What was the Second Great Awakening? It began in the United states in 1790 and continued for 50 years. Similar to the religious revival over half a century beforehand, it took received its clever name…The Second Great Awakening. The 50 years of this movement were a time of religious revival which included widespread evangelism and may conversions. Church congregations from New England to the Northwest were revitalized by the movement. The success of the movement greatly depended on average, church going people, especially women who threw themselves into the cause of religious revival, in part due to their complete exclusion from politics at the time. Many religious figures became prominent due to this movement, two of the best known being ministers Charles Grandison Finney and Peter Cartwright As a result of the movement, and the participation of the evangelists in social aspects of American life such as prison reform, abolitionism, and temperance….many reforms were set into action.
The Camp Meeting: Due to the movement of thousands to what had once been trackless wilderness in 18th century America, camp meetings were the innovative response to the lack of churches and ordained ministers in the new west. News of these meetings was spread by word of mouth Due to the primitive means of transportation and lodging availible at the time, if the meeting was more than a few miles from the homes of those attending they would have to “camp out” around the meeting site for the duration of the meeting, also the way in which the name Camp Meetings was established. Mainly two types of people attended the meeting: the curious and the religiously devoted. However, following a meeting the majority of both groups became “sincere” converts. The meetings provided individuals with continuous services, once a speaker finished, usually after a few hours, the next would begin. As shown in the picture: The Cane Ridge revival, held in Cane Ridge Kentucky in 1801 was one of the largest and most successful camp meetings. And as a result is where the restoration movement began to be formalized. Or the Christian movement which sought to restore the Christian church after the single body pattern in the New Testament.
Music and Hymn singing was an integral part of Camp Meetings during this religious revival, and helped propagate the teachings of Christian beliefs in an interesting un-orthodox way. Plus, because the nature of these hymns, the camp meeting attendees focused on memorizing them rather than understanding them, the hymns in turn served as an easy outlet to express the religious views of the movement in a form which could be spread…such as the 2nd great awakening was, by word of mouth. - The specific hymn above was a hymn specifically to the youth, shared at camp meetings, and revivals at the time. The hymn calls the youth to a life of religion and faithfulness. And emphasized in the hymn is the possibility of an early death, due to many children of the period dying before age 6. The adults at the time wanted the children to understand the precarious position they were in and that choosing Christianity was the answer to their qualms.
The women during the time of the second great awakening were completely excluded from politics. As a result they threw themselves into benevolent Christian work and reform. The women became the major leaders of the public response to the Awakening. At first, women were hesitant, but middle-class women (daughters and wives of businessmen) were the first to set the trend of regularly attending church and spreading the teachings of the Awakening to others. This revitalized interest of women in Christian matters helped evangelist spread their word, helped boost church attendance, and also broke status quo’s of the time….women were beginning to have more influence over social/political matters.
Among many other influential ministers of his day, Peter Cartwright is still one of the most well-known. At age 16, Cartwright was converted at a camp meeting and joined the Methodist Episcopal Church. In 1802 Cartwright became a preacher and was later ordained. Cartwright was a veteran of the War of 1812 Cartwright called himself, “God’s Plowman” due to his success as a Methodist frontier preacher Cartwright promoted Methodist education and helped found three colleges in Illinois Also, Cartwright was an avid politician. A two-time member of the Illinois legislature and he ran for a Congress Seat in 1846 but lost to Springfield lawyer, Abraham Lincoln. The present day Cartwright Church began in 1824 as a class at the Cartwright household. After the construction of a log chapel the congregation grew and had to split into two sanctuaries, though additions have been made they look nearly the same as during Cartwright’s time.
Another minister who was just as influential as Peter Cartwright was Charles Grandison Finney. -Finney had a very eventful life and his life paths changed many timesThe youngest of 15 children and the son of a farmer, Finney did not attend college. However, his tall stature (6’3’’), leadership abilities, and musical talent allowed him to succeed in his community and elsewhere First, Finney planned on becoming a lawyer but after a conversion experience in NY, Finney resigned at his law office and to attend God’s calling to preach the gospel. Finney was married three times and each of his wives helped to advance his evangelistic efforts like many women of the day. Finney was also a Third Degree master Mason for eight years but he felt that his oath as a master mason was immoral and that it was dangerous to civil government Finney helped to found the Broadway Tabernacle in New York which is still standing as the present day, Broadway United Church of Christ Along with his evangelical efforts he was an avid abolitionist and frequently denounced slavery from the pulpit.Later in his life Finney also became president of Oberlin College and helped advance Oberlin’s early movement to end slavery and coeducacte African Americans with whites. Overall Finney’s theology most closely represents the revival style which emerged in the 19th century because he did not closely associate himself with any specific denomination and denounced beliefs from his Calvinist background.
During the Second Great Awakening many other topics were being reformed by American Christians, such as women’s rights, abolitionism, and temperance to name a few. -Christian’s of the period believed reform was part of God’s plan. As a result, individual Christians contemplated their rols in society in purifying the world by the number of individuals they could bring to salvation. -As abolitionist and anti-slavery activists amongst other things, Christian reformers of the time sought to implement their beliefs into national politics. - Overall, the Second Great Awakening was the period of great religious revival following the American Revolution which reformed our nation and helped us find its identity in many different aspects of society.
2nd Great Awakening Powerpoint
The Second Great Awakening<br />". . . one can almost say that the steady burning of the Revival,…was a central mode of this culture's search for national identity." — Perry Miller, The Life of the Mind in America: From the Revolution to the Civil War<br />
What was The 2nd Great Awakening?<br /><ul><li>1790-1840
Period of religious revival following the American Revolution
Evangelical contributions changed social aspects of American life</li></ul>1839 Methodist camp meeting<br />
The Camp Meeting<br /><ul><li>Phenomenon of American frontier Christianity
Due to the movement of thousands to what had once been unknown wilderness
The curious and sincere flocked to the meetings and “camped out” </li></li></ul><li>Music & Hymn Singing<br />Music & Hymn Singing<br /><ul><li>Main aspect of camp meetings
Focused on Rote learning or sheer memorization
Collections of camp meeting hymns published to help propagate the evangelical teachings of the meetings
These hymns were comprised of everyday language and Scripture phrases </li></ul>Young people all, attention<br /> give,<br />While I address you in God's name;<br />You who in sin and folly live, <br />Come hear the counsel of a friend:<br />I sought for bliss in glitt'ring toys,<br />And rang'd the ‘luring scenes of vice,<br />But never found substantial joys, <br />Until I heard my Saviour's voice. ..”<br />
The Woman’s Role<br /><ul><li>At the time, Women threw themselves into benevolent Christian work due to the complete exclusion from politics which they faced.
As a result, women were the leaders in spreading the teachings of Awakening to others. </li></ul>Frank Leslie's Illustrated Newspaper, Women, active in camp meetings, early 1800's <br />
Peter Cartwright<br />“…and then and there I promised the Lord that if he would spare me, I would seek and serve him; and I never fully broke that promise”.<br /><ul><li>(1785-1872)
Early American “hellfire and brimstone” minister preacher
Lost to Abraham Lincoln for Congress seat in 1846</li></li></ul><li>Charles Grandison Finney<br />(1792-1875)<br />“The Father of Modern Revivalism” <br />Made significant innovations in preaching and religious meetings <br />Author of Religious Revivals and many other publications <br />Very opinionated and an avid criticizer of other Christian teachings <br />
Other Implications…<br /><ul><li>American Christians took it upon themselves to reform society during this time.
Women’s rights, abolitionism, temperance, etc. </li>