(all of which are still being drafted by project partners as this synthesis was being written) so they can better support gender and landless considerations.
This information will be gathered through PRA and the pre-CFPAR and pre-FPAR surveys and would then be proposed for discussion by FFS participants in the first sessions of the FPAR cycle. This participatory analysis of gender differences within households and communities, their evolution during the program and their social, economic and political causes is expected to raise awareness of FFS participants on gender and allow them to define corrective actions adapted to their own understanding of the context. Indeed, all literature converges in stressing that, once a global framework is envisaged at central/top level, it needs to be discussed and substantially adapted by target groups themselves in order to be useful. As Kabeer (1999) puts it, a top-down approach runs into the danger of prescribing the process of empowerment and thereby violating its essence, which is to enhance women's capacity for self-determination. In order to make surethatthese participatory analyses bring fruitful results, collaboration will be sought with local organizations or experts working on rural women’s rights in order to benefit from their knowledge and experience of the local context. This would in particular help anticipate potential resistances and past experiences in addressing them. In addition, it is recommended to organize part of these analyses and planning sessions separating groups of men and women and as much as possible to have them coordinated by trainers of the same sex, in order to ensure that there are spaces and times when women can voice their concerns in confidence. - building upon or organizing women in saving groups: savings groups have multiple purposes, which include providing a regular opportunity for women to meet and share their own issues of interest or concern once the formalities of the savings group are finished. The concept and processes involved in the savings groups involve minimal training as they are designed to accommodate women with low levels of formal education. They could form a vehicle for women to identify collective needs, rights, claims and plans to engage with men and local authorities to redress gender inequalities (Resurreccion et al 2008, Oxfam America &Rachana, 2012), training participants on book-keeping (on both farm and non-farm activities), which has been observed in Vietnam as affecting positively gender relationship in households implementing SRI (Thinh, 2009), organizing frequent follow-up sessions on the issues highlighted by the participatory analysis to be chaired alternatively by women and men participants, organizing separate trainings for women on higher-income-generating activities usually reserved to men, including other aspects of the value chain and non-SRI related activities, organizing FFS women participants meetings at province or national level for convergence among themselves and exchange of experiences.
This would require an ex-ante context and market analysis prior to the FPAR to identify: the pool of agriculture labourers active in the project area, with specific attention to their dependence on work in rice cultivation, the FFS requirements in hired and exchange labour for each season of the project implementation (including analysis by type of activity and gender), other available farm and non-farm livelihood options, including land available in different seasons for additional SRI cultivation.
Findings would be discussed before starting the FFS season in participatory forums which would allow to: identify the short and long term benefits and losses for both groups of farmers and labourers, discuss the terms of payment of each SRI activity in order for losses and benefits to be fairly shared between farmers and labourers, with a specific attention that these negotiations do not create gender wage gaps, select FFS labourer participants, making sure that participants are representative of the different subgroups of agriculture labourers in the area, decide on a basket of supplementary farm and non-farm livelihood projects for both groups, including SRI cultivation on additional rented land, encourage creation of smaller organizations, such as savings subgroups, e.g. savings groups of women, young farmers, labourers particularly dependent on rice cultivation, land-renters... - In the project, terminology and participation of agriculture labourers would replace that of landless labourers at all levels (FPAR, CFPAR, national and regional activities) as soon as possible, in order to ensure in particular that agriculture labourers are included in the CFPAR and that labour markets are analysed as a central issue during PRAs and baseline surveys. In the long run, as planned in the project description, agriculture labourers and their representatives would participate in evaluation workshops organized at the end of each FPAR cycle to review the progress, plan for the next cycle of action research and feed into the annual national workshop.
Monitoring, evaluation and learning could focus on: Participation of agriculture labourers in FFS activities (production and value chain) and in alternative livelihood generating trainings, Outcomes and follow-up of deliberations on terms of payment, Use of exchange and hired labour by FFS farmers, Organization of agriculture labourers in solidarity groups (savings groups or labourers associations) and efficiency of these groups according to objectives set by participants, Increase in access to land through rental or ownership by FFS participants, Increase in food security and income of agriculture labourers engaged in the project, disaggregated between participants in FFS activities and in alternative livelihood generating trainings, between levels of income and between levels of dependence on wage from rice labour.
While some of the mainstreaming will be carried over in the next few months through the consultancy related to this report (FFS curriculum and MEI), attention of all partners and staff will have to be sustained throughout the project. Discussing and adopting a simple OGAP to be reviewed annually would thus allow gender mainstreaming by all project partners to stay on track.
Integrating and strengthening gender and landless into SRI-LMB - Ms. Kaneka Keo
SRI will have on two specific groups, women and
landless labourers (often relying on farm labour for
Review of research and learning that has emerged
in recent years around gender and landless.
prepare a basic synthesis of the learning and
recommendations from this material »
These recommendations will constitute a basis to
refine the curriculum, support materials and MEL
- Landless labourers are considered among the most
- They are poor with few productive assets, are
mostly under-employed and under-paid and have
little education and skills,
- 21.1% of Cambodian households were landless and
another 23.3% had less than 0.5 ha in 2008 , while
Lao’s stated that 15% of Lao households were
landless and another 28.5% had less than 1 ha in
- 68.1% of the population lives in rural areas, women
comprise 48.1% of the agricultural labour force on
- The differentiated roles of men and women in
agriculture and rural households have received increased
attention from researchers, aid donors, and
policymakers in recent years.
- Majority of women are illiterate compare to men
- Women spent more time involve in farming but their
role in farming system have been over look.
- In current economic grow and in the situation of men’s
migration to other labour work , women is taking the
role as farm management ( Cambodia and Loa )
Thailand, latest accounts (USAID, 2009)
estimated that about 10% of farming
households were landless in 2005, and 17%
held under 0.8 hectares.
AT FPAR level :
Establishing participatory gender action plans
Ensuring women inclusion at all stages of the
FPAR ( from selection to design for training topic)
Mainstreaming gender sensitivity throughout the
Develop Women ‘s Employment Framework
Summary of recommendations on women’s empowerment through FFS
To be discussed on October 31, 2013 and adapted pending approval from project partners:
•Analytical framework: adapt components of the WEAI and Longwe frameworks and include these elements in the pre-
CFPAR and FPAR surveys,
•Conduct participatory analysis with FFS participants with a view or establishing Participatory Gender Action Plans
Participatory follow-up sessions,
Province and national women trainings,
Post FPAR cycle review.
•Ensure women inclusion in FPAR through:
Revision FFS participants selection process,
Women’s equal access and visibility in all activities.
•Adopt an Overall Gender Action Plan (OGAP) to assess gender mainstreaming, in particular by:
Ensuring that staff and partners recruitment includes gender-sensitive criteria,
Building-up staff capacity on gender issues throughout the project, including by participating in networks
working on rural women’s rights and creating an internal gender working group,
Revising all relevant project documents and procedures.
AT FPAR level :
Identifying landless labourers’ specifics in the
Anticipating the impacts of SRI introduction on
rice labour markets
Implications on project-structure and MEL
AT POLICY &ADVOCACY LEVEL:
Women as key aspect in any policy research and Analysis
Identify Gender Gap in current policy environment (
Gender Gap is access to productive Agriculture land )
Ensure issue of women farmer have been identified as
strong position in policy Recommendation ( ASDP 2014-
2018 Cambodia )
Establish Relationship with Government ‘s Gender
mainstreaming ‘structure ( Lao PDR & Cambodia ).
Promote Women in Public forum through strengthen
women farmer public speaking capacity ( Cambodia &