Salam Thank you at the end The benefit of adding a qualitative data research component to medication safety research. Describe the qualitative data research methodology and how the qualitative data research can be incorporated into the quantitative data research through mixed methods research. Discuss some example of mixed methods and qualitative data research in medication safety area
I would like to open the eyes of the young generation of researchers for this wonderful method and its application to medication adherence field, since I noticed a resistance of using it and not convinced of its benefit and sounded scientific approach specifically in the medical field and clinical pharmacy particularly. I'm here to tell you about the importance of including the human factor as the instrument in collecting and analysing data to answer your research question.
At the workshop of Dr danila scalar how humanities help to develop narrative and why its important for clinical pharmacist a collegue argued that we are scientists and in between lines why to involve non objective measures. My self I faced a lot of underestimation of work conducted qualitative methods in Riyadh which I assume due to lack of what and who of this beautiful tool that gives rich and coloured understanding of your research
As a final presenter in this wonderful program that I learned a lot from it we all convinced about the importance of medication adherence research. And the problem is huge, and it cost a lot, and we are still exploring it.
As seen by Dr Sina presentation the high economic burden of medication error and adverse drug reaction in addition to….
Why adding a qualitative component to the current research in NEEDED! There is a need to underline the human factor in medication safety! And that can not be conducted by quantitative studies that will give you numbers, levels and statistical relations. In qualitative research the researcher is the research tool and he/she is the one will do in-depth exploring via face to face contact or close examination of documents in order to find out what is going on.
Most of us aware of the quantitative research methods that usually answer research questions related to give you statistics and numbers which describe, compare and/or identify relationship between different variables in predefined sample size using several statistical. Questions such as such as how big is the difference in managing the disease using drug x or Y. OR how many of the population have certain disease or what proportion of your sample have certain factors. What are the most important factors that influence the medication adheres for chronic disease?
But on the other hand what about qualitative research? Pause… Qualitative research gives you a data in terms of language and words. It gives you in depth of understanding of a specific phenomena. While qualitative research is a relatively new approach in comparison of the quantitative research for health service research. In qualitative research the researcher answer questions such as what is it like for them It answers the how and why?
I found this nice metaphore that describe adding a qualitative component to your research So ….read
So it add indepth and color but be carfeul to include it if it helps in answering your research question.
It has become more and more difficult to find a common definition of qualitative research which is accepted by the majority of qualitative research approaches and researchers. Qualitative research is no longer just simply ‘not quantitative research’, but has developed an identity (or maybe multiple identities) of its own.
Barbour, Rosaline (2008-03-05). Doing Focus Groups (Qualitative Research Kit) (Kindle Locations 185-187). SAGE Publications. Kindle Edition.
There are different ontological epistemological approaches to conduct qualitative research buy I will not go through it as it needs time and it is beyond the scope of my talk and In qualitative research the research tool is the researcher and you can analyse using scientific methods any type of data such as
You need to chose the one that is appropriate to the research area you want to work in and the research question … and what is possible through your expertise and experience
Inquiry shaped by the aim to discover social and psychological, health care, and economic processes. Data collection and analysis phases of project proceed simultaneous. Analytical process employed prompt theory discovery and development rather than verification of pre-existing theories = inductive. Involves comparison of people, places, events, conditions, settings, etc.…. To come up with theory
I’ve drawn up this schematic to illustrate (I hope) in a practical way how documentary analysis to can be categorised and viewed from a public health researchers perspective. And as a way of thinking about your research projects to come.
What guides your thinking about the sample size? which participants to include? ‘Let go’ of the tension that comes from thinking about sample size from a quantitative perspective – to gain a probability sample Qualitative research often uses purposive sampling Sampling strategy is to “maximize the opportunity of producing enough data to answer the research question” (Green & Thorogood, 2009, p. 138).
Write long passages, because the evidence must substantiate claims and writer needs to show multiple perspectives The investigator spends many hours in the field, collects extensive data, and labors over field issues of trying gain access, rapport, and an “insider” perspective. For a multidisciplinary team of qualitative researchers, this task can be shared; for most researchers, it is lonely, isolated time of struggling with the data. This task is challenging, especially because of the database consists of complex texts and images. The incorporation of quotes to provide participants’ perspective also lengthens the study. This complicates telling others how one plans to conduct a study and how others might judge it when the study is done.
قصة الي صدم
he Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (OQMMR) is an advanced-level research office and service center specializing in the design and implementation of both qualitative research and mixed methods research. Dr. John W. Creswell founded the OQMMR at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln in 2002.
Mixed-methods offer a number of advantages over qualitative or quantitative methodologies alone. Mixed-methods methodology is of strategic significance when the research questions require Triangulating findings from different methodologies to explain a single phenomenon clarifying the results of one method using another method informing the design of one method based on the findings of another method development of a scale/questionnaire and answering different research questions within a single study
more challenging than single method study designs (designing, conducting and integrating) A need for another research collaboration (qulaittaive for a quanitative
Thanks the organising committee and the Saudi pharmaceutical pharmacy
Role of qualittaive data in understanding medication safety
Role of Qualitative Data In
Understanding Medication Safety
Nouf M Aloudah
Clinical pharmacy department
• The problem is huge!
• Exploring and the trying to understand it.
A need for
the ways in
interact with the
potential to bring
errors or harms!
Well Known Quantitative Research
How big a
How dose that
What is it like
The Color Cartridge
• Qualitative Research is like a color cartridge for a printer. … In the
beginning you say it is relatively expensive and it not so necessary at that
moment to pay extra money. Nevertheless, when you decide to buy it,
you realize that you can see the real world in your office papers. It is not a
black and white world anymore. The printed pages come back to life. The
trees are green, the sky is blue and the strawberries are red.
• However, not all papers have to be printed in colors. The color cartridge is
more expensive and you have to save your money. Why print in colors if
you are satisfied with black and white only?
Qualitative research is
“… an interpretive naturalistic approach to the
world. …qualitative researchers study things in
their natural settings, attempting to make sense
of or interpret phenomena in terms of the
meanings people bring to them.”
(p. 3) Handbook of qualitative research Denzin and Lincoln (2005)
Types of qualitative data
• Can include just about any form of human
– Transcripts from Interviews/Focus Groups
– Observational notes
– Web pages
– Videos, Films
....the list goes on.
The five qualitative traditions of
I. Grounded theory.
III. Case study.
• Inquiry shaped by the aim to discover social
and psychological, health care, and economic
• Involves comparison of people, places, events,
• An exploration of a case (or multiple cases) over
time through detailed, in depth data collection
involving multiple sources of information rich in
• Data sources include histories, documents, records,
in-depth interviews, direct observation, participant
observation, and physical artifacts.
Documentary and photo voice analysis
used in social research
• tables and lists
• Sampling strategy is to “maximize the
opportunity of producing enough data to
answer the research question”
Green & Thorogood, 2009, p. 138.
• Aim is to be “immersed”
– Writing, writing, writing
Organising the data
• Reduce the amount of data, make
comparisons across data
• Different strategies/different tools
• There is no single ‘right’ way to analyse qualitative
data Good analysis is: Systematic, comprehensive, rigorous,
credibility and ‘fit’
extensive time in
the field, complex,
data analysis, write
long passages, no
Ethical and legal considerations
• Economic and social research counsel (ESRC)
• Consent issues- confidentiality and anonymity
• Permissions should be sought
• Specific concerns regarding the taking of
photographs of other people who have not
What is mixed methods?
The research approaches where
the investigator explicitly
collects, analyzes, and integrates
quantitative and qualitative data
and procedures within a single
study or program of study.
Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (OQMMR)
What you will achieve if you use mixed
Hadi MA et al. Applications of mixed-methods
methodology in clinical pharmacy research.
Int J Clin Pharm. 2016 Jun;38(3):635-40.
• More challenging than single method study
• A need for another research collaboration
• Time (especially sequential)
You need to
add an in-