Orders, Missions, America

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Orders, Missions, America

  1. 1. Continuing 4.2
  2. 2. Society of Jesus (Jesuits) Ignatius of Loyola (1491-1556) Injured as soldier  Soldier for Christ Military background  chain of command Fourth Vow– absolute personal obedience toPope “The Spiritual Exercises” Intellectuals, theologians, missionaries Practical, this-world … not withdrawal, sacrifice Task for “soldiers”: Combat Protestantism
  3. 3. Vincentians/Charitys Vincent de Paul (1581-1660) Focus on the poor; preach to, teachcommoners Louise de Marillac  Daughters ofCharity Bypass cloister rules by taking privateannual vows
  4. 4. Christian Brothers John Baptist de La Salle (1652-1719) Educate poor children  escape poverty,crime Began classroom teaching (not privatetutors) Considered a founder of modern education
  5. 5. Elizabeth Ann Seton 1774-1821 First American-born saint (canonized1975) Convert; began Baltimore school Sisters of Charity (Emmitsburg) – firstreligious order begun in the U.S. Credited with beginning the parochialschool system
  6. 6. Exploration Begins Events of 1492 1493 ~ Pope Alexander VI draws line,dividing the Atlantic Spain gets West; Portugal gets East 1522 ~ Magellan sails around the world,so a second line is needed Catholics travel to spread the faith;Protestants for trade
  7. 7. Methods Religious Orders ~ Franciscans,Dominicans, and especially Jesuits “Hard” vs. “Soft” “Hard” ~ by force & destruction “Soft” ~ missions; settlements & teach;accommodation/adaptation In the Americas French in the North; Spain in the South
  8. 8. Challenges Conquistadors & Colonizers Enslave the “savages” Educated Christians  human Missions protected the natives Danger of Syncretism To what extent do you “adapt” the faith tolocal customs, religious practices, etc.,before it no longer is Christianity?
  9. 9. The American Colonies Established for “religious freedom”? Freedom of OUR, “perfect” religion! 11 of the original 13 colonies had officialstate religion; only two safe for Catholics Maryland ~ begun as safe haven for Catholics○ 1649 Act of Toleration Pennsylvania ~ Quaker acceptance Constitution ~ God not mentioned No influence in EITHER direction
  10. 10. John Carroll 1735-1815; elected bishop in 1789(American Catholics feared foreignbishop) Balanced democracy with Vaticanloyalty Began St. Mary’s Seminary (Baltimore),Georgetown College (DC), dioceses 1790 – 30,000 American Catholics1815 – 200,000 American Catholics
  11. 11. Anti-Catholic Sentiment Nativism & Know-Nothing Party “Public” Schools Isolation  vicious cycle Politics/Presidental Candidates 1929 ~ Al Smith 1960 ~ John F. Kennedy John Kerry Paul Ryan & Joe Biden

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