HeresyA belief contrary to some essential belief of thefaith.Counters MAJOR issues (not just opinions like thecolor of the building or stuff like that); sincereconvictions and attempts to understand faith;oftentimes, it’s a partial truth.
GnosticsAll matter is evil human body is evil JesusCANNOT be human … because how can Jesus/Godbe evil?THEREFORE … Jesus only appeared to behuman.Also, only they had the “secret knowledge”(secret gnosis) about salvation … basically, theyknew which doormat had the key to heavenhidden under it, and no one else knew thesecret password.
ANTI-GnosticsIrenaeus ~ bishop of Lyons … we need to be onthe same page about this “Jesus” in whom webelieve (from Council of Jerusalem); there aresome basic beliefs that need to be agreed upon.By 200, Apostles Creed (formulated statementof faith)Gnostics, for the most part, end here.
AriansPriest Arius thinks “unknowable unreachableunchangable God could never take the form of ahuman being” … because, well, then the unchangablewould have changed.God made Jesus Jesus must be less than God(because you can’t create something greater than yourself)& there had to be a time when God existed withoutJesus (before Jesus was created).Jesus is neither human nor divine … justsomewhere in between.
Council of NiceaConvened by Constantine (emperor?!?) in 3251st ecumenical (worldwide) council; 300+ come“Arius is a heretic!!!”Nicene Creed … Jesus is not “made by” but“one with” God BOTH human AND divine (asopposed to Arianist “neither human nor divine”); FULLYhuman and FULLY GodDefining moment … creed is still used today.
Arianism Continues OnVery popular heresy, especially in the EastBishop of Constantinople was ArianSome emperors are Arian, others are orthodoxEach emperor pulls opposing bishops, and putsin their own Arian emperor, Arian bishops;orthodox emperor, orthodox bishopsSo really, no one knows quite WHAT to believe… because it keeps changing!
Athanasius vs. the AriansBishop Athanasius ~ made in the image of God“The Word of God became man so that youmight learn from a man how a man may becomeGod” … Jesus is a model we can understand; hespeaks our language; we can identify with him.Jesus:God::brightness:light inseparable;“Jesus is the brilliant reflection of God”Removed from Bishopship five times by fouremperors; exiled for 17 years.
Theodosius Ends Arianism … sort of380 … outlaws paganism and makesChristianity the official/required religion392 … outlaws Arianism (after all, Arianism is aChristian heresy, which is different from paganism andwas therefore legal)395 … Christianity (as practiced/taught by theanti-Arian church) becomes the ONLY religionallowed in the Roman Empire.HOWEVER … Arianism lingers on, especially inthe East; becomes issue in the Great E/W Schism
DonatistsPriest DonatusApostasy is unforgivable apostate bishopsare unforgivable … and therefore are unable toperform sacraments “correctly”In other words, the validity of the sacramentdepends on the worthiness of the minister.SO … if your priest has sinned, then that’s notreally the Body & Blood of Jesus that you’rereceiving.
Augustine vs. the DonatistsWe’re all faulty flawed human beings … no oneis “worthy” or “holy” enoughThe minister doesn’t “do” the sacrament …rather, God performs it, THROUGH weak humansDonatists don’t allow for God’s power & graceIn the process … Augustine really clarified theChurch’s understanding/theology of sacraments
PelagiansMonk Pelagius was fed up with the moral laxityof the day – people need to be held responsiblefor their actions! But, it goes a bit too far …You can get to heaven without grace (thatspecial inner help from God) salvation comesfrom working hard.So … who needs God to get to heaven? Just doenough good stuff & you’ll be set.
Augustine vs. the PelagiansYou can’t negate God’s grace!Humans have this innate tendency towards sin(original sin) … without God’s grace, we arepowerless to overcome this tendency.Therefore, we NEED God’s grace to keep us ontrack.Think 12-Step Programs … admitting we arepowerless & need a Higher Power.Becomes issue especially during Reformation –salvation by faith or salvation by works.
Arianism Still a ProblemStill an issue, especially in the East and amongbarbarian tribesNew twist … the divine part of Jesus gradually“absorbed” the human part of Jesus Jesushad divine nature but not a human natureLOTS of fights; Patriarch of Constantinople(bishop of C’nople) killed in riots CouncilSyria & Ethiopia hold to this approach; split offinto the Jacobite church and Coptic church
Council of ChacedonPope Leo the Great (Leo I) in 451Reasserted that Jesus had two natures – REALhuman and REAL Son of GodReinforces teaching of Incarnation, that Jesusis both God and manCouncil, however, sets the stage for troublebetween the Eastern & Western churches
Patriarch of ConstantinopleCouncil also decided that Bishop of Rome waspre-eminent (most important) among all bishopsPatriarch of C’nople was second-in-commandAntioch & Alexandria mad, because they had beensecond, been around 300 years longer, etc.Leo unhappy, too, saw it as political – emperor(living in C’nople) could mess with the churchLeads to 500+ years of tensions between EasternChurch (led by patriarch) & Western (bish of Rome)
Ambrose, Augustine, LeoDonatists, Pelagians, Confessions, City of GodSupreme Pontiff, Theodosius, Reluctant FolkCouncil of ChalcedonEast & West Issues
Comic stripSomehow, list of key names, events, etc.Study/ReviewPages 73-81; 89-101Quiz &
– Ambrose: The Reluctant Leader • The People’s Choice ~ unbaptized Milan governor calmed mob disputing Arian bishop, “Amb for bish” • Administrator, Student, Teacher, and Pastor~ learn on feet; wrote LOTS of theology; scholar, pastor • Courage in the Face of Imperial Power ~ stood up various emperors Chh force to be reckoned with – Augustine: Longing for “the City of God” ~ Roman Africa; pagan father, Xian mother • In Search of Meaning ~ smart carouser; Manichaean (one god creates good, one god creates bad no one responsible for own sins); Monica prays much for him; in Rome, found Plato, learned single God & spiritual side of humans, met Ambrose; Ambrose message & Monica’s love won out reform • From Convert to Bishop ~ The Confessions (bio); restless heart used to love God & serve; 33yo baptized; started monastery in NAfr; priest, stayed single; elected bishop of Hippo by congregation • An Answer of Life’s Longing ~ weaksensitive; failneed for God; “hearts restless till rest in you” • The City of God” ~ 410 Goths took Rome; RomEmp=selfish city of Man; Xty builds city of God in chaos• The Rising Influence of the Papacy ~ Chh fills vacuum of power with pope, bishop of Rome – Leo the Great: Redefining the Pope’s Role ~ 440; bishRome statesman, spir leader, admin, scholar, saint • The “Supreme Pontiff” ~Pontifex Maximus “highest bridgemaker”, previously used by emperors, now Leo to show greatness of power; “Supreme Pontiff”; pappas Gk respectful affectionate “father” when small Rome community had friendly leader; title shift office shift to powerful state official • The Pope as Peacemaker ~ Attila the Hun retreat by talk with pope at Emp request, Vandals not kill – Leo and Church Controversies ~ lead in secular affairs; theological differences; Arianism in East