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Biopotentials and  Electrophysiology  Measurement
Agenda ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
What are biopotentials ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mechanism behind biopotentials 1/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Mechanism behind biopotentials 2/2 ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electrocardiography (ECG) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],1. Atrial  depolarization 2. Ventricular depolarization 3. Ventricular repolarization
ECG basics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
12-Lead ECG measurement ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Einthoven leads: I, II & III Goldberger augmented leads: V R , V L  & V F   Precordial leads: V 1 -V 6
Why is 12-lead system obsolete? ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electroencephalography (EEG)  ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
EEG measurement setup ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electromyography (EMG) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electrooculography (EOG) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Vectorcardiogram (VCG or EVCG) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
The biopotential amplifier ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
The Instrumentation Amplifier ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],CMRR fine tuning
Application-specific requirements ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electrical Interference Reduction ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Filtering ,[object Object],[object Object],Small inductors or ferrite beads in the lead wires block HF frequency EM interference RF filtering with small capacitors High-pass filter to reject DC drifting Low-pass filtering at several stages is recommended to attenuate residual RF interference
50 or 60 Hz notch filter ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Twin T notch filter Determines notch frequency Notch tuning
Artifact reduction ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electrical isolation ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Defibrillation Protection ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],1. Resistors in the input leads limit the current 3. Protection against much higher voltages is achieved with low-pressure gas discharge tubes (e.g. neon lamps) (note: even isolation components such as transformers and optical isolators need these spark gaps) Discharge @ ~100V 2. Diodes or Zener diodes protect against high voltages Discharge @ 0.7-15V
Electrodes – Basics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Electrodes - Basics ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Baseline drift due to the changes in junction potential or motion artifacts  Choice of electrodes   Muscle signal interference   Placement   Electromagnetic interference   Shielding
Ag-AgCl, Silver-Silver Chloride Electrodes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Gold Electrodes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Conductive polymer electrodes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Metal or carbon electrodes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Needle electrodes ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
That’s it, Now for Q&A SQUID = Superconducting Quantum Interference Device

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Biopotentials

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  • 30. That’s it, Now for Q&A SQUID = Superconducting Quantum Interference Device