Antebellem reforms


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  • Lesson #23 in RM’s book
  • Antebellem reforms

    1. 1.   Essential Question:  Are the benefits of progress worth the cost? Guiding Questions:  In what ways did America change as a result of the reform movements in the 1800’s?  How did the United States reform its institutions to match its Democratic ideals during the Antebellum Era?
    2. 2. Social Changes & Reforms from 1820s to 1850s
    3. 3. The Second Great Awakening “Spiritual Reform From Within”[Religious Revivalism] Social Reforms & Redefining the Ideal of Equality Temperance Education Abolitionism Asylum & Penal Reform Women’s Rights
    4. 4. The Rise of Popular Religion In France, I had almost always seen the spirit of religion and the spirit of freedom pursuing courses diametrically opposed to each other; but in America, I found that they were intimately united, and that they reigned in common over the same country… Religion was the foremost of the political institutions of the United States. -- Alexis de Tocqueville, 1832 R1-1
    5. 5.  By the early the 1800s, the end of “established churches” presented the opportunity to convert citizens   In the early 19th century, church membership was low & falling New evangelists in the early 1800s led religious revivals using mass appeal techniques & preached that people were capable of selfimprovement
    6. 6.  The renewed religious revivalism became known as the Second Great Awakening (1800-1830s):   Highly emotional meetings began in the West & spread to all sections of the country Evangelists sought to awaken Americans to the need for “rebirth” & stressed salvation through repentance
    7. 7. “soul-shaking” conversion R1-2 “The ranges of tents, the fires, the candles Evangelist Charles G. and lamps illuminating Finney was the 1st to the camp; hundreds use dramatic revival moving to and fro; the meetings to convert preaching, praying, people from all singing, and shouting,… was enough to swallow classes up all the powers of contemplation.”
    8. 8. Stressed new revival techniques: extended meetings, public prayer for women, emotionalism
    9. 9. The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) ▪1823 → Golden Tablets ▪1830 → Book of Mormon ▪1844 → Murdered in Carthage, IL Joseph Smith (1805-1844)
    10. 10. Violence Against Mormons
    11. 11. The Mormon “Trek”
    12. 12. The Mormons (The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-Day Saints) ▪Deseret community. ▪Salt Lake City, Utah Brigham Young(1801-1877)
    13. 13. Mother Ann Lee (1736-1784) The Shakers eIf you will take up your crosses against the works of generations, and follow Christ in the regeneration, God will cleanse you from all unrighteousness. eRemember the cries of those who are in need and trouble, that when you are in trouble, God may hear your cries. eIf you improve in one talent, God will give you more. R1-4
    14. 14. Shaker Meeting
    15. 15. Shaker Simplicity & Utility
    16. 16.  Impact of the 2nd Great Awakening   New reform-minded churches were formed in the North & helped grow the Baptists & Methodists in the South The revivalists taught that each person had a duty to combat sin; this led to an era of social reform in the 1830s
    17. 17.   Northern revivals, unlike in the South, inspired social reform among middle-class participants Led to a “benevolent empire" of evangelical reform movements:    Religious conversion Morality crusaders attacked prostitution, gambling, & slavery Temperance advocates hoped to end alcohol abuse
    18. 18. Temperance was the era’s most successful reform
    19. 19.  Evangelicalism brought changes to white, middle-class families:    Child rearing seen as essential preparation for a Christian life Wives became “companions” (not servants) to their husbands Cult of Domesticity redefined women’s duty to promote piety, ethics, & character in children
    20. 20. Fears of Men
    21. 21.  Free public schools grew rapidly from 1820 to 1850 to provide educational & moral training:   Middle-class Americans saw education as a means for social advancement, teaching “3 R’s” & instilling a Protestant ethic Horace Mann argued that schools “save” immigrants & poor kids from parents’ “bad” influence to create good citizens
    22. 22. Horace Mann (1796-1859) “Father of American Education” e children were clay in the hands of teachers and school officials e children should be “molded” into a state of perfection e discouraged corporal punishment e established state teacher-training programs R3-6
    23. 23. Women Educators e Troy, NY Female Seminary e curriculum: math, physics, history, geography. e train female teachers Emma Willard(17871870) e 1837 → she established Mt. Holyoke [So. Hadley, MA] as the first college for women. Mary Lyons(17971849)
    24. 24. The McGuffey Eclectic Readers e Used religious parables to teach “American values.” e Teach middle class morality and respect for order. e Teach “3 Rs” + “Protestant ethic” (frugality, hard work, sobriety) R3-8
    25. 25. McDuffy’s Eclectic Readers were the most common text used to educated children
    26. 26.  Reformers believed that all problems were correctable & built state-supported prisons, asylums, poorhouses:   The most famous asylum reformer was Dorothea Dix who publicized inhumane treatment of mental institution patients As a result, 15 states improved their penitentiaries & hospitals
    27. 27. Dorothea Dix Asylum - 1849
    28. 28.  Radicals grew impatient in the 1830s & split from earlier moderate reform movements:    Temperance Movement Peace Movement Antislaver y Movement
    29. 29.   Moderate anti-slavery supporters backed emigration to Liberia to avoid a race war when slaves were gradually emancipated But radical abolitionists, led by William Lloyd Garrison, called for immediate slave emancipation via his American Anti-Slave Society & The Liberator newsletter
    30. 30.  Garrison became the most popular abolitionist in the North
    31. 31.  Former slaves, like Frederick Douglass & Sojourner Truth, became important abolitionists:    They were able to relate the realities of slavery through Freedom’s Journal & Nor th Star Blacks were the leaders in the Underground Railroad Blacks formed vigilante groups to protect fugitive slaves in North
    32. 32. Frederick Douglass & Sojourner Truth 1845 --> The Narrative of the Life Of Frederick Douglass 1847 --> “The North Star” R212
    33. 33. The Underground Railroad
    34. 34.   Abolitionists most appealed to small town folk in the North Not all Northerners supported abolition; Opposition came from:   Urban areas & from people who lived near the Mason-Dixon line Racism, fears of interracial marriage, & fear of economic competition from freed blacks
    35. 35.  Radical abolitionists were hurt by in-fighting & many people criticized Garrison for his views:    He elected a woman to the executive committee of his American Anti-Slave Society Called for Northern succession & boycotts of political elections Some abolitionists broke off & formed the Liber ty Par ty in 1840
    36. 36.   Involvement in abolitionism raised awareness of women’s inequality Lucretia Mott & Elizabeth Cady Stanton organized the 1st feminist national meeting, the Seneca Falls Convention in 1848   To demand the right to vote Rejected the cult of domesticity (separate roles for sexes) in favor of total gender equality
    37. 37. Seneca Falls Declaration
    38. 38. “Separate Spheres” Concept “Cult of Domesticity” eA woman’s “sphere” was in the home (it was a refuge from the cruel world outside). eHer role was to “civilize” her husband and family. e An 1830s MA minister: The power of woman is her dependence. A woman who gives up that dependence on man to become a reformer yields the power God has given her for her protection, and her character becomes unnatural!
    39. 39. Early 19c Women •Unable to vote. •Legal status of a minor. •Single → could own her own property. •Married → no control over her property or her children. •Could not initiate divorce. •Couldn’t make wills, sign a contract, or bring suit in court without her husband’s permission.
    40. 40. What It Would Be Like If Ladies Had Their Own Way! R2-8
    41. 41. Cult of Domesticity = Slavery The 2nd Great Awakening inspired women to improve society. Angelina Grimké Sarah Grimké e Southern Abolitionists Lucy Stone eAmerican Women’s Suffrage Assoc. eedited Woman’s Journal
    42. 42.  Some reformers grew tired of trying to change society & created their own “ideal” communities:    Robert Owen & Charles Fourier created socialist communities Shakers—believed in sexual equality & 2nd coming of Christ Oneida Community —Christ’s 2nd coming already occurred; no need for moral rules (“free love”)
    43. 43. Shaker Hymn 'Tis the gift to be simple, 'Tis the gift to be free, 'Tis the gift to come down where you ought to be, And when we find ourselves in the place just right, 'Twill be in the valley of love and delight. When true simplicity is gained To bow and to bend we shan't be ashamed, To turn, turn will be our delight, 'Till by turning, turning we come round right.
    44. 44. Complex Marriage Male Continence Communalism Mutual Criticism “Ascending” Fellowship
    45. 45. Transcendentalism eLiberation from understanding and the cultivation of reasoning.” e“Transcend” the limits of intellect and allow the emotions, the SOUL, to create an original relationship with the Universe.
    46. 46. Transcendentalist Thinking ▪Man must acknowledge a body of moral truths that were intuitive and must TRANSCEND more sensational proof: •The infinite benevolence of God. •The infinite benevolence of nature. •The divinity of man. ▪They instinctively rejected all secular authority and the authority of organized churches and the Scriptures, of law, or of conventions
    47. 47. Transcendentalism ▪Therefore, if man was divine, it would be wicked that he should be held in slavery, or his soul corrupted by superstition, or his mind clouded by ignorance!! ▪Thus, the role of the reformer was to restore man to that divinity which God had endowed them.
    48. 48. Transcendentalist Intellectuals/Writers Concord, MA Ralph Waldo Emerson Nature (1832) Self-Reliance (1841) Henry David Thoreau Walden(1854) Resistance to Civil Disobedience(1849) “The American Scholar” (1837) R3-1/3/4/5
    49. 49. The Transcendentalist Agenda ▪Give freedom to the slave. ▪Give well-being to the poor and the miserable. ▪Give learning to the ignorant. ▪Give health to the sick. ▪Give peace and justice to society.
    50. 50. A Transcendentalist Critic: Nathaniel Hawthorne (1804-1864) eTheir pursuit of the ideal led to a distorted view of human nature and possibilities: * The Blithedale Romance eOne should accept the world as an imperfect place: * Scarlet Letter * House of the Seven Gables
    51. 51.  Americans in the 1830s & 1840s seemed ready to improve the nation, but in different ways:     Political parties (Dems & Whigs) hoped to improve politics Industrialists hoped to increase the market revolution Religious reformers hoped to convert the masses Reform crusaders hoped to remove all moral & social evils