Transport systems and climate change in developing countries


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By Hilda Martinez Salgado, manager of climate change and air quality at the Center for Sustainable Transport in Mexico (CTS-Mexico). Presented at the "Bridging the Gap" workshop, "Climate change and development in the transport sector: what do you need to achieve GHG mitigation from land transport" on June 8, 2010 in Bonn, Germany.

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Transport systems and climate change in developing countries

  1. 1. Briding the Gap 2010 Expert Workshop Climate Change and Development in the Transport Sector Transport systems and climate change in developing countries Hilda Martínez Salgado June 8, 2010
  2. 2. EMBARQ Network
  3. 3. CTS Mexico Mission Catalyze sustainable mobility solutions in order to improve the Quality of Life in Mexican cities.
  4. 4. A successful low carbon urban transport system involves… • Low travel times and costs for people and goods • Equal access to urban life opportunities (social services, education, health, recreation) • Adequate support to desired form, size and density of the city-region London, England • Limited impact on the environment: air/noise pollution; CO2 emissions • Reduced impact on public health: injuries, fatalities, respiratory disease, obesity
  5. 5. However, things are not as when what you have is This implies a huge challenge, bad as we think… the opposite… Mexico City modal split
  6. 6. However, things are not as bad as we think… Mexico City modal split
  7. 7. And city population in developing countries increases… Source: United Nations Population Division, World Urbanization Prospects, The 2005 Revision
  8. 8. and also… • Number of vehicles increases faster than population following economic development Source: Lee Schipper, University of California at Berkeley, 2009
  9. 9. The number of motor vehicles is growing twice as fast as the population in India – mainly two wheelers (71%) 80 Thousands 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 1951 1961 1971 1981 1991 2001 2004 Total M2W Cars Buses Goods Source: O.P. Agarwal and S. Zimmerman “Towards Sustainable Mobility in Urban India”, Presented in the Annual TRB Meeting, Washington D.C. January 2008
  10. 10. And Mexico is showing similar trend for vehicles and SUVs (2009- 2030) Source: Low Carbon Development for Mexico study, CTS-World Bank 2008
  11. 11. Transport GHG emissions 1990-2030 9 8 7 6 Rest of the World 5 India Transport China Transport 4 OECD + Transport 3 2 1 0 1990 2007 2020 2030 Source: International Energy Agency, 2009
  12. 12. Transport Emissions in Developed countries experience
  13. 13. Mexico (and developing countries) experience
  14. 14. What to do? Change in paradigm : Pedestrian and Bicycles Public Transportation Transit Oriented Development Disincentives to Car Use Cleaner fuels and vehicles Source:
  15. 15. Promote Sustainable Transport Systems
  16. 16. Transit-oriented development aims to create easy connections to where people work, live and play in a city.
  17. 17. The key to solving the problem is getting people out of their cars and into mass transit.
  18. 18. Promote cleaner fuels and cleaner technology
  19. 19. It is possible for any city to transform itself into a sustainable city… Bogotá, Colombia, 1998
  20. 20. It is possible for any city to transform itself into a sustainable city… Bogotá, TransMilenio, 84 Km median busways, 1,6 million pax/day Initial Corridor 2000 1998 Bogotá, Colombia
  21. 21. Bogotá has applied integrated policies for sustainable transport
  22. 22. Main mode of transport 1998-2009 (Bogotá, Colombia) Total Public Transport Traditional Public Transport TransMilenio BRTS Private (Car, Two Wheeler) Active Transport (Walking, Bicycle) Fuentes: EncuestaAnual “Bogotá ¿CómoVamos?”;
  23. 23. Pereira, Colombia Megabús, 27 Km Busways, 155,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2006
  24. 24. Cali, Colombia 27 Km busways 130,000 pax/day Initial Operation in 2009
  25. 25. Metrobus, México City 45 Km BRT System 450,000 passengers per day Reduce time travel in 30%
  26. 26. Macrobús, Guadalajara, México Macrobús, Guadalajara, México
  27. 27. 16 Km, 27 Stations, 41 Articulated Buses + 103 Feeder Buses
  28. 28. Istanbul, Turkey Launched in September 2007, Istanbul’s bus rapid transit corridor is now one of the most heavily traveled BRT lines in the world.
  29. 29. Delhi, India Delhi's new bus corridor meets its key objectives, but there is still room for improvement.
  30. 30. Bangalore is poised to become the "cycling capital of India."
  31. 31. However, Financial, institutional, physical resources are constrained
  32. 32. Mexico policies toward a low carbon sustainable transport
  33. 33. National Strategy on Climate Change Is a effort of the Federal Government to reflects its commitment in relation to climate change and identify opportunities in mitigation and adaptation. It proposed specific actions, policies and strategies as a basis for developing a Special Program on Climate Change.
  34. 34. Special Program on Climate Change (PECC) The objectives in PECC represent opportunities to promote: • environmental sustainability, • strengthening the competitiveness of production processes and • improve quality of life for next generations • 4 main components: Long term vision Mitigation Adaptation Transversal policies
  35. 35. PECC Targets • Implementation by 2012, could mitigate 50 million ton of CO2e (baseline year 2000) • Sectors involve: – Generation and use of energy – Agriculture and land use – Waste • Mexico voluntary commitments to reduce GHG: – 30% by 2020 – 50% by 2050
  36. 36. GHG reductions goals for 2012 by category
  37. 37. Transport measures in PECC to reduce GHG emissions • Energy efficiency • Reduce energy consumption in freight and passenger transport • Vehicle scrapping and renovation • Road Infrastructure • Freight rail infrastructure • Federal Mass Transit program • Suburban transport systems • Improve fishing fleets
  38. 38. Federal Mass Transit Program (PROTRAM) The Federal Government under the framework of Fondo Nacional de Infraestructura (FONADIN ) in BANOBRAS Developed through the Ministry of Finance with World Bank assistance the Federal Mass Transit Program (PROTRAM ) Objectives: Support cities in Complement Local Strengthen local Support Projects developing Mass that are Integral to Government institutions in urban Transit Investment Sustainable Mobility investment & transport planning, Projects with high Plans maximize private regulation & social justification investment management.
  39. 39. It is possible to achieve sustainable transport • Strong integrated policies that give real priority to mass transport • Integration of all modes in urban and inter-urban travel • Avoid carbon intensive development by integrating land use and mass transport • Incorporate Transport demand management • Use cleaner technologies and push for better energy efficiency in cars • Financing for low carbon transport
  40. 40. THANK YOU