou_nousakumotu/オクラ Link to URI of CVO Crop Information SKOS/Turtle Crop name Group name Property value edible part : fruits 12
  • 13.  Okra of “Agricultural Chemical Use Reference” URI of Crop Names List of crop names http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/tekiyou_nousakumotu/オクラ Link to URI of CVO Crop Information SKOS/Turtle Crop name Group name Property value edible part : fruits 13
  • 14. http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_bunrui/オクラ http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_genryou/オクラ http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/hinsyu_meisyou/あじさい属_ノウム Crop guideline for agriculture IT systems Cultivar list http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/nousakumotumei_guideline/オクラ URI of Crop Names Food names in food composition database Agricultural chemical residue reference 14
  • 17. API based on CVO Crop names in Agricultural chemical use reference has crop name, class name and property value. Food names in Food composition database has food name, food number, English name and scientific name. http://cavoc.org/cvo/api/CVO_TekiyounousakumotuToCVO.php?term=いちょう(種子) {"group": "イチョウ科", "scientific_name": "Ginkgo biloba"} (json) Input : crop name in Agricultural chemical use reference Output : English name and Scientific name 17
  • 18. API based on CVO Crop name English Name Scientific name Cultivar Information CVO Crop name Class name 1 Class name 2 Property value Food name English name Scientific name Food Name Food type AGROVOC Wikipedia NCBI Agricultural chemical use reference Food names in food composition database Agricultural chemical residue reference NCBI taxonomy Database AGROVOC ID Wikipedia Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system Group name 3 Group name 1 Group name 2 Food number Crop name in Agricultural chemical use reference English name and scientific name in Food composition database 18
  • 19. API based on CVO Crop name English Name Scientific name Cultivar Information CVO Crop name Class name 1 Class name 2 Property value Food name English name Scientific name Food Name Food type AGROVOC Wikipedia NCBI Agricultural chemical use reference Food names in food composition database Agricultural chemical residue reference NCBI taxonomy Database AGROVOC ID Wikipedia Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system Group name 3 Group name 1 Group name 2 Food number Crop name English name Scientific name Crop name in Agricultural chemical use reference English name and scientific name in Food composition database Crop name in CVO 19
  • 20. International interoperability using CVO CVO Agricultural chemical use reference Food names in food composition database Agricultural chemical residue reference NCBI taxonomy Database ID : 455045 AGROVOC ID : c_8557 Crop guideline for Agriculture IT system http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/tekiyou_nousakumotu/オクラ http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/オクラ(果実) http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_bunrui/オクラ http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/syokuhin_genryou/オクラ http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/nousakumotumei_guideline/オクラ https://ja.wikipedia.org/wiki/オクラ Wikipedia https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Bro wser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=455045 http://artemide.art.uniroma2.it:8081 /agrovoc/agrovoc/en/page/c_8557?cl ang=en 20
  • 21. Issues of International interoperability(1) NCBI http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/ワサビ Wasabi is the most well known Japanese condiments. However… https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/Taxonomy/Br owser/wwwtax.cgi?mode=Info&id=75806 Taxonomy DB ID :75806 ワサビ(Wasabi) X ワサビダイコン(Horseradish) http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/ワサビダイコン AGROVOC https://pl.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plik:Armoracia_rusticana_03_ies.jpg 21
  • 22. Issues of International interoperability(2) Shiso is a very popular herb in Japan. http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/シソ Egoma Scientific name : Perilla frutescens var. crispa Scientific name : Perilla frutescens http://cavoc.org/cvo/ns/1/エゴマ Taxonomy DB ID :48386 NCBI Redirect?? AGROVOC 22
  • 23. Future works and conclusion  Addition and verification of new crops Survey more documents and domains to collect crop names. By adding these terms, properties and their values will be verified and extended if necessary.  International interoperability We would like to improve the international interoperability through discussion with international standards for domestic crop names. We provide the Crop VOcabulary(CVO) so as to standardize the vocabulary for crop names. By using CVO, it is possible to improve interoperability beyond the linguistic diversity of the vocabulary for agricultural ICT systems. 23