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Role of qualittaive data in understanding medication safety


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Role of qualittaive data in understanding medication safety

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Role of qualittaive data in understanding medication safety

  1. 1. Role of Qualitative Data In Understanding Medication Safety Nouf M Aloudah Assistance professor Clinical pharmacy department
  2. 2. • The problem is huge! • Exploring and the trying to understand it.
  3. 3. A need for in depth exploration of the ways in which organisational or social processes interact with the potential to bring errors or harms!
  4. 4. • So, what is qualitative research?
  5. 5. Well Known Quantitative Research How many? How big a difference? What proportion? How much?
  6. 6. Qualitative research? What is going on here? How dose that come about? What is it like for them? Why do they?
  7. 7. The Color Cartridge • Qualitative Research is like a color cartridge for a printer. … In the beginning you say it is relatively expensive and it not so necessary at that moment to pay extra money. Nevertheless, when you decide to buy it, you realize that you can see the real world in your office papers. It is not a black and white world anymore. The printed pages come back to life. The trees are green, the sky is blue and the strawberries are red. • However, not all papers have to be printed in colors. The color cartridge is more expensive and you have to save your money. Why print in colors if you are satisfied with black and white only? -Gabriel Bardan
  8. 8. Qualitative research is “… an interpretive naturalistic approach to the world. …qualitative researchers study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them.” (p. 3) Handbook of qualitative research Denzin and Lincoln (2005)
  9. 9. Types of qualitative data • Can include just about any form of human communication: – Transcripts from Interviews/Focus Groups – Observational notes – E-mails – Documents – Web pages – Photos – Diaries – Videos, Films ....the list goes on.
  10. 10. The five qualitative traditions of inquiry I. Grounded theory. II. Ethnography. III. Case study. IV. Biography. V. Phenomenology. 10/12/2017 10
  11. 11. Grounded theory • Inquiry shaped by the aim to discover social and psychological, health care, and economic processes. • Involves comparison of people, places, events, conditions, settings.. 10/12/2017 11
  12. 12. Grounded theory 10/12/2017 12
  13. 13. Ethnography • Ethnography is a description and interpretation of a cultural or social group or system in its entirety (holistic). – Patterns. – Behaviors. – Beliefs. – Languages. 10/12/2017 13
  14. 14. Ethnography 10/12/2017 14
  15. 15. Case study • An exploration of a case (or multiple cases) over time through detailed, in depth data collection involving multiple sources of information rich in context. • Data sources include histories, documents, records, in-depth interviews, direct observation, participant observation, and physical artifacts. 10/12/2017 15
  16. 16. Case study 10/12/2017 16
  17. 17. Documentary and photo voice analysis Documentary sources used in social research Exists independently of the research project Exists independently of the research project Generated through the research process Narrative Generated through the research process •policy papers •meeting minutes •web pages •magazines •newspapers •etc •participant and researcher diaries •written accounts •stories •biographies •pictures and drawings •charts • tables and lists Visual •photographs •films •videos •television •photographs •films •videos •television
  18. 18. Sample size • Sampling strategy is to “maximize the opportunity of producing enough data to answer the research question” 10/12/2017 18 Green & Thorogood, 2009, p. 138.
  19. 19. Analysis • Aim is to be “immersed” – Writing, writing, writing Organising the data • Reduce the amount of data, make comparisons across data • Different strategies/different tools • There is no single ‘right’ way to analyse qualitative data Good analysis is: Systematic, comprehensive, rigorous, credibility and ‘fit’ 10/12/2017 19
  20. 20. Attention! Commit to extensive time in the field, complex, time-consuming data analysis, write long passages, no firm guidelines 10/12/2017 20
  21. 21. Ethical and legal considerations • Economic and social research counsel (ESRC) 2015 Guidelines • Consent issues- confidentiality and anonymity • Permissions should be sought • Specific concerns regarding the taking of photographs of other people who have not explicitly consented.
  22. 22. MIXED METHODs research
  23. 23. What is mixed methods? The research approaches where the investigator explicitly collects, analyzes, and integrates quantitative and qualitative data and procedures within a single study or program of study. Office of Qualitative and Mixed Methods Research (OQMMR)
  24. 24. What you will achieve if you use mixed method? Hadi MA et al. Applications of mixed-methods methodology in clinical pharmacy research. Int J Clin Pharm. 2016 Jun;38(3):635-40.
  25. 25. MIXED-METHODS research limitation • More challenging than single method study designs • A need for another research collaboration • Time (especially sequential)
  26. 26. Thanks Medication safety is complex You need to add an in- depth and color component to your research