RISK AND OPPORTUNITY
Managing Risk for Development
MOOC Final Project
Effective Disaster Management
Odisha State Disaster Management Authority
Coursera and The World Bank
October 1999-Orissa cyclone
• A massive cyclone has swept
through the state of Orissa in
• It became a severe cyclone
with a peak of 160 mph
(260 km/h) winds, the
highest ever recorded in the
Damage caused by the cyclone
• The official death toll
then was 9,885 people.
• Of the total casualty,
alone had accounted
for 8,119 people.
Entire villages were wiped out during the cyclone in Orissa
• It was learnt that death toll was high in Super
Cyclone due to non-availability of safe shelter
buildings in the coastal village, which could have
withstood the intensity of the cyclone and the storm
• Orissa became the first state in India to set up a
disaster management agency – the Orissa Disaster
Management Authority (OSDMA). The state
government and OSDMA planned and prepared for
natural disasters with unwavering commitment.
• They identified safe buildings, constructed new
shelters, charted evacuation routes,
established evacuation protocols and
strengthened coastal embankments.
• Most importantly, volunteer teams were set up
and mock drills were conducted every year in
• From March 2011 onwards, the International
Development Agency (IDA) has supported disaster
mitigation efforts in Odisha(previously Orissa) as well
as in the neighboring state of Andhra Pradesh.
• The $255 million National Cyclone Risk Mitigation
Project, Phase I, is the World Bank’s first preventive
disaster risk management project in India.
Phailin Cyclone, 2013
• Cyclone Phailin struck
Odisha’s coast on the night
of October 12, 2013, with
wind speeds of over 200
• It is of the similar intensity
of the 1999 cyclone.
• In one of the largest emergency evacuations in history, over 1
million people were moved to nearby shelters or safer
buildings before the cyclone struck. The evacuation was
carried out in record time.
• The usually massive death toll was reduced dramatically. Less
than 40 people died, in sharp contrast to the cyclone in 1999
which killed more than 10,000 people.
• Major roads were cleared within 24 hours, far sooner than
could be expected, as men, machines and materials had been
put in place before the cyclone struck, and there was close
• The World Bank has praised India’s evacuation of nearly 1
million people in Odisha(Orissa) which ensured minimal loss of
human lives, before the cyclone Phailin made landfall and
attributed it to its years of disaster management preparedness.
• “Successfully evacuating a million people is not a small task.
This cannot be merely achieved by kicking the entire state
machinery into top gear for three-four days following a cyclone
warning,” the World Bank said, days after the cyclone Phailin
hit the eastern Indian shore.
• Odisha's handling of the very severe cyclone will be a landmark
success story in disaster management," Margareta Wahlstrom,
Special Representative of the UN Secretary General (SRSG) for
Disaster Risk Reduction said, according to an official of the
Chief Minister's Office.
• Successful disaster risk reduction can dramatically reduce
casualties from natural hazards. The stark contrast in loss of
life from the 1999 event and Cyclone Phailin clearly shows the
dramatic potential of well-planned and carefully-executed
disaster risk management initiatives.
• Resilience is about more than the preservation of human
life. Sustainable risk reduction also should aim for the
preservation of livelihoods.
• Improved risk insurance instruments are needed to better
absorb financial shocks and ensure that reconstruction funds
are readily available.
“The success of minimizing human casualties was due
to the resolve of the State and our team’s
preparedness. We recognize that each disaster is an
opportunity to improve our resilience and risk
— J K Mohapatra, Chief Secretary, Government of Odisha, India