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  1. 1. Motivation Session by A.Selvaraj CIT Mumbai
  2. 2. Motivation “ A great man is one who can make a small man feel great, and perform great.”
  3. 3. The hierarchy of needs <ul><li>Self actualization needs </li></ul><ul><li>Esteem needs </li></ul><ul><li>Social needs </li></ul><ul><li>Security needs </li></ul><ul><li>Physiological needs </li></ul>
  4. 4. Motivation… <ul><li>is setting audacious objectives & </li></ul><ul><li>getting people to own & achieve them. </li></ul><ul><li>is getting someone else to do what you want done because he wants to do it . </li></ul><ul><li>is making people feel & take pride that they have done it. </li></ul><ul><li>is letting go while retaining the right to know what is going on. </li></ul><ul><li>is the art of accomplishing more than what scientific mgt says is possible . </li></ul>
  5. 5. What I hate about my boss.. <ul><li>He lacks enthusiasm. </li></ul><ul><li>He is insecure. </li></ul><ul><li>He doesn’t accept responsibility. </li></ul><ul><li>He lacks people skills. </li></ul><ul><li>He is unwilling to guide. </li></ul><ul><li>He doesn’t inspire us to perform. </li></ul><ul><li>He doesn’t appreciate good work. </li></ul><ul><li>He doesn’t discuss new strategies or ideas with us. </li></ul><ul><li>His communication is negative & de-motivating. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Men, not machines. <ul><li>A promise is a promise. </li></ul><ul><li>Turn down in the first place (rather than withdraw it later). </li></ul><ul><li>Spot talent, creativity & promote. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Tolerate mistakes. </li></ul><ul><li>Learn from them. </li></ul><ul><li>No mistakes, no initiative. </li></ul><ul><li>Set an example. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of them as individuals. </li></ul><ul><li>Meet them face to face. Listen. </li></ul><ul><li>Talk straight. </li></ul><ul><li>Give clear instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Accept only after weighing the pros & cons. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t put on airs. </li></ul><ul><li>Never stand on ceremony. </li></ul><ul><li>Take the rap yourself. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Give the right touch. <ul><li>Keep channels open. </li></ul><ul><li>Why argue? Understand. </li></ul><ul><li>To err is human. </li></ul><ul><li>Listen to complaints. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t shout. Explain. </li></ul><ul><li>Never hold out threats. </li></ul><ul><li>Blow your top, but constructively. </li></ul><ul><li>Soften the blow. </li></ul><ul><li>Allow them to let off steam. </li></ul><ul><li>Don’t accuse. Investigate. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Seniority – cum – ‘fitness’! <ul><li>From a cartoon by R K Laxman </li></ul><ul><li>A well-dressed chimpanzee is sitting in an office, wearing spectacles and poring into a file in all seriousness. Two persons stand at some distance away. One of them, probably an insider, to the other: </li></ul><ul><li>“ Prospects here are very good. Just 20 years back he was brought here for experiments. By seniority he has become the head of the department now.” </li></ul>
  9. 9. Punishment doesn’t reward! <ul><li>Gets only temporary redn in unacceptable behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Constant presence of punisher necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn’t teach appropriate behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces increased fear (less effectiveness in work). </li></ul><ul><li>Produces emotional side-effects. </li></ul><ul><li>Produces rigid & inflexible behaviour patterns. </li></ul><ul><li>Suppresses more behaviour than that punished. </li></ul><ul><li>Can result in counter-aggression. </li></ul><ul><li>Passed on down the line. </li></ul>
  10. 10. The secret to motivation(M) is to understand your people <ul><li>Not all employees are alike, nor all situations. There is no single best way for M . </li></ul><ul><li>People are different in their needs & hence in their M s. </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals change their aspirations & needs frequently, changing their M s. </li></ul><ul><li>A single goal can be reached in a no. of ways or M s. </li></ul><ul><li>A single goal can satisfy a host of needs & M s. </li></ul><ul><li>You cannot really motivate anyone. But you can provide the environment in which he grows. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The rules of motivation <ul><li>The four ‘R’s - respect, recognition, responsibility & recreation </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate yourself to motivate others. </li></ul><ul><li>Participate in order to motivate. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation, even when estd., does not last forever. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation requires lots of individual recognition. </li></ul><ul><li>Progress & success motivate. </li></ul><ul><li>Challenge motivates only if you succeed. </li></ul><ul><li>Team membership motivates. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation is not appeasing. The formula for failure: Try to please everybody! </li></ul>
  12. 12. How to motivate? <ul><li>Allow them to develop their job, to continually improve. </li></ul><ul><li>Set targets for them to get a sense of achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>Give them variety & interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Show trust. Be open. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep them in the picture. </li></ul><ul><li>Empower. Allow them control over what they do. </li></ul><ul><li>Tell them: a work ill-done must be done twice. </li></ul><ul><li>Give regular feedback to prevent misdirection. </li></ul><ul><li>Give praise. Show appreciation. </li></ul><ul><li>Encourage teamwork, sense of belonging, synergy. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure conducive work environment. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Motivation – the basics <ul><li>What gets asked for gets done. </li></ul><ul><li>What gets measured gets done better. </li></ul><ul><li>What gets rewarded gets done best of all. </li></ul><ul><li>“ People do what they do because of what happens to them when they do it.” </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation requires a SMART goal. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivational instructions are always ‘SMART’ </li></ul><ul><li>Specific </li></ul><ul><li>Measurable </li></ul><ul><li>Agreed </li></ul><ul><li>Realistic </li></ul><ul><li>Time-bound </li></ul>
  14. 14. What gets asked for …. <ul><li>Know what you want. Decide on the performance level you require. </li></ul><ul><li>If you don’t know what you want, you cannot convey it to them. </li></ul>
  15. 15. What gets measured gets done <ul><li>End results to be specific & quantifiable. </li></ul><ul><li>Mere urgings - “do better”, “work harder”, etc. - are not motivational. </li></ul><ul><li>Let employee know what is expected of him and when it is to be completed. </li></ul><ul><li>Specify the stages. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure he knows how he has performed and when he has completed it. </li></ul>
  16. 16. What gets rewarded… <ul><li>Reward! </li></ul><ul><li>Given after the desired behaviour or performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Given as soon as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Specific to the accomplishment. </li></ul><ul><li>Personal in impact. </li></ul><ul><li>Valued by the recipient. </li></ul><ul><li>Delivered consistently. </li></ul><ul><li>Predictable by the recipient. </li></ul>
  17. 17. On rewards <ul><li>Ensure correct feedback. </li></ul><ul><li>Keep changing rewards to get improved behaviour. </li></ul><ul><li>Do not reward them all alike. Base it on their performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Continue to tell them – what they should do to deserve it. </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent in your rewards. Have a firm link: for this performance, this reward. </li></ul><ul><li>No need to continue reward after the behaviour is established. </li></ul><ul><li>Be fair. The size of the reward must match the effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Reward necessary for continued good performance. </li></ul><ul><li>Reward them in other ways than just money. </li></ul>
  18. 18. The outstanding reward! <ul><li>However outstanding you may be, you can hope to get an outstanding report only from an outstanding superior. </li></ul>
  19. 19. “ Delivering high performance is a journey rather than a destination.” <ul><li>Show appreciation for good work. </li></ul><ul><li>Involve them in as many work decisions as possible. </li></ul><ul><li>Show real care & help in personal problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Hawthorne effect : if you treat people as special their performance would improve. </li></ul><ul><li>Constantly upgrade the notion of what is acceptable. </li></ul>
  20. 20. Tell them what to do, not how to do. <ul><li>Know the extent up to which to give detailed instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>Know when to cut off debate & initiate action. </li></ul><ul><li>Seek & take responsibility in the workplace. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure that tasks are understood & accomplished. </li></ul><ul><li>Know which is more important in a given context – details or the wider viewpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Set an example. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Setting goals <ul><li>Set targets that stretch them. </li></ul><ul><li>Make them believe in themselves. </li></ul><ul><li>They can only succeed in targets they believe they can achieve. </li></ul><ul><li>Achieving goals is a motivating force in itself. </li></ul><ul><li>When realistic, they enhance performance due to less anxiety and more motivation. </li></ul><ul><li>Goals are within individual’s control & hence are flexible. </li></ul><ul><li>They should be </li></ul><ul><li>- specific, measurable & behavioural. </li></ul><ul><li>- challenging, but realistic. </li></ul>
  22. 22. Goals work. <ul><li>The goals enable employee to - </li></ul><ul><li>orientate himself to what is required. </li></ul><ul><li>direct attention & activity towards the task. </li></ul><ul><li>direct efforts towards achievement. </li></ul><ul><li>build persistence. </li></ul><ul><li>devise new learning strategies. </li></ul><ul><li>The harder the goal, and/ or the more important the goal, the more is the effort put in. </li></ul><ul><li>When more specific, they are more achievable. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Try the mother’s rule! Coupling of something not valued with something that is valued. <ul><li>“ When you have finished your dance lessons, you can have your ice cream.” </li></ul>
  24. 24. Job enrichment Employee satisfaction (to) motivation (to) performance <ul><li>Minimum controls </li></ul><ul><li>Maximum personal accountability </li></ul><ul><li>Work in complete entities </li></ul><ul><li>Employee to have control over -which task & when </li></ul><ul><li>Feedback on performance & quality directly to employee </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to do new jobs </li></ul><ul><li>Individuals to choose their jobs with the rest of their team </li></ul><ul><li>Opportunity to discuss & comment on changes in work </li></ul><ul><li>Job rotation instead of one single short cycle job. </li></ul><ul><li>Ensure variety, personal autonomy and scope for personality development. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Praise in public. Criticize in private.
  26. 26. Make them break through! <ul><li>Make people think in a breakthrough fashion. </li></ul><ul><li>Motivate. Create enthusiasm & passion. </li></ul><ul><li>Create a dream & make the team go towards it. </li></ul><ul><li>The ability to get the message across is what ignites people to act as one person. </li></ul><ul><li>Mine more value. </li></ul>