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# Concurrent Forces

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### Concurrent Forces

1. 1. Concurrent Force Systems ENGR 221 January 15, 2003
2. 2. Lecture Goals <ul><li>2.1 Introduction </li></ul><ul><li>2.2 Forces and their Characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>2.4 Resultant of Three or more concurrent Forces </li></ul><ul><li>2.5 Resolution of a Force into Components </li></ul>
3. 3. Introduction - Definition Concurrent Force Systems : A concurrent force system contains forces whose lines-of action meet at some one point. Forces may be tensile (pulling)
4. 4. Introduction - Definition Concurrent Force Systems : A concurrent force system contains forces whose lines-of action meet at some one point. Forces may be compressive (pushing)
5. 5. Introduction - Definition <ul><li>The external effect , which is tendency to change the motion of the body or to develop resisting forces in the body </li></ul><ul><li>The internal effect , which is the tendency to deform the body . </li></ul>Force exerted on a body has two effects :
6. 6. Introduction - Definition If the force system acting on a body produces no external effect, the forces are said to be in balance and the body experience no change in motion is said to be in equilibrium . The process of reducing a force system to a simpler equivalent stem is called a reduction. The process of expanding a force or a force system into a less simple equivalent system is called a resolution.
7. 7. Introduction - Definition A force is a vector quantity that, when applied to some rigid body, has a tendency to produce translation (movement in a straight line) or translation and rotation of body. When problems are given, a force may also be referred to as a load or weight. Characteristics of force are the magnitude , direction (orientation) and point of application .
8. 8. Introduction - Definition Scalar Quantity has magnitude only (not direction) and can be indicated by a point on a scale. Examples are temperature, mass, time and dollars. Vector Quantities have magnitude and direction. Examples are wind velocity, distance between to points on a map and forces.
9. 9. Introduction - Definition Collinear : If several forces lie along the same line-of –action, they are said to be collinear. Coplanar When all forces acting on a body are in the same plane, the forces are coplanar.
10. 10. Introduction - Definition Type of Vectors Free Vector - is vector which may be freely moved creating couples in space. Sliding Vector - forces action on a rigid body are represented by vectors which may move or slid along their line of action. Bound Vector or Fixed Vector - can not be moved without modifying the conditions of the problem.
11. 11. Introduction - Definition Principle of Transmissibility The principle of transmissibility states that the condition of equilibrium or of motion of a rigid body will remain unchanged if a force F action at a given point of the rigid body is replace by a force F’ of the same magnitude and the same direction, but acting at a different point, provided that the two forces have the same line of action.
12. 12. Introduction - Definition Principle of Transmissibility Line of action
13. 13. Introduction - Definitions <ul><li>Point loads - concentrated forces exerted at point or location </li></ul><ul><li>Distributed loads - a force applied along a length or over an area. The distribution can be uniform or non-uniform. </li></ul>Types of Forces(Loads)
14. 14. Introduction - Definitions Resultant Forces If two forces P and Q acting on a particle A may be replaced by a single force R , which has the same effect on the particle.
15. 15. Introduction - Definitions Resultant Forces This force is called the resultant of the forces P and Q and may be obtained by constructing a parallelogram, using P and Q as two sides of the parallelogram. The diagonal that pass through A represents the resultant.
16. 16. Introduction - Definitions Resultant Forces This is known as the parallelogram law for the addition of two forces. This law is based on experimental evidence,; it can not be proved or derived mathematically.
17. 17. Introduction - Definitions Resultant Forces For multiple forces action on a point, the forces can be broken into the components of x and y.
18. 18. Vectors <ul><li>The vectors can be solved by </li></ul><ul><li>Law of sine and law of cosines (two forces) </li></ul><ul><li>Graphically </li></ul><ul><li>Equilibrium </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Table </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sum of values </li></ul></ul>
19. 19. Homework (Due 1/22/03) <ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3, 2-5, 2-8, 2-14, 2-15, 2-29, 2-37 </li></ul></ul>
20. 20. Example Problems <ul><li>Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces. </li></ul>
21. 21. Example Problems <ul><li>Two structural members B and C are riveted to the bracket A. Knowing that the tension in member B is 6 kN and the tension in C is 10 kN, determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant force acting on the bracket. </li></ul>
22. 22. Example Problems <ul><li>Determine the magnitude and direction of P so that the resultant of P and the 900-N force is a vertical force of 2700-N directed downward. </li></ul>
23. 23. Example Problems <ul><li>A cylinder is to be lifted by two cables. Knowing that the tension in one cable is 600 N, determine the magnitude and direction of the force so that the resultant of the vertical force of 900 N. </li></ul>
24. 24. Example Problems <ul><li>Determine the force in each supporting wire. </li></ul>
25. 25. Example Problems <ul><li>The stoplight is supported by two wires. The light weighs 75-lb and the wires make an angle of 10 o with the horizontal. What is the force in each wire? </li></ul>
26. 26. Example Problems <ul><li>In a ship-unloading operation, a 3500-lb automobile is supported by a cable. A rope is tied to the cable at A and pulled in order to center the automobile over its intended position. The angle between the cable and the vertical is 2 o , while the angle between the rope and the horizontal is 30 o . What is the tension in the rope? </li></ul>
27. 27. Example Problems <ul><li>The barge B is pulled by two tugboats A and C. At a given instant the tension in cable AB is 4500-lb and the tension in cable BC is 2000-lb. Determine the magnitude and direction of the resultant of the two forces applied at B at that instant. </li></ul>
28. 28. Example Problems <ul><li>Determine the resultant of the forces on the bolt. </li></ul>
29. 29. Example Problems <ul><li>Determine which set of force system is in equilibrium. For those force systems that are not in equilibrium, determine the balancing force required to place the body in equilibrium. </li></ul>
30. 30. Example Problems <ul><li>Two forces P and Q of magnitude P=1000-lb and Q=1200-lb are applied to the aircraft connection. Knowing that the connection is in equilibrium, determine the tensions T 1 and T 2 . </li></ul>
31. 31. Example Problems <ul><li>Determine the forces in each of the four wires. </li></ul>
32. 32. Example Problems <ul><li>The blocks are at rest on a frictionless incline. Solve for the forces F 1 and F 2 required for equilibrium. </li></ul>
33. 33. Example Problems <ul><li>Length A= 5 ft, and length B =10 ft and angle  = 30 o . Determine the angle  of the incline in order to maintain equilibrium. </li></ul>
34. 34. Example Problems <ul><li>Solve for the resisting force at pin A to maintain equilibrium. </li></ul>