Pedestrian Planning


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Best Practice Case Studies for Milwaukee's Pedestrian Projects, Programs, and Policies

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Pedestrian Planning

  3. 3. EXECUTIVE SUMMARYThe primary objective of this study is to identify best management prac-tices in pedestrian planning for the City of Milwaukee. The PlanningGroup has compiled different pedestrian related best practice methodsand identified how each method can be adapted to fit Milwaukee’s pe-destrian needs. Best practices have been categorized in three groups—project based, programs, and policies—which address various pedes-trian issues. This report also provides a set of recommended policiesand programs to encourage, educate, and promote increased use of amore accessible and walkable environment.Many large cities- Seattle, Portland, San Francisco, Kansas City, Denverhave successfully drafted and adopted pedestrian plans. Many of these GROUP MEMBERSplans are also inclusive of bicycle plans and accommodations. Milwau-kee currently has a Bicycle Plan but not a plan that focuses on the XYLIA RUEDAimprovement of pedestrian interests, safety, and infrastructure. One Project Managerresult of not having a pedestrian plan is a large number pedestrian crashreports generated by the Milwaukee Police Department. In a three year HEATH ANDERSON:period from January 2007 to January 2011, 828 pedestrian crashes GIS Spatial Analysiswere reported. Because of the need to increase pedestrian safety, thisreport begins the research and development of a pedestrian plan for the MARK SAUER:City of Milwaukee. Public ParticipationTo begin this study, the Planning Group first began by identifying various Coordinatorcase studies in improvements to pedestrian related projects, programs,and policies. Then the group utilized ESRI’s ArcGIS program point den- RACHANA KOTHARI:sity tool in conjunction with the crash data to better define the areas Urban Design Specialistof highest crash frequency. Further analysis was conducted on varioussites that met the group’s criteria to gain a greater understanding of PAUL MERKEY:the physical make-up of the sites. The two sites that best fit our criteria Program Researcherwere the intersections of N 91st St. & W Silver Spring Ave. and S 6thSt. & W Lincoln Ave.In order to better serve the public, questionnaires and a public openhouse were conducted to gain an understanding of the publics’ desires,needs, likes, and dislikes. One of those needs was to address speedand driver courtesy throughout Milwaukee. Photomontages and spe-cific site recommendations were constructed for each site that includedproject recommendations intended to aid in the reduction of pedestriancrashes. The group then identified best practice methods to be adoptedas the framework for problematic intersections throughout the City.The end product is a compilation of best practice project, program, andpolicy recommendations at two site specific locations and city wide whichoutlines tasks needed to reduce pedestrian crashes throughout the City.The next critical steps for the City is to devise a ranking system to stra-tegically prioritize and ensure the most critical projects are addressedfirst while phasing in lower-priority projects based on cost and feasibil-ity. These recommendations were constructed through public input andare in the best interest of the residents of Milwaukee. 5 INTRODUCTION
  4. 4. INTRODUCTIONDuring the fifteen week semester, group members worked on aplanning related problem dealing with improvements to the proj-ects, programs, and policies impacting the pedestrian realm inMilwaukee. Taking a client-centered approach to defining andsolving the problem, the group acted as a consulting team forDave Schlabowske, Bicycle and Pedestrian Coordinator for theCity of Milwaukee, Department of Public Works.The overall project goal for is to present the client with a docu-ment on best practice case studies in pedestrian projects, pro-grams, and policies from around the nation. Not only will thisdocument highlight best practices, but it will showcase how thosebest practices can be implemented at various sites throughoutthe City of Milwaukee.PROBLEMNinety-five percent of streets in Milwaukee have sidewalks. Thisexisting infrastructure provides ample opportunity for pedestriancirculation and allows for safe separation of motorized and nonmotorized transportation in the public realm. However, sidewalksalone are not enough. In order to cater to the increased den-sity of pedestrian traffic desired by stakeholders throughout thecity, Milwaukee must improve policies and programs to guide thephysical design of streets for the pedestrian.Currently, the State of Wisconsin uses “Guide to Complete Streets”when redeveloping state roads and highways. This plan is enact-ed when any State or federal money is used to finance a project,regardless of the location of the infrastructure in the State. The“complete” street guide however, does not apply to city streetsnot owned by the state. Though the City of Milwaukee has theability to create the infrastructure and density it desires throughits own means, there is currently no best practices program orcomplete streets policy in place to guide this development at thelocal level.This study is intended to create a living, breathing documentwhich applies best practice principles in pedestrian-oriented de-sign to specific areas throughout the City of Milwaukee. In addi-tion, it will act as a gateway and template for further develop-ment of best practices in City projects. The outcome will be acombination of project, policy, and program recommendations forthe City of Milwaukee. 7 INTRODUCTION
  5. 5. PROJECT, PROGRAM, POLICY FRAMEWORK Pedestrian planning is inclusive of three elements- project, pro- gram, and policy. Implemented through private or public entities, the three p’s of pedestrian planning are used to ensure a safe and rewarding walking experience. Project: A project is defined as the implementation of a physical change to the pedestrian infrastructure or experience. Projects would include things like installing speed humps, or new cross- walk line painting. Projects should be done at the municipal level. Program: A program is a short-term activity with a goal of edu- cating the public or encouraging walking as a viable transporta- tion option. Programs can be implemented at the municipal level or privately. Policy: A policy is a long-term resolution, ordinance, or commit- ment by a department or agency to educate the public or encour- age walking as a viable transportation option. Policies can be implemented by private entities or through a municipality. PROCESS The research began with a problem definition and understanding of Milwaukee’s current pedestrian infrastructure, programs, and policies. Goals, objectives, and criteria were then defined in order to frame the research and problem-solution. Finally, a scope of work was created and roles were selected by each group member. Two Milwaukee sites were selected using Geographic Information Systems analysis. In addition, best practice case study research was conducted to effectively and efficiently enhance pedestrian infrastructure, programs, and policies in cities around the nation. Through conceptual design renderings and recommendations, best practice research will be implemented on two sites within the City of Milwaukee focusing on site specific projects, programs, and policies. As part of the implementation and recommendation process, a public participation charette and stakeholder interviews were conducted within the two selected sites. Stakeholder interviews proved to be useful in understanding how power and responsibil- ity is shared amongst the users of the intersection (drivers, pe-Above: Participants of the public destrians, local business owners). The public charette allowed forcharette place stickers on safe preference surveys to be conducted and residents to have a directand unsafe areas of one of the impact on the future of their intersections.PEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 8
  6. 6. The result of this process is both conceptual design ideas andrecommendations on projects, programs, and policies the City ofMilwaukee can implement to improve the pedestrian realm.GOALS, OBJECTIVES, AND CRITERIAThe goals, objectives, and criteria, outlined below, were definedby the Planning Group. They are intended to be the result of theresearch and identify recommendations presented in this docu-ment and future implementation by the City on specific sites, orin City wide policy.IMPROVE SAFETY: By eliminating the perceived and real safetyissues in the pedestrian realm, people are more likely to chooseto walk. Objective: 1. Reduce pedestrian crashes Criteria: - Improve block and intersection design for pedestrian usage based on best practices - Improve Pedestrian Level of Service (see WISDOT) 2. Ensure pedestrian right-of-way Criteria: - Restrict street furnishings to the edges of the sidewalk - Increase sidewalk width 3. Education and Outreach Criteria: - Safe pedestrian habits will be presented in at least three different media formats - Safe pedestrian habits will be directed at all ages - Programs will educate the public on pedestrian safety regulations - Safe driving habitsENCOURAGE WALKABILITY: Milwaukee should encouragewalking to promote healthy and active lifestyles which result inassociated environmental and economic benefits. Objective: 1. Increase the frequency of walking Criteria: - Create programs that encourage walking over motor- ized transportation - Enhance street design as to be part of the public realm to make pedestrians feel welcome and safe 2. Education and Outreach: Criteria: - Inform and educate elected officials and public agency staff about the pedestrian realm 9 INTRODUCTION
  7. 7. - Organize programs and events to encourage public to walk 3. Improve access to sidewalks and crossings: Criteria: - Reduce intersection crossing distances for pedestrians - Improve accessibility to crossings and sidewalks for those with disabilities 4. Improve connectivity: Criteria: - Enhance accessibility to other modes of travel such as mass transit - Promote pedestrian design to be compatible with sur- rounding uses - Implement American Disability Act (ADA) design stan- dards in all projects to improve accessibility for all users THINK LOCAL: The City of Milwaukee has the resources and ability to manage its pedestrian infrastructure with local funding sources and incentives. Objectives: 1. Complete and maintain pedestrian system Criteria: - Create funding strategies for pedestrian infrastructure improvements - Create funding strategies for pedestrian infrastructure maintenance 2. Public/Private investment (partnerships) Criteria: - Identify private funding sources for pedestrian infra- structure - Identify avenues for ventures - Identify and pursue available grants through intergov- ernmental co-operationPEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 10
  8. 8. PEDESTRIANS IN MILWAUKEEThe following chapter is background information on pedestrianplanning as it relates to Milwaukee.U.S. PEDESTRIAN PLANNING AND MILWAUKEECities like Seattle, Portland, and San Francisco all consistentlyrank among the most desirable cities to live and visit. Their ur-banism- multi-modal approach to transportation, economic vital-ity, and livability- is notorious Nationwide and often emulated inthe planning profession. Among the various reasons for their de-sirability is the fact that these cities are extremely walkable. Sincethe early 1990’s, pedestrian planning has emerged as a form oftransportation that progressive cities like Seattle, Portland, andSan Francisco have incorporated into planning policies and pro-grams. In 1998 the City of Portland adopted it’s Pedestrian Mas-ter Plan. Even earlier, in 1996, Seattle drafted and adopted itsfirst Pedestrian Master Plan which has now blossomed into an on-line interactive map highlighting walking routes, amenities, andmulti-modal connections. One of the main reasons these urbanareas are so successful is because they have taken a wholisticapproach to transportation planning and created pedestrian plansfor the 21st Century.The City of Milwaukee currently ranks as the 28th largest city byPopulation. Similar cities like Denver, Portland, and Louisville,Kentucky have all adopted or are in the process of adopting pe-destrian plans. Cities like Baltimore and Nashville have countyor regional pedestrian plans which are used at the local level byeach respective city to coordinate pedestrian planning. On theother hand, Milwaukee has just drafted its Bicycle Plan and doesnot have a strategic, City wide plan for its pedestrians. Walkingis still very much a necessity in Milwaukee because of the safetyand desirability factors which stem from its foundation. While theCity of Milwaukee has in place the sidewalks it needs to encour-age walking, the City lacks a wholistic approach to pedestrian andtransportation plans. Using studies like Seattle and Denver allowsMilwaukee to see what an excellent pedestrian plan looks like.More importantly, it will allow Milwaukee to emulate an excellentpedestrian planning process. Data Source. US Census, 2010 Above: a comparison of similar sized cities in terms of areas and population. Source: City of Milwaukee Downtown Plan 13 PEDESTRIANS IN MILWAUKEE
  9. 9. WALK SCORE Walk Score is an independent interactive mapping site launched in 2007. Inspired by the work of the Sightline Institute, its mis- sion is promote walkable neighborhoods by making it easy for the average Joe to evaluate walkability- or access to amenities and transportation- when deciding where to live. The Planning Group decided to utilize this free service to evalu- ate the two target areas because the Planning Group agrees with Walk Score’s identification of certain variables that make a place or neighborhood walkable. Walkable neighborhoods offer ben- efits to the environment, health, finances, and communities that sprawling, auto-dependent neighborhoods do not. Walking pro- duces zero emissions and provides an alternative to costly gas prices or bus fares. Additionally, studies show that for every ten minutes a person spends in a daily car commute, time spent in community activities falls by 10% (Sightline Institute). Final- ly, according to a Seattle Times report entitled 2 studies: Urban sprawl adds pounds, pollution, “the average resident of a walk- able neighborhood weighs seven pounds less than someone who lives in a sprawling neighborhood” In each target area section, there is an evaluation of the select- ed intersection and surrounding neighborhood using Walk Score. Walk scores are numbered between 0 and 100 with 100 being a “walker’s paradise” where daily errands do not require a car. The City of Milwaukee average Walk Score is 62, but it ranks 13th amongst the largest 40 U.S. cities. San Francisco is number 1.Above: Milwaukee’s most walk-able neighborhoods are rankedby Walk ScoreBottom Left: A one mile radius ina compact neighborhood versus asprawling neighborhoodPEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 14
  10. 10. SOUTHEASTERN WISCONSIN REGIONALPLANNING COMMISSION (SEWRPC)The Southeastern Wisconsin Regional Planning Commission’s(SEWRPC) planning report “A Regional Transportation SystemPlan for Southeastern Wisconsin: 2035,” states that their pedes-trian facilities plan element is a policy, rather than a system, plan.It proposes that the various units and agencies of governmentresponsible for the construction and maintenance of pedestrianfacilities in Southeastern Wisconsin adopt and follow recommend-ed standards and guidelines with regard to the development ofthose facilities. The guidelines, together with the recommendedstandards for pedestrian facilities, are designed to facilitate safeand efficient pedestrian travel within the Region.SEWRPC’s planning report further notes the importance of pedes-trian safety: “The standards and guidelines for pedestrian facilities in- clude recommendations that sidewalks be provided along streets and highways in areas of existing or planned urban development based upon identified criteria; that sidewalks be designed and constructed using widths and clearances appropriate for the levels of pedestrian and vehicular traffic in any given area; that landscaped terraces, curb lawns, or other buffer areas be provided between sidewalks and the roadways enhancing the pedestrian environment; and that efforts be made to maximize pedestrian safety at street crossings, including the timing of the “walk” phase of traf- fic signals to provide for safe pedestrian crossings, and the provision of pedestrian “islands” and medians in wide, heavily traveled, or otherwise hazardous roadways. The plan also emphasizes that all pedestrian facilities must be designed and constructed in accordance with the require- ments of the Federal Americans with Disabilities Act and its implementing regulations.”They also propose that local units of government prepare com-munity bicycle and pedestrian plans to supplement their regionalplan. The local plans should provide for facilities to accommodatebicycle and pedestrian travel within neighborhoods, providing forconvenient travel between residential areas and shopping cen-ters, schools, parks, and transit stops within or adjacent to theneighborhood. Lastly, SEWRPC recommends that local units ofgovernment consider the preparation and implementation of landuse plans that encourage more compact and dense developmentpatterns, in order to facilitate pedestrian and bicycle travel. 15 PEDESTRIANS IN MILWAUKEE
  11. 11. MILWAUKEE’S EXISTING BICYCLE ACCOMMODATIONS Transportation comes in many forms. These forms sometimes work together and sometimes compete for users. Whether an individual decides to bike, walk, drive or otherwise, it is important to think about pedestrian planning as part of a larger transporta- tion network which supports the need and desire to have multiple modes of transportation. One area where Milwaukee has excelled thus far is in bicycle planning and accommodation. Incorporating the existing bicycle infrastructure into pedestrian planning will offer multiple benefits that a singular approach to transportation planning would otherwise miss. The following is an excerpt from SEWRPC Memorandum Report No. 197 Review, Update, and Reaffirmation of the Year 2035 Re- gional Transportation System Plan: This map (page 17) identifies those arterial streets and highways which provided bicycle accommodations through paved shoulders, bicycle lanes, or separate paths in 2009. The mileage of arterial streets and highways that provided bicycle accommodations through paved shoulders, bicycle lanes, or separate paths increased from about 633 miles in 2004 to about 650 miles in 2009, or about a 3% increase. Data is not available to identify those urban arterials with outside lanes of 14 feet in width which also accommodate bicycles. A multi-modal transportation system with high quality pub- lic transit, bicycle and pedestrian, and arterial street and highway elements which adds to the quality of life of Region residents and supports and promotes expansion of the Re- gion’s economy, by providing for convenient, efficient, and safe travel by each mode, while protecting the quality of the Region’s natural environment, minimizing disruption of both the natural and man-made environment, and serving to support implementation of the regional land use plan, while minimizing the capital and annual operating costs of the transportation system.PEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 16
  13. 13. BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIESThe best practice section of this report outlines several project, Case Studies are from the Pe-program, and policy best practices from around the nation that destrian and Bicycle Informationdeal with how to improve the pedestrian experience. They range Center Case Study Compendium,from simple project practices like lighting and stripping cross- July 2010walks to programs designed to reinstitute the practice of walk-ing to neighborhood schools. Ultimately, these physical and insti-tutional changes are recommendations based on their success.They can only be fully successful in Milwaukee through a com-bined social change in the behavior of pedestrian, bicyclists, andmotorists alike.PROJECT BEST PRACTICESThe project section includes a collection of case studies cover- PROJECTSing a broad array of topics from safety, walkability, accessibility, 1. UNCONTROLLEDinfrastructure improvements, planning, education and enforce- CROSSWALKSment. These case studies will serve as a baseline for project im- 2. SPEEDING AND LACK OFplementation by providing ideas for potential methods Milwaukee VISIBILITYcan undertake to improve pedestrian infrastructure and support 3. IRREGULAR ANGLESa walkable environment. Each case study provides a context in 4. LACK OF CURBSwhich the project takes place, a description of the pedestrian is- 5. ECONOMICsues faced, as well as how the community sought to address DISINVESTMENTtheir concerns through various measures. Each case study then 6. ROUNDABOUTconcludes with a solution describing the successes and lessons 7. MANAGINGlearned from the planning process or implementation. STORMWATER 8. CREATING SIDEWALKS 9. UNLIMITED ANDCASE STUDY 1: UNCONTROLLED CROSSWALKS UNDEFINED ACCESSLocation 10. TOTAL FACILITIESCity of Santa Rosa, California OVERHAULProblemThe City of Santa Rosa reported an unusually high incidence ofpedestrian/vehicle collisions due to uncontrolled crosswalks.BackgroundSpeeding on residential streets is cited as one of the most fre-quently expressed concerns by local citizens. To provide a solu-tion to the issue, three locations were selected for traffic calmingand facilities improvements. The solution was tested, analyzedand monitored with funding from the California Office of TrafficSafety (OTS).SolutionSanta Rosa initiated a new proactive pedestrian warning systemwhere a flashing device would be installed on the pavement sur- 19 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROJECTS
  14. 14. face, along the crosswalk lines facing traffic. The In-Pavement Flashing Lights Crosswalk Warning System’s purpose was to warn the vehicular traffic of the presence of pedestrians in the cross- walk at uncontrolled intersections. This was tested in the city with the permission of The California Traffic Control Devices Commit- tee. The experimental system consists of a series of flashingBelow: In-Pavement Crosswalk light units which are embedded in the pavement adjacent to alighting during the day and at marked crosswalk. The lights reflect toward the oncoming trafficnight. to warn drivers of a pedestrian’s presence. Result and Application for Milwaukee The concept of flashing amber lights embedded in the pavement at uncontrolled crosswalks clearly has a positive effect in enhanc- ing a driver’s awareness of crosswalks and modifying driver hab- its to be more favorable for pedestrians. It is even more effec- tive during adverse weather conditions such as darkness, fog and rain. With continuous monitoring it has been found that after the implementation of the device the number of pedestrian/vehicle fatalities had been reduced in the City of Santa Rosa. Moreover, other cities like Lafayette and West Hollywood have also installed the crosswalk warning systems based on the success in City of Santa Rosa. CASE STUDY 2: SPEEDING AND LACK OF VISIBILITY Location Bellevue, Washington Problem Pedestrian crash data suggested increased fatalities on the resi- dential streets of the City of Bellevue. With the expressed con- cerns of the local citizens, the City needed to take some action. Two main issues which concerned the citizens were speeding on residential streets and reduced visibility due to close parking near school crosswalks.PEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 20
  15. 15. BackgroundThe numerous concerns of local citizens- including increased fa-talities on the residential streets near schools- put this projectinto motion. Five different school locations were selected for fa-cilities improvements on the basis of high numbers of studentsliving within walking distance. Initially, this program was createdfor traffic calming but infrastructure improvements were later im-plemented.SolutionDesign and infrastructure improvements included installing raised Above: A typical curb exten-crosswalks which doubled to reduce vehicle speeds while at the sion. Curb extensions are usedsame time improving pedestrian visibility by preventing vehicles to reduce the distance pedestrianfrom parking too close to the crosswalk. Curb extensions were have to cross. As a secondaryalso added, where feasible, to decrease the distance necessary to benefit, they can often reducecross the road and improve line of sight. Bollards were installed the speed of traffic and provide room for additional sidewalk ele-in the curb extensions to prevent children from huddling near the ments like lighting, rubbish bins,curb. In several locations additional measures were also taken, and signage.such as a traffic circle for additional traffic calming, improvedstreet lighting, and additional sidewalks to bridge gaps. The im-provements also included an educational component. ...through facilitiesResult and Application for MilwaukeeAt the selected locations within Bellevue for which data was avail- improvements theable, it has been noticed that through facilities improvements the average vehicleaverage vehicle speed is reduced by 3 mile per hour. The curb speed is reduced byextensions have effectively prevented parking next to the cross-walk, physically keeping parked cars at least 30 feet away. Com- 3 mile per hour...ments from parents and residents are extremely positive afterthe improvements and the city plans to implement these in futureprojects.CASE STUDY 3: IRREGULAR ANGLESLocationMulry Square, New York City, New YorkProblemThe Mulry Square intersection in Greenwich Village was perceivedto be an odd and dangerous intersection due to a continuouslyincreasing number of fatalities. Speeding, obstructed views of on-coming vehicular or pedestrian traffic, irregular angles resultingin high speed irregular turns, improper and unidentifiable cross-walks were some of the reported issues that the community re-quested the City take actions on.BackgroundMulry Square, a wedge-shaped site, is currently owned by NYCMetropolitan Transit Authority. The site is used as a parking lot 21 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROJECTS
  16. 16. and is located at the southwest corner of Greenwich Avenue and south of Seventh Avenue. Because of the ongoing reports of traf- fic related safety issues by concerned residents, the New York City Department of Transportation has worked with the local com- munity to assess the issues and provide solutions. Solution The community-based planning process resulted in recommen- dations for traffic calming techniques and the addition of ameni- ties in the surrounding area. These included sidewalk extensions, reconfigured crosswalks, and additional greening of the area. These improvements transformed this intersection, which was previously known for pedestrian accidents and high-speed turns. As a short term solution, sidewalk extensions were painted on the street and outlined with temporary bollards to test the impact of the recommendations on traffic flow. Once it was clear that the solutions worked, the project was built out in final form with slate pavers, granite curbs, new crosswalks, landscaping, bollards, and changes in traffic light phasing.Above: Mulry Square before andafter pedestrian improvements Result and Application for Milwaukeewere made. With the infrastructure improvements at Mulry square the num- ber of fatalities has been reduced by nearly 60%. The success of the project is evident in the positive community feedback. CASE STUDY 4: LACK OF CURBS Location Seattle, Washington Problem The sidewalks on Seattle’s southeastern streets were perceived to be unsafe and less pedestrian friendly without curbs. Due to a lack of curbs, cars were parked on the sidewalks and planting strips which left no barriers to traffic and made streetscaping maintenance impracti- cal. Furthermore, because cars were not parked on the street, the width of the street encouraged an unsafe driving at- mosphere discouraging pedestrians.Above: Mulry Square now offers Backgrounda safer pedestrian experience The Seattle Department of Transportation identified the need tobecause of traffic calming efforts improve facilities in its southeastern quarter, a largely low incomelike sidewalk extensions and in- community of Seattle between the years 2001-2004. With thecreased green space. plan to implement safer and more walkable neighborhoods in this quarter, this project was initiated.PEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 22
  17. 17. SolutionThe Seattle Department of Transportation was committed to tak-ing numerous actions for this project including adding curbs, pro-moting on-street parallel parking, installing landscaping, trafficcalming, and sidewalk repairs to support safer and more walk-able neighborhoods. However, the project faced several obstaclesdue to concerns raised by local residents. With concerns rangingfrom maintenance issues of planting strips to gentrification, andlimited funds, the initial project was termed as a demonstration Below: Extruded curb technologyproject chosen to serve as a model for future improvements. is used to install curbs. By using this technology, the Seattle DOTOne street segment with disintegrating sidewalks and high rates avoided costly street repavingof thru-traffic was chosen for the demonstration. After the im- and still accomplished its goal toprovement was identified as having a positive impact, surveys formalize the street because ex- truded curbs can be freestanding.were carried out to further the work of revital-izing the neighborhood. Results showed thatsixty-six of the ninety-five affected house-holds approve of the project. To incorporatethe needs of the residents, a staff designerwas assigned throughout the design and con-struction phase. Extruded curb technology wasused rather than formed curbs, which wouldhave required repaving the street to currentstandards. City landscape crews also workedwith residents to plant trees and lay sod.Funding was obtained through two sources:a Community Development Block Grant- dueto the status of the neighborhood as low in-come- and a small neighborhood grant of Cityfunds. Since the funding source was limited inthe long-run, it did not allow more than sev-eral thousand linear feet of improvements tobe accomplished city-wide in one given year. “The three speed humpsThus, the project was carried out in phasesover a number of years. installed and new parallel parking helped to slow trafficResult and Application for Milwaukee by an average of 12 miles perThe results were widely appreciated by thesoutheastern quarter neighborhoods. Pedest- hour”rians have an unimpeded path beside the road that is now pro-tected by attractive plantings. The three speed humps installedand new parallel parking has helped to slow traffic by an aver-age of 12 miles per hour. Residents themselves appreciate theimprovements and view it as public investment to bring adequatestandards to their neighborhood. 23 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROJECTS
  18. 18. Below: Reinvestment in the CASE STUDY 5: ECONOMIC DISINVESTMENTpedestrian experience included Locationnew brick pavers, bluestone Washington, D.C.pedestrian crossings, a plantingstrip, new lighting, bike racks, Problemand trash receptacles. Theseimprovements proved essential Barracks Row (8th Street SE) a ¾-mile, 6-block stretch betweento new retail business growth on Pennsylvania Avenue and M Street SE, is one of the District’s old-this D.C. street est commercial corridors. The century old buildings in the oldest commercial strip give the street charm and character, but over the years it had experienced economic disinvestment. Vacant storefronts and loitering added to the perception that 8th Street was an unsafe place to be and shop after dark. Merchants com- plained that there was inadequate public parking. Time had taken its toll on the public realm which was left with cracked concrete sidewalks, inconsistent roadway-focused street lighting, inade- quate parking and weathered and unhealthy street trees. Background The Capitol Hill neighborhood began organizing for the revitaliza- tion of 8th Street years ago with the formation of a non-profit organization. It began by using materials and following the model provided by the National Trust for Historic Preservation’s Main Street program. Continuous efforts to improve the public realm along the street fell short so the organization expressed concern to DDOT and a study of local streets was launched. DDOT con- tracted with a private transportation and landscaping firm to con- duct the study and prepare a concept plan. Solution The primary goal of the Barracks Row streetscape project was to create a safe and visually appealing pedestrian environment and address transportation concerns in order to foster business and retail growth in the area. The public realm on 8th Street and Barracks Row was completely reconstructed. New brick-pav- ers were installed within sidewalks, and key pedestrian cross- ings were visually enhanced with bluestone paving. A five foot planting strip was created along the curb to absorb surface runoff from sidewalks and to provide a continuous root zone for newly planted street trees. The project also provided for new globe lights, bicycle racks, and trash receptacles. Additionally, 92 new American Elm trees were donated and planted by a local “green” organization. Loriope was planted in tree boxes as edging and a public park was replanted and enhanced. In response to concerns regarding the neighborhood’s lack of adequate parking, angled parking was created along the street to replace the existing paral- lel on-street parking. The new configuration has increased the overall number of park-PEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 24
  19. 19. ing spaces- which are short time meters to ensure a steady sup-ply of parking in front of retail uses. Additionally, a one block areawas converted from one-way traffic to two-way, in order to pro-mote greater access to storefronts and increase traffic mobility.These changes were made to help revitalize the commercial area,one of the oldest in the District of Columbia.Result and Application for MilwaukeeThe Barrack’s Row revitalization effort has been highly successful.Since 1999, 43 new businesses have opened in the area (includ-ing business expansion through 12 new outdoor cafes), 51 fa-cades have been restored, 198 net new jobs have been created,and 3 new traditional buildings have been constructed. Pedestri-ans now have a safer and more welcoming environment in whichto walk around.CASE STUDY 6: ROUNDABOUTLocationAbita Springs, LAProblemStrange configuration of the mainintersection of Abita Springs round-about area resulted in vehicles speed-ing and higher traffic during peakhours. Even with the Tammany Tracepedestrian and bicycle facility adja-cent to the intersection, the environ-ment of the Abita Springs historic dis-trict remained unsafe for pedestriansand other non-motorized traffic.Background Above: New sidewalk pavers,Abita Springs Historic District’s main intersection routes traffic bluestone pavers, trash recep-counterclockwise where Louisiana 59 and 36 meet with exits onto tacles, and other sidewalk im-Level Street as well as the two highways. The complex four-way provements transformed not only the pedestrian realm, but spurredintersection, which borders the town center and is close to Abita economic development in Wash-Springs Middle School, had been regulated by a traffic light. The ington D.C.current lighting system has created backups which extend ontothe freeways.SolutionWith the consensus of the Mayor, Abita Springs Town Counciland business owners in the vicinity, the transportation depart-ment committed to take actions to accommodate the needs ofall stakeholders during the design and construction phases. Thehighway department measured traffic volume at the inter-sectionat about 14,000 vehicles a day pre-Katrina and 17,000 after the 25 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROJECTS
  20. 20. storm. DDOT overcame the challenges by selecting the smallest diameter roundabout possible to accommodate vehicles (about 20,000 vehicles a day). Also, they were able to purchase and raze a non-contributing building in the historic district to provide extra space for the roundabout. A section of the Tammany Trace was also shifted slightly to make it easier for pedestrians and bikers to cross the intersection. Landscaping and more directional signs, as well as a final layer of asphalt, were installed. Result and Application for Milwaukee Statistical data is not yet available for the project but studies indicated that roundabouts are safer for drivers and pedestrians than both traffic circles and traditional intersections. Because low speeds are required for traffic entering roundabouts they are not designed for high-speed motor ways. However, since speeding and congestion is high in the Abita Springs district, designing and implementing a roundabout is considered significant so the speed limit at the roundabout is 20 mile per hour.Above: A new roundabout- de-signed to fit the site specifically, CASE STUDY 7: MANAGING STORMWATERwas used as a traffic calmingdevice within a historic district to Locationallow for easier pedestrian cross- Portland, Oregoning. Problem The SW 12th Avenue now known as Green Street- located at Montgomery adjacent to Portland State University- needed to retrofit existing street space for pedestrians, on-street parking, street trees, landscaping, street lighting, and signage, while at the same time capturing and filtering stormwater run-off from 12th Avenue. All this within an eight-foot wide space. Background The retrofit project is the City of Portland’s first green street proj- ect and is based off of City’s commitment to promote natural sys- tems to manage urban stormwater runoff. Solution The streetscape project not only manages street run-off but also maintains strong pedestrian circulation and on-street parking. The project utilizes a series of landscaped infiltration planters to handle approximately 8,000 square feet of storm water runoff. The design provides water quality treatment and maximizes in- filtration of the runoff. Each facility can pond about 7 inches of stormwater runoff and retain it for infiltration. A 30-inch wide parking egress zone was dedicated for people to access their vehicles without infringing upon the stormwater planters. Perpendicular pathways were created between eachPEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 26
  21. 21. stormwater planter so that a pedestrian would not have to walk Above: These two diagramsvery far to access their cars or the sidewalk. A four-inch curb ex- depict how the new stormwaterposure at each planter indicates to the pedestrian that there is a runoff planters work duringdrop in grade. Each curb cut which allows the street runoff to en- heavy rainfallter the stormwater planters has an ADA accessible grate to allow Below: Birdseye view of newfor unencumbered pedestrian flow along the parking egress zone. stormwater plantersResult and Application forMilwaukeeThis was a successful “green street”project and it has won a NationalAward of Honor from the AmericanSociety of Landscape Architects. Theproject design does not pose safetyissues for pedestrians or for peoplegetting in and out of vehicles. Fur-ther, it has demonstrated how bothnew and existing streets in downtownor highly urbanized areas can be de-signed to provide direct environmen-tal benefits and be aesthetically inte-grated into the urban streetscape.CASE STUDY 8: CREATING SIDEWALKSLocationSnohomish County, WashingtonProblemThe Lake Serene Community was forced to walk in the travellanes of Serene Way, a two-lane local access road. Walkers some-times had to jump into the ditches to avoid oncoming cars atcertain blind turns.BackgroundThe road had minimal shoulders and drainage from the road col-lected into open ditches along both sides of the road. The existingright-of-way for the road was 60 feet and with a high number ofpedestrian vehicle collisions, the Lake Serene Community Asso-ciation initiated the project by requesting a sidewalk be built. 27 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROJECTS
  22. 22. Solution The project has several main objectives which include provision of a safe walkway, coordination with the Lake Serene Commu- nity association, minimizing impacts to adjacent properties, and minimizing modifications to the existing drainage system while avoiding the use of a detention pond/pipe design. To further the perception of safety, the 4,500 linear foot walkway was designed in such a way that the walkway is located behind the drainage ditches. This provides a buffer between cars, bicyclists, and pe- destrians. Additionally, the sidewalk connects with adjacent pe- destrian facilities and provides a safer route to school for students of a local elementary school. In order to minimize the impact on adjacent properties, an alignment within the existing right-of- way was chosen that would meander among existing project site features such as fences, trees and utility poles. Due to a lack of funding, the County used porous concrete as infiltrating material which doubled as a stormwater drain. Result and Application for Milwaukee There is anecdotal evidence of increased foot traffic since theAbove: Before and After views installation of the walkway, particularly during night hours. Ad-of the new retention area and ditionally, there was a considerable cost savings because the usesidewallk of porous concrete material enabled the walkway to be built by eliminating the need for a detention system. CASE STUDY 9: UNLIMITED AND UNDEFINED ACCESS Location City of Des Moines, Washington Problem The existing SR-99 corridor is an undivided five-lane facility with a two-way left-turn lane (TWLTL) and paved shoulders. Significant segments of the roadside have unlimited and undefined access. The corridor has heavy traffic and creates an unsafe environment for pedestrians. Background The project was initiated to improve traffic congestion, opera- tions, and safety, provide facilities for transit and pedestrians, and encourage economic redevelopment along the SR-99 corridor through the City of Des Moines. Solution SR-99 will undertake a series of infrastructure improvements in- cluding the placement and type of intersection signals, pedestrian features, access control, and aesthetic treatments to increase ca- pacity and mobility and relieve congestion. One of the specificPEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 28
  23. 23. features that will be considered in this project is a landscaped me-dian with a low profile concrete barrier which would eliminate theexisting two-way left-turn lane and improve both pedestrian andvehicular safety. Additionally, curbs and gutters will be installedalong the highway, and a six-foot landscaped planter will be builton each side of the street. The project will also install equipmentneeded to support transit signal priority. As a trial project, DesMoines and King County Metro have even considered the instal-lation of a High Occupancy Vehicle and Business Access lane ineach direction of the route as well as bus pullouts and new transitshelters. To further enhance pedestrian activity, sidewalks will beinstalled on both sides of the highway with sidewalk lighting anda pedestrian-activated signal. Below: A conceptual renderingResult and Application for Milwaukee of the SR-99 corridor with road-The conditions for pedestrians along the corridor were greatly way improvements. Some im-improved and the efforts of the transportation department were provements include a landscaped median,HOV lane, left-turn lane,appreciated by the citizens of Des Moines. With the facility im- bus pullouts and transit shelters,provements, the frequency of walking was significantly increased. and paved crosswalks. 29 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROJECTS
  24. 24. CASE STUDY 10: TOTAL FACILITIES OVERHAUL Location Cleveland Heights, Ohio Problem Severance Circle, surrounded by a high-use commercial and re- tail development in a vital suburb, is perceived to be unfriendly to pedestrians and bicyclists. Due to very little accommodation for pedestrians and bicyclists, at times it forces them to cut into vehicular lanes at the risk of their personal safety. Despite being enclosed by a shopping mall, Severance Circle was not properly connected to other surrounding land uses.Below: Bike lanes, mid-block Backgroundcrosswalks and signals, benches The Canyon Johnson Urban Fund purchased the land and rede-and bus shelters were added to veloped the center in 2002. They agreed to dedicate SeveranceSeverence Cirlce to enrich the Circle as a public street and to build a complete sidewalk system.pedestrian experience and en- Funds were set aside by the buyer, the seller, and the City forcourage walking, biking, andpublic transit instead of driving. road and sidewalk improvements. Solution With an array of goals formulated by the Department of Planning and Development, a variety of measures were implemented. These measures include provision of benches and bus shelters, sidewalks abutting build- ing facades to provide storefront displays, addition of pedestrian activated walk signals at busy intersections and at mid-block crossings, and the installation of light poles, shade trees, and awnings. One of the significant construction projects involved converting the four-lane road into two-lanes with a center left-turn lane and bike lanes on either side. As an added measure, enforcement of speeding and other dangerous driving was stepped up, and numerous tickets were issued. Result and Application for Milwaukee Completed in 2003, the street project has formed a com- plete and connected sidewalk system, created common spaces, and installed benches, bus shelters, pedestrian- scaled lights, trees, and other landscaping. Dedicated bicycle lanes were added and the four-lane road was reconfigured. With all these facility improvements it has been reported by city engineer that during the 2003 holiday shopping rush, vehicular traffic moved without significant delay, without speeding, and the new side- walks and crosswalks were also used by pedestrians.PEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 30
  25. 25. PROGRAM BEST PRACTICESThe program best practices are short-term activities or events PROGRAMSdesigned to promote and encourage walking. They may have 1. SAFETY TRAININGlong-lasting effects on the community or city where implemented, 2. “CROSS SAFELY,but they are designed to achieve short-term goals and address DRIVE SAFELY”specific problems. Many of the case studies have an objective of 3. EXTREME POSTEReducating the public or encouraging walking as a viable transpor- CAMPAIGNtation option either in tandem with public transit and biking or as 4. PUBLIC TELEVISIONan alternative to the automobile. Like the project best practices, SAFETY VIDEOSthe programs are from around the country and provide a wide 5. WALK THERE!range of urban to suburban experiences. CHALLENGE 6. BILINGUAL SCHOOLCASE STUDY 1: SAFETY TRAINING EDUCATIONLocationTucson, ArizonaBackgroundThe safety training program was developed to improve safetyfor pedestrians and bicyclists. Arizona boasted the second highestfatality rate for pedestrians at 13% of total traffic fatalities (NHT-SA). Moreover, Tucson spent less than $1 per year per studenton pedestrian and traffic safety education, with even less beingspent on adults. In 2004, the City of Tucson requested federaltransportation enhancement funds to improve pedestrian safetythrough public outreach and safety training. Below: A publication by the CitySolution of Tucson and its partners forIn order to reduce pedestrian and automobile roadway crashes, educating the public about rules,increase awareness of pedestrian responsibility and tolerance of regulations, activities, and safetyall right-of-way users, the City of Tucson developed television measures for pedestrian and bicyclistsand radio public service announcements. This was coupled withthe creation of educational videos for police training as well asfor student safety classes to be taught by police officers. Ad-ditionally, a traffic safety guide with pedestrian maps was createdand handed out. A “share the road” ethic was promoted as thepermanent result.Result and Application for MilwaukeeThe City installed 180 poster sized signs promoting the “sharethe road” ethic at bus shelters around the city. These signs werealso displayed in forty (40) libraries and bike shops to reach alarger audience. Lastly, there was a monthly safety newslettercreated and distributed. All handouts- mostly for bicyclists andmotorists- were in both English and Spanish and available on-line. A separate Bicycle Ambassadors program was also createdand has helped to install over seventy (70) HAWK (high intensityactivated crosswalk) signals at high prioritization location in theTucson-Pima County region. 31 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROGRAMS
  26. 26. CASE STUDY 2: “CROSS SAFELY, DRIVE SAFELY” Location Amherst, Massachusetts Background There is heavy pedestrian as well as automobile traffic on the University of Massachusetts campus, but few pedestrian safety programs. In the late 1990’s, two pedestrians were killed when a car stuck them in crosswalks on the University campus. Addi- tionally, since 2000 an average of four pedestrians per year have been seriously injured by drivers. In the past, after a complaint was made about either a pedestrian or a driver not being safe an officer would be assigned to the area for a few days to patrol where the complaint was made. Recognizing the lack of safety between pedestrians and motorists, UMassSAFE- a partnership between the Governors Highway Safety Bureau and the UMass College of Engineering Transportation Center- and University Police partnered together and created the “Cross Safely Drive Safely”. Federal funding (NHTSA) allowed the program to includeAbove: The “Cross Safely Drive education, enforcement, and evaluation.Safely” Poster which was hungaround the UMass campus Solution The program included an awareness campaign along with a judi- cial education component. Safety tips were placed on posters and bus cards and reinforced through media coverage to remind residents about safe pedestrian habits. For the first month of the program violators of either pedestrian or automobile laws (identified by a plain clothed decoy with a radio) were stoppedBelow: An officer discussing the by UMass officers and given a handout but not cited for anyimportance of pedestrian/ mo- violation. Each handout included push button hand operatortorist safety on campus. Notice and pedestrian safety tips. For the second month violators werethe “Cross Safely Drive Safely” cited and fined. Additionally, these efforts were publicized in theposter promoted on the side of local media.the bus Result and Application for Milwaukee Despite pedestrian crashes still occur- ring, it is evident that motorists are more aware of pedestrians. More motor- ists yielding the right-of-way to pedestri- ans is one noticeable results. Addition- ally, police officers have become more aware of crosswalk violations which has led to more consistent enforcement of the laws. The program was deemed so successful that UMass has continued the program despite running out of grant money.PEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 32
  27. 27. CASE STUDY 3: EXTREME POSTER CAMPAIGNLocationOntario, CanadaBackgroundOntario recognized a lack of safe habits instilled in its pedestrianswhen, in 2002, the City of Toronto reported more than half of alltraffic fatalities were pedestrian fatalities (50). Due to the ex-treme nature of the information, the Injury Prevention Coalitioncreated an extreme poster campaign for the City.SolutionThe Injury Prevention Coalition waged a media campaign with theslogan “Cross the Street as if Your Life Depends on it, Because itDoes”. The Coalition sent posters and brochures to over 900 com-munity agencies and also had posters on the sides of over thirtybuses. Additionally, a short safety slideshow was developed to beplayed in movie theaters for the audience to see while waiting forthe show to begin. Funding was provided through a number oflocal contributions.Result and Application for MilwaukeeThe initial launch of the campaign was covered by local mediaoutlets to help get the message out about both the campaignand the message. It is estimated that the slideshow in movietheaters reached an audience of 867,000 individuals. In 2009the Coalition developed a website entitled iNAVIGAIT, dedicatedto education and awareness for pedestrians. Above: The Injury Prevention Coalition poster created to make an impact in OntarioCASE STUDY 4: PUBLIC TELEVISION SAFETY VIDEOSLocationBethesda, MarylandBackgroundSince 1996 a series of videos about pedestrian safety has beencreated for playing on public access channels in Maryland. Thesevideos are designed to educate the public about barriers to pe-destrian safety.SolutionEach month a specific issue or case study is highlighted in atwenty-eight minute episode. Issues are brought to light by ex-perts, advocates, planners, engineers, and public officials and in-terviews on topics have been conducted in all fifty states, Canada,five European countries, and Australia and New Zealand. Someissues include pedestrian infrastructure, planning in coordinationwith transit, and hazards confronting pedestrians. 33 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROGRAMS
  28. 28. Result and Application for Milwaukee Over 120 public access cable stations carry the episodes each month in addition to a DISH Network channel. Viewers include both citizens and public officials. Moreover, the videos are ar- chived online and the website received over 100,000 visitors per year. The program is now archived on Google Video at: http:// ns%22 CASE STUDY 5: WALK THERE! CHALLENGE Location Atlanta, Georgia Background It was noted that most citizens of Atlanta do not consider walking as a means of transportation for shorter, neighborhood trips. To promote health and sustainability, and reduce traffic congestion, Atlanta’s Downtown Transportation Management Association de- veloped an education program to encourage walking. Solution As part of the “Let’s Walk Downtown” plan, the “Walk There!” challenge was created. The challenge was for members of the State Legislature, City Council, and Mayor’s Office to walk instead of drive. Those elected officials who joined the team also par- ticipated in promotional events to raise awareness of the heath, environmental, and social benefits of walking. Free pedometersAbove: The Walk There Challenge were given out to participants who then tracked the number ofis an ongoing program through steps they took each week. In addition to the challenge, walkingthe City of Atlanta. maps with sites within easy walking distance to downtown were created and distributed. Result The challenge was taken by many elected officials with almost 2,000 pedometers being distributed. The challenge was also followed closely by the local media. It was so successful that an expansion of the challenge is currently being developed. CASE STUDY 6: BILINGUAL SCHOOL EDUCATION Location San Diego, California Background Though there was some pedestrian education already in schools, it was noted that this education was lacking and missing the target with English as a Second Language (ESL) students. APEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 34
  29. 29. pedestrian child safety training program was created for a bilin-gual low-income school where the majority of the children walkedto school.SolutionA pedestrian education curriculum was developed, translated,and presented in both English and Spanish. Moreover, standardvideos and images typically used for presentations were replacedwith images from the students’ own neighborhoods making thepresentation more interactive for students.Result and Application for MilwaukeePost-presentation survey and analysis (two weeks after) indi-cated that students retained the information better than whenpresentations were not retrofitted. The students’ notion that theirparents, Safety Patrol, and siblings were responsible for their Above: A neighborhood imagesafety was overcome to help them realize they themselves must used in the school education pro-be responsible pedestrians. Moreover, the thought that “Cars will gram. The image shows studentsalways stop for kids” was challenged and the students realized inappropriately crossing the street without looking for oncom-that this is not always the case. ing traffic 35 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES PROGRAMS
  30. 30. POLICY BEST PRACTICESPOLICIES The policy best practices are long-term solutions to enhance the1. LOCAL COMPLETE pedestrian realm. Some policies take immediate action to impact STREETS the physical nature of a space or an entire municipality. Other2. ELEMENTARY SCHOOL policies take aim at a social, behavioral problem that training, ed- EDUCATION ucation, and reinforcement of good practice is hopeful to change.3. PEDESTRIAN AND Some solutions are directly applicable while others offer pieces BICYCLE TRAVEL POLICY which might be compatible in Milwaukee. While this list is not4. CORRIDOR TRAFFIC comprehensive, these six policy case studies are intended to give CALMING an idea of the wide range of possible policy solutions the City of5. TRAFFIC OFFICER Milwaukee must consider. TRAINING6. INJURY PREVENTION CASE STUDY 1: LOCAL COMPLETE STREETS PROGRAM Location Throughout the nation Background Streets designed with only the car in mind limit the option of mode choice in mobility. These types of streets can be danger- ous for bicyclists and pedestrians due to their lack of amenities offered for these mode types. In order to plan for and fund all modes of transportation, the National Complete Street Coalition was formed and as a result, the complete streets policy move- ment has been adopted by municipalities nationwide.Above: The National CompleteStreets Coalition is the founder Solutionand all-knowing source for Com- One solution to an automobile oriented street construction policyplete Streets has been the introduction of “complete streets” policies. Complete Streets policies have been adopted throughout the nation at the state and local levels through ordinances and resolutions through quasi-public agencies, and through comprehensive plans and de- sign manuals. These policies ensure that all users of the streets are kept in mind when constructing or improving a street. The general policy framework for complete streets policies includes seven elements: a vision; specifics on all end users; a compre- hensive transportation network outside of the project area; ap- plicability for all agencies and all roads; applicability for all proj- ects; approval of exceptions; design criteria; context-sensitive solutions; performance measures and implementation strategies. This comprehensive approach ensures a complete policy in which all users are kept in mind and all departments know the approach as they work on individual projects.Above: A complete street in Port-land, Oregon accommodates the Result and Application for Milwaukeeautomobile, bicycle, and pedes- The passing of Complete Streets policies has resulted in severaltrian in the right-of-way. benefits which include: improved safety; easing of automobile congestion; help children; improved air quality and fiscal rewards. Specifically, the City of Seattle, WA adopted a complete streetsPEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 36
  31. 31. ordinance requiring all Seattle DOT projects to implement com-plete streets and specifies all transportation funding sources bedrawn from for the implementation of the policy. Seattle alsoincludes critical elements of operations and maintenance in itspolicy so regular improvements can be made to the existing in-frastructure.CASE STUDY 2: ELEMENTARY SCHOOL EDUCATIONLocationOrange County, FloridaBackgroundAfter a series of crashes involving school-aged children, OrangeCounty realized a lack of safe pedestrian training for students inits schools. A safety team was formed, comprised of the Sheriff’sOffice safety specialist, staff from Police and Fire departments,engineering specialists, the local school board, and advocacyorganizations to educate and train studentsSolutionWithin the elementary age, there was a big push to promote “WalkYour Child to School Day” to help facilitate parents to be a teacherto their children of safe pedestrian habits. Moreover, a pedestriancomponent was added to Safety Villages that were already inplace. Safety Villages are opportunities for public figures such aspolice officers and firefighters to engage with students and teachthem general safety around the house and when out in public.With older students of the Middle and High School age, safe pe-destrian habits were taught through different media formats andboth active and passive teaching. These included direct in-class Above: Students attract attentioncurriculum taught by teachers, presentations by safety officials, to their new pedestrian trainingvideos, and also posters. program by walking the streetsResult and Application for MilwaukeeThe process to develop the curriculum took one and a half years.It was accomplished by education specialists, law enforcement,engineers, and emergency services. An accurate, balanced, andconsistent message about safety and a clarification of vaguepedestrian laws (i.e. “what constitutes jaywalking?”) was ac-complished.CASE STUDY 3: PEDESTRIAN AND BICYCLE TRAVEL POLICYLocationThe State of KentuckyBackgroundAfter the USDOT passed “Design Guidance Accommodating Bicy-cle and Pedestrian Travel: A Recommended Approach,” the State 37 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES POLICIES
  32. 32. of Kentucky created the Pedestrian and Bicycle Design Guidance Task Force. The goal of the Task Force was to help guide the Ken- tucky Transportation Cabinet by creating policies regarding when, where, and how to implement bicycle and pedestrian facilities. Solution The Task Force was able to have design guidelines signed in as official order, which took a year of monthly meetings to de- velop. The guidelines ensure that with all new and reconstruct- ed roadways pedestrians and bicyclists are kept in mind. These guidelines give designers specific criteria to consider for accom- modating pedestrians, including land use, existing transportation networks, transit stops, and public demand. Result and Application for Milwaukee Through the passing of the Pedestrian and Bicycle Travel Policy, not only has the safety of pedestrian and bicyclists increased, but so has non-motorized travel. In just three years the number of bicycle boarding’s on city buses in Louisville grew six fold. It is also expected that this policy will reduce vehicle miles traveled and improve air quality in the state. CASE STUDY 4: CORRIDOR TRAFFIC CALMING Location Albemarle, Virginia Background Residents in the Forest Lakes community of Albemarle were tired of the speeding cut-thru traffic on their major streets. A survey determined this concern was valid and indeed harming the community and a solution to the cut-thru speeding traffic was sought. A committee with a number of residents and representa- tives from the Department of Transportation, police department, fire department, and the school board was developed and tasked with generating a solution for the community. Solution As a solution to the cut-thru speeding, a number of improve- ments for the area were identified. These included speed bumps, white road edge markings, pavement markings, and pedestrian signs. School buses were also contributing to the speeding issue and the school board agreed to ensure that the posted speed limit would be followed by bus drivers. Result and Application for Milwaukee During an informal survey process evaluating the potential imple- mentation of the solutions, there was nearly unanimous supportPEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 38
  33. 33. for the new improvements. A DOT representative congratulatedthe initiative taken by community members to bring a pressingissue to light, saying the Department would not have made theimprovements if the community had not spoken up.CASE STUDY 5: TRAFFIC OFFICE TRAININGLocationMadison, WisconsinBackgroundIt was recognized that traffic officers had not been trained on pe-destrian issues which included both safety and pedestrian laws.Additionally, there was a noted lack of discussion about pedes-trian issues during driver education courses.SolutionA safety training DVD for officers was developed by a memberof the traffic enforcement safety team within the Madison PoliceDepartment. After being used to train officers, the DVD wasthen modified appropriately for viewing by the general public.Copies of this DVD were distributed to high school and privatedriver education instructors and AAA. Additionally, training wasdeveloped to be presented by officers to companies that spendsignificant amounts of time on the road. Above: A training video from the Madison Police DepartmentResult and Application for Milwaukee depicts a common confusing sce-Traffic officers are now more versed in both pedestrian safety nario for pedestrians and trafficand laws. Additionally, more time is spent by driver educationinstructors on pedestrian related issues. Due to the successful-ness of the DVD, the city is now working to create a trainingbook which will help in training the public in the future.CASE STUDY 6: INJURY PREVENTION PROGRAMLocationMiami-Dade County, FloridaBackgroundIn the state of Florida, Miami-Dade County had the highest num-ber of pedestrian injuries. Moreover, it is the third highest in thenation. Recognizing this, and the associated costs of the prob-lem presented, the Florida DOT lookedfor the causes, effects, andthen solutions to the high pedestrian injury rate.SolutionThe initial steps of the cause, effect and solution identificationprocess was to analyze hospital records of those injured, conductcrash scene visits, speak with patients and their families directly 39 BEST PRACTICE CASE STUDIES POLICIES
  34. 34. and conduct police interviews to find any commonalities between pedestrian crashes. It was discovered that many sites had issues regarding obstructed views and long distances between marked intersections. It was also noted that 293 of the crashes were with pedestrians under the age of 14. As a policy, Miami-Dade County developed an injury prevention program and implemented it in 184 elementary schools. The program was taught to students for a half-hour session once per week over a 4 week period. Result and Application for Milwaukee With the utilization of pre and post tests it was discovered that gains in pedestrian knowledge was maintained for at least a three month period- when the second post test was conducted. TheAbove: Children participate in a number of children admitted to a Level 1 trauma center in Miami-safe pedestrian program. Dade as a result of a pedestrian injury dropped from ninety-three to just fifty-two in a three year span.PEDESTRIAN PLANNING: MILWAUKEEBEST PRACTICE’S FOR PEDESTRIAN POLICIES, PROGRAMS, AND PROJECTS 40
  35. 35. MILWAUKEE SITE SELECTIONThe Milwaukee Site Selection is the first step in the research pro-cess. It was conducted to decide which two focus areas the Plan-ning Group would focus on for pedestrian improvements.To Begin, data was gathered for the past three years of auto- pe-destrian crashes from the Milwaukee Police Department’s (MPD)interactive mapping website, “Compass”. This data containedpopulated fields that displayed detailed information about eachcrash. After analyzing the data it became apparent that the ad-dress locations of the crashes needed to be cleaned in order forArcMap to geocode the crash locations. A customized addresslocator was created based-off of the Milwaukee DIME file roadslayer from Map Milwaukee.After reviewing the geocoded results to ensure data location ac-curacy, a point density geoprocessing tool was utilized to gain fur-ther understanding of crash clustering effects over the last threeyears(essentially a hotspot analysis technique). Upon creation ofthis image, a summary output file was created that counted thenumber of crashes at the same location. Each location with asummary of greater than two crashes was analyzed to determineif it fell within an area that the hotspot image determined as afrequent crash location. If it did fall within this area it was furtherexamined for such criteria as: number in intersecting streets,number of crashes, alternate transportation access, speed limits,and land use. If the location fell outside a hotspot, it was dis-missed from further analysis.After compiling the crash records, the results indi-cated that over the last three years, two sites hada total of five crashes and one with a total of fourcrashes. The two sites chosen were North 91stStreet & West Silver Spring Drive, and at South6th Street & West Lincoln Avenue. The reasonswhy these sites where chosen above the rest isbecause of their high crash counts, variety of uses,structures near the street, and the framework ofthese streets are typical throughout Milwaukee,making a model more adaptable to other parts ofthe city in future studies.Once the site selection process was complete, thegroup was able to conduct research on best prac-tice case studies to determine which projects, pro-grams, and policies were best applicable to the twoMilwaukee sites. 43 MILWAUKEE SITE SELECTION
  38. 38. TARGET AREA A91ST AND SILVER SPRINGUpon completion of the GIS analysis, the intersection of N 91stStreet & W Silver Spring Drive (CTH E) in the north side of Mil-waukee was one of the two sites used to conduct research on bestpractices. This site, along with the intersection of N 35th Street &W Capitol Drive (STH 190), was the intersection with the highestpedestrian crash rates in the City of Milwaukee. This intersectionhas an annual average traffic count of 19,700 and posted speedlimits of 35 miles per hour on 91st Street and 40 miles per houron Silver Spring Drive. This intersection has a similar frameworkas other intersections seen throughout the City of Milwaukee.SITE SELECTION Image from the Wisconsin De-The map to the right, titled “Crash Location: N. 91st St. and W. partment of Transportation’sSilver Spring Ave.” is an aerial view that displays the orientation 2009 “Wisconsin Highway Trafficand the land uses surrounding the intersection. Volume Data”The map on page 48 titled “Crash Frequency:N. 91st St. and W. Silver Spring Ave.” displaysthe crash frequency for the intersection of S.91st St. and W. Silver Spring Ave. When cal-culating the frequency the ArcGIS programcalculates the number of points (crashes) within a 1/4 mile radius. The output of the pointdensity tool is an image with a color ramp dis-playing greater number of crashes in the areaas a darker color, i.e. blue. Because this inter-section has such a high number of crashes,and in tern a high number of points, a ratio of1:1 (points to crashes), enabled this locationto have a high density of crashes. 47 TARGET AREAS AREA A: 91st STREET & SILVER SPRING DRIVE