Urban transport - Kolkata

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Urban transport - Kolkata

  1. 1. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  2. 2. A presentation by Surajit Bhattacharya Architect and Urban Planner Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  3. 3. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Social Dilemmas
  4. 4. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Presentation will cover the following Definition of sustainability and sustainable development Definition of sustainable urban transport Global warming and climate change Types of Institution and Formal Institution Existing UrbanTransport in Kolkata Over view of National UrbanTransport Policy Dilemma of Policy Implementation and Bounded Rationality Way forward with carrot and stick approach (soft and hard measures)
  5. 5. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Sustainability What is sustainability ?
  6. 6. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Definition of Sustainability and Sustainable Development According to Beatley, 1995 “universally there is no accepted definition of sustainability, sustainable development or sustainable transport” Sustainable development “meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs.” (Brundtland Commission, 1987)
  7. 7. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata “Sustainable development is the achievement of continued economic development without detriment to the environmental and natural resources.” (Themes Sustainable Development, 2004). Sustainability is “the capacity for continuance into the long term future”. Anything that can go on being done on an indefinite basis is sustainable. Anything that cannot go on being done indefinitely is unsustainable (Centre for Sustainability, 2004) 1. Definition of Sustainability and Sustainable Development
  8. 8. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata “The goal of sustainable transportation is to ensure that the environment, social and economic considerations are factored into decisions affecting transportation activity.” (MOST, 1999) Transportation impacts on sustainability- Litman and Burwell, (2006, p.335) Definition of Sustainable urban transport
  9. 9. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata What is carbon footprint actually ? Definition of Carbon foot print
  10. 10. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Definition of Carbon foot print CFP is a measure of all greenhouse gases a specified entity and is a measure of how much we affect the environment, and particularly climate change, through our lifestyle. It consider the effect of using a car, flying, but also eating habits and leisure. You May visit http://www.carbonfootprint.com/ to calculate your CFP Source: http://alternativestandrews.blogspot.in/
  11. 11. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata What are GHGs? Definition of Greenhouse Effect
  12. 12. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Definition of Greenhouse Effect Greenhouse Gases such as:  Water vapour (H2O)  Carbon dioxide(CO2)  Methane (CH4)  Nitrous oxide (N2O) are all absorbers of infrared radiation and known as GHGs
  13. 13. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Global warming and climate change What are Global warming and climate change?
  14. 14. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata  Visible light is reflected as infrared radiation and is absorbed by these gases and then slowly release the heat back into the atmosphere keeping Earth’s average surface temperature around 59°F (15°C).  Without this atmospheric greenhouse effect, the average surface temperature of the planet would be only about 0°F (-18°C).Many life forms would find it difficult to survive.  Problems happen when the greenhouse effect becomes too great and the temperature continues to rise. Global warming and climate change
  15. 15. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Definition of Sustainable urban transport What are sustainable and unsustainable transport?
  16. 16. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Sustainable transportation indicators (Economic) Transportation impacts on sustainability- Litman and Burwell, (2006, p.337)
  17. 17. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Sustainable transportation indicators (Social) Transportation impacts on sustainability- Litman and Burwell, (2006, p.337)
  18. 18. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Sustainable transportation indicators (Environmental) Transportation impacts on sustainability- Litman and Burwell, (2006, p.338) VOC:Volatile org comp
  19. 19. According to Prof. David Banister (Oxford University), 2003 – “In an absolute sense all transport is unsustainable as it consumes resources. Walking and cycling come nearest to being sustainable, as they consume very little non-renewable energy, but even here other types of resources are used, principally space”. “ As we move down the transport hierarchy, more resources are used both in terms of energy consumption, and in the production of externalities”. Externalities in the transport context cover the emissions of pollutions, the waste from the production and disposal of vehicles, the use of public spaces for roads and parking, the severance effect, destruction of ecosystem and visual annoyance. Sustainable urban transport Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  20. 20. Sustainable urban transport Is Private Car unsustainable? Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  21. 21. According to Prof. David Banister (Oxford University), 2003 – “In terms of sustainable transport, both walking and cycling come out top. High occupancy public transport (including rail, bus, tram and metro) follows, but in some cases only just ahead of CLEAN, SMALL, EFFICIENT car. The third group includes high speed rail and many other types of car. Taxis and lorries form a fourth group with air transport on its own in a fifth group”. Sustainable urban transport (In terms of Resources Used) Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  22. 22. Sustainable urban transport (In terms of Resources Used) According to Wegener and Fürst, 1999 - The car as a mode of transport has been mostly accepted as the standard to indicate unsustainability of urban transport system. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  23. 23. Sustainable urban transport (In terms of energy) Banister, D2003 (Oxford University) Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  24. 24. Definition of Formal Institutions Williamson,O.E,1994 identifies four levels of institutions in the framework of new institutional economics and they are informal, formal, governance and resource allocation / employment related. According to Williamson, 1994 Formal Institutions are normally established and constituted by binding laws, regulations and legal orders which prescribe what may or may not be done. The formal institutions are codified statutes, constitutional provisions, laws, regulations and high administrative orders. Sudden and radical institutional change does occur, but generally, formal institutions change slowly through the politics of modification and reform as different interests and ideas compete to get the most out of the rules. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  25. 25. Existing UrbanTransport in Kolkata Trip distributions (Source: IDFC, 2008) “Urban transport in Calcutta is in crisis. Because of uncontrolled land use development, associated transport activity and an unrelenting increase in private motor vehicles, there is severe congestion and deteriorating public transport.” (Halder, 1997, p. 24) Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  26. 26. Existing UrbanTransport in Kolkata Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Kolkata Delhi Mumbai Percentage Modal Share 2002 Walk Non Motorised Veicle Private Motorised Public Transport 0% 20% 40% 60% 80% 100% Kolkata Delhi Mumbai Percentage Modal Share 2008 Walk Non Motorised Veicle Private Motorised Public Transport
  27. 27. Existing UrbanTransport in Kolkata Growth in Motorised vehicles, Kolkata (Source: Statistical Handbook,WBG) Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  28. 28. Existing UrbanTransport in Kolkata Source: Pucher et al, 2005 for 2002 data and Wilbur Smith Report for 2008 data Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  29. 29. Existing UrbanTransport in Kolkata Tram Services in Kolkata Statistical hand book, 2002-03,WSG Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  30. 30. National UrbanTransport Policy 2006 http://urbanindia.nic.in/policies/TransportPolicy.pdf Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  31. 31. National UrbanTransport Policy 2006 (Main Focus) Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  32. 32. NUTP (2006) implementation at state level http://kolkatatrafficpolice.gov.in/bi_cycle_notice.htm http://www.urbanindia.nic.in/programme/ut/K_1401 1152007_UT.pdf Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  33. 33. NUTP (2006) implementation at state level http://www.jnnurmwestbengal.gov.in/Others/uig_mpr_31122012.pdf Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  34. 34. NUTP (2006) implementation at state level JnNURM Spending (Source: KMDA) Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  35. 35. Decision making and implementation gap Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata According to David Banister: “the problem is what is sometimes known as implementation gap between how we get good ideas…….and the practicalities of decision making in the real world is constrained by institutional, organisational and financial and other issues, so there is an implementation gap between what should be done and what can be done and looking at the ways in which that can actually be bridged.” (New Statesman Magazine, 2012). European Conference of Ministers of Transport (ECMT, 2002) however, concluded that, while cities were generally aware of the most appropriate solutions, the implementation of such sustainable transport strategies was “more easily said than done”.
  36. 36. POLICY FRAMING Decision making and implementation gap Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata IMPLEMENTATION MECHANISM APPRAISAL FUNDING EXECUTION MONITORINGEVALUATION
  37. 37. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata I investigated barriers with respect to cognitive limitations of individual stakeholders to sustainable urban transport policy vis-à-vis implementation gap leading to “urban transport crisis in Kolkata” Decision making and implementation gap
  38. 38. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata “implementation should not be divorced from policy. There is no point in having good ideas if they cannot be carried out”. (Pressman and Wildavsky, 1973, P 143) http://books.google.co.uk/books?id=oV0yetu_GSQC&printsec=frontcover&dq=imp lementation+pressman&hl=en&sa=X&ei=I8daUequCY3krAf2u4DgDg&ved=0CC4 Q6AEwAA#v=onepage&q&f=false If you may like to read this book Decision making and implementation gap
  39. 39. Bounded Rationality by Herbert Simon Herbert Alexander Simon (June 15, 1916 – February 9, 2001) the Nobel Memorial Prize in Economics "for his pioneering research into the decision-making process”. This theory is drawn from the behavioural economics and psychology. Simon’s research found that humans are not rational (not irrationality) opposing to the age old belief as in rational choice theory.  It is also concerned with rational choice Takes into account the COGNITIVE LIMITATIONS of the decision maker  It is concerned with human decision-making processes Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  40. 40. KINDLY SAYTHE COLOUR AND NOT SPELLING Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  41. 41. The Key insight that Behavioral Economics borrows from Psychology Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Normally the human mind works remarkably well. Examples: -Recognize people we haven’t seen in years -Run down a flight of stairs - Speak 12 languages But people can be systematically wrong. We are prone to biased judgment
  42. 42. CONTEXT Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  43. 43. Bounded Rationality “COGNITION” is the psychological result of perception and learning and reasoning that is Cognitive psychology deals with high mental processes. So Bounded rationality is the idea that in decision-making,  rationality of individuals is limited by the information they have  the cognitive limitations of their minds and the finite amount of time they have to make a decision Simon also used a Scottish word “satisficing” which deals with the action process not necessarily optimum but good enough and near to satisfaction considering the limitations of finite information, cognitive ability, time and level of aspiration to search for alternative for optimum solution Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  44. 44. Optimizing versus Satisficing Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Optimizing strategies search here Satisficing strategies search here
  45. 45. Optimizing versus Satisficing Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata structure of the environment (exogenous & endogenous) cognitive limits Simple Heuristic: fix the angle of your gazeHeuristic: rule of thumb
  46. 46. Some quotes from the interviews with the policy makers Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata “principal point of the urban transport policy is that move people not vehicles and I think that this policy as has been formulated fulfils the social and economic needs of the people and the overall fame work for the sustainable mission for sustainable urban development”. “The present trend is to go towards non car based transport, that is public transport, cycling and walking but the progress has been rather slow. Our ministry has been trying to promote non car based transport like public transport, cycling and walking but the response of the states to the same has been rather slow” “The priority is obviously on non car based transport policies that is use of public transport over private transport. But so far in implementation, very often private transport has got priority. Most of the flyovers that have been made are benefitting mainly car owners, this is not desirable.” “....prescriptions of NUTP of 2006 in the strictest sense there is yet to be a proper reflection in urban transport policy at the level of Kolkata. Even at the level of KMA also we do not have a policy as such.What we have is a set of plans which are mandated .JnNURM.”
  47. 47. Some quotes from the interviews with the policy makers Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata “......NUTP has incorporated the principle that pedestrians and pedestrian infrastructure need special focus ...... but the guidelines of the JnNURM do not make explicit reference to pedestrian and bicycle infrastructure.This is one of the weakest links.” “...Calcutta we can now see crisscrossing of metro railway lines being built up. Calcutta was the first city in India where the underground metro first built. “ Around Kolkata, the new townships and the satellite towns are being planned without paying much attention to transportation needs.We are putting the cart before the horse” “Cycling I do not think is a very viable option in Calcutta; temperature, humidity and the rain and the plight of the senior citizens make it quite difficult for people to use cycles……when all these public network will grow they will carry millions of people around and I can very well see if we can plan it properly will park their cars near metro stations and go long distances there and take some kind of a shuttle for the nearest mile connectivity” We have a very ambivalent attitude towards the tram way system, there are a lot of diverse opinions but I think the present tram way system as it exists is not suitable for Calcutta. There are so many ways of reviving the heritage aspect I don’t mind that.. I mean in the Maidan area if there is a heritage and the tourist go and have a taste of what it was like the toy train in Darjeeling
  48. 48. Some examples of unsustainable projects Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Client.asp?skin=pastissues2&enter=LowLevel&AW=1367324144938
  49. 49. Some examples of unsustainable projects Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Client.asp?skin=pastissues2&enter=LowLevel&AW=13 67324144938
  50. 50. Some examples of unsustainable projects Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Client.asp?skin=pastissues2&enter=LowLevel&AW=1367324144938
  51. 51. Some examples of unsustainable projects Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata http://epaper.timesofindia.com/Default/Client.asp?skin=pastissues2&enter=LowLevel&AW=1367324144938
  52. 52. Way forward Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Source:Asian Development Bank
  53. 53. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata
  54. 54. Sustainability and urban transport-Kolkata Old (pre-1947) nostalgic photos of Kolkata

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