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Improving learning in irrigation: What approaches can improve participation and benefits for women?

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The CGIAR Collaborative Platform for Gender Research hosted a webinar to explore how to improve women's participation and benefits in irrigation schemes. It took place on March 13 and was organized in collaboration with WLE's Thrive Network.

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Improving learning in irrigation: What approaches can improve participation and benefits for women?

  1. 1. Improving learning in irrigation: What approaches can improve participation and benefits for women? Nicole Lefore, Elizabeth Weight, Nozilakhon Mukhamedova 13 March 2018 Webinar
  2. 2. sustainable solutions for people and societies Demand from donors and governments: Project/scheme level learning tool for gender equitability in irrigation How can we…  assess, report and improve gender equitability on irrigation projects?  assess across geographical areas and types of irrigation schemes?  use a tool across different institutions and with different expertise/capabilities?  focus on what is in the project scope of control?
  3. 3. sustainable solutions for people and societies Gender in Irrigation Learning and Improvement Tool - GILIT PROCESS TO DEVELOP TOOL 1. Based on research evidence 2. Peer reviewed 3. Piloted 4. Edited/adapted with partner organizations
  4. 4. sustainable solutions for people and societies Modules, questions and scoring built on evidence Levels of equitability in 3 areas across project cycle 1. Access to scheme resources: information, land, water, inputs) 2. Participation in scheme management: membership, leadership, decision-making 3. Access to scheme benefits: market information/support, services, revenue
  5. 5. sustainable solutions for people and societies GILIT Tool: 5 Components Section A: Access to Scheme Resources Section B: Participation in Scheme Governance Section C: Benefits from the Scheme Component 5: Action Questions Component 1: Context
  6. 6. sustainable solutions for people and societies Component 1 • National and sub-national environment • Data: Policy documents, budget allocations, etc. • Not scored GILIT Tool: Component 1 Component 1: Context
  7. 7. sustainable solutions for people and societies Section A: Access to Scheme Resources Section B: Participation in Scheme Governance Section C: Benefits from the Scheme Component 1: Context • Access to land, water, and inputs • Data: Discussions with women and men • Score: Compare to “optimal” GILIT Tool: Component 2 (Section A)
  8. 8. sustainable solutions for people and societies Section A: Access to Scheme Resources Section B: Participation in Scheme Governance Section C: Benefits from the Scheme Component 1: Context • Participation in governance • Data: Discussions • Score: Compare to “optimal” GILIT Tool: Component 3 (Section B)
  9. 9. sustainable solutions for people and societies Section A: Access to Scheme Resources Section B: Participation in Scheme Governance Section C: Benefits from the Scheme Component 1: Context • Benefits • Data: Discussions • Score: Compare to “optimal” GILIT Tool: Component 4 (Section C)
  10. 10. sustainable solutions for people and societies Section A: Access to Scheme Resources Section B: Participation in Scheme Governance Section C: Benefits from the Scheme Component 5: Action Questions GILIT Tool: Component 5 Component 1: Context • Ideas for improvement • Data: Discussions • Not Scored
  11. 11. sustainable solutions for people and societies GILIT Tool: Scoring  Sections A, B and C scored  Higher score = greater gender equality  Weighted scoring for Section B (Governance) and Section C (Benefits)  Quantitative scores enable comparisons
  12. 12. sustainable solutions for people and societies GILIT Tool: Key Considerations 1. Adaptable 2. Snapshot in time 3. Supports reflection and analysis 4. Gender equality is complex
  13. 13. Piloting of GILIT: Case from 2 irrigation schemes in Malawi
  14. 14. sustainable solutions for people and societies Piloting methodology Where: Malawi How: Interviews and discussion groups Timeframe: 1.5 to 3 hours (all sections/modules) Where: On scheme/in field When: Usual time to be on farm Who: Scheme participants, project managers, local NGOs, local extension (100+ respondents)
  15. 15. www.iwmi.org Water for a food-secure world Malawi Pilot Sites Kaziputa Lufilya
  16. 16. sustainable solutions for people and societies Pilot Results: Access to scheme resources Kaziputa Lufilya Self score: 27 of 33 Constraints:  Domestic water needs not considered: washing, livestock  Lack of access to inputs so women have fewer plots Suggestions to improve:  new arrangements for fines for improper water use Self score: NA, > Qs on planning Constraints:  Domestic water needs not considered: washing, livestock  Land in name of male head of household  Polygamy splits subsidies and inputs if given by household Suggestions to improve:  Beyond scope of scheme manager (change culture)
  17. 17. sustainable solutions for people and societies Pilot Results: Participation in scheme management Kaziputa Lufilya Self score: 23 of 24 Constraints:  No formal constraints to be member, vote, stand for positions, speak/be heard, attend trainings  Women do not take executive positions – meetings too far  Club leadership has ‘changed’ the women Suggestions to improve: Bicycles to get to meetings Self score: 19 of 24 Constraints:  Women are “strangers”; members must be land owners  Many constraints to go to meetings, vote, be heard  NGOs work for more equality through gender mainstreaming, but only work with the women Suggestions to improve:  Women to have cell phones; scheme formally communicates to women on meetings, elections, trainings and their rights  Civic education to change culture
  18. 18. sustainable solutions for people and societies Pilot Results: Access to benefits Kaziputa Lufilya Self score: 16.4 of 21 Constraints: Women and men do not access information equally: transportation to field days, radio owned by men Men control marketing of produce, but now have committee including women Suggestions to improve:  Extension wants more access for women to learning events  Scheme execs need bicycles Self score: 11.85 of 21 Constraints:  Women cannot ‘sit on same chair’ as men; re: face to face extension  Women don’t speak in front of in- laws  Men control marketing and no transparency in revenue Suggestions to improve:  Women-owned businesses could trade with the scheme  Men: NGO provides enough to women and scheme does not need to do more
  19. 19. Nozilakhon Mukhamedova Webinar 13 March 2018 Piloting of GILIT (2) Case: 7 WCAs in Uzbekistan
  20. 20. sustainable solutions for people and societies Piloting in Uzbekistan - Household water users
  21. 21. sustainable solutions for people and societies Uzbekistan Pilot Sites
  22. 22. sustainable solutions for people and societies Results: Access to scheme resources WCA management & Large scale farmers Households Self score: 18 of 33 Constraints:  Women were excluded from scheme planning and decision making processes  Only large farm needs were included into the main beneficiaries  Standardized irrigations schemes (absence of context) Self score: 8 of 33 Constraints:  Not aware about the existence of the scheme and their rights to participate  Domestic water needs not considered: washing, livestock
  23. 23. sustainable solutions for people and societies Piloting in Uzbekistan (WCA members)
  24. 24. sustainable solutions for people and societies Self score: 16 of 24 Constraints:  Only large farms (male) are invited to the meetings of WCA  Women consider that they will not be heard. Self score: 4 of 24 Constraints:  Lack of formal representation of households in the WCAs  absence of formal mechanisms requiring WCAs to consider irrigation needs for household production  significant and negative impact on women’s ability to produce food for their families. WCA management & Large scale farmers Households Results: Participation in scheme management
  25. 25. sustainable solutions for people and societies Piloting in Uzbekistan (Household producers)
  26. 26. sustainable solutions for people and societies Results: Access to benefits Self score: 13 of 21 Constraints:  Irrigation scheme accounts only crop water requirements and irrigated area to create irrigation schedule  State-order crops and irrigation preferences  WCA manages water, but does not provide training or any other services. Self score: 5 of 21 Constraints:  Tail-end households receive insufficient water or services, although they make all the payments to the scheme.  Water conflicts between large farmers and household producers.  No schedule or clarity regarding water to households. WCA management & Large scale farmers Households
  27. 27. sustainable solutions for people and societies Summary of piloting in Uzbekistan • Lack of formal representation of households in WCA • Absence of formal mechanisms requiring WCAs to consider irrigation needs for household production • Mismatch + gender-biased approaches= negatively impact small scale, female producers
  28. 28. Pilot Results and Lessons
  29. 29. sustainable solutions for people and societies Pilot Results: Improving gender equitability on irrigation schemes 1. National policy/guidelines do not change local social and cultural context (reflected in scheme management and equity outcomes) 2. Equity in access to resources and participation in management, but not equity in benefits 3. Separate planning for domestic and irrigation remains an issue; increases potential for conflict later 4. Land access arrangements affect participation, but not always as expected (seasonal access, titles/tenure) 5. State, NGOs and project managers play different roles in gender on scheme (NGO mainstream gender, scheme can take gender specific actions)
  30. 30. sustainable solutions for people and societies Pilot Results: Tool assessment and refining 1. Little difference in scoring (men and women) 2. Explanations and suggestions differed by gender 3. Discussions more important than scores to participants 4. Solutions offered not all implementable 5. Women more likely to offer solutions where equitability is already higher. 6. Requires simplification and clear instructions; useful to develop localized fact sheets Is there still the need for the tool to contribute lessons at policy, programs level?
  31. 31. sustainable solutions for people and societies Gender in Irrigation: Learning and Improvement Tool (GILIT) • Addresses demand, specific needs • Research-based • Participatory, self- assessment • Weighted scoring • Focus on scheme level solutions Photo credit: Timothy Adei/Team 1000 Words
  32. 32. sustainable solutions for people and societies

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