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Lim Kah Huay A132816
Low Bee Chan A132764
Sonia Dilip Patel A/P Dilip Kumar A133115
Fatin Atikah Binti Kassim A132739
Jami...
2
CONTENT
1. Introduction
2. Summary of Production
3. List of improvement work
4. Heat integration
5. PFD after heat integ...
SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION
Specifications Description
Product Bioethanol
Microorganism used Enterobacter aerogenes TSITR
1468
P...
List of Improvement Work
4
CHAPTERS PROBLEM CORRECTION DONE
Chapter 3 - PFD • Size of bioreactors in series
doesn’t shows ...
5
CHAPTERS PROBLEM CORRECTION DONE
Chapter 6 – Piping and
Instrumentation
• Control loops with
electrical signal were
not ...
6
CHAPTERS PROBLEM CORRECTION DONE
Chapter 10 – Production
Hazard Analysis
HAZOP was incomplete
and did not consider P&ID
...
7
Temperature
interval start with 0KW
start with 5.915445
kW
107.5 0
105.5 0.004115 -0.004115 0.004115 5.91133
92.9 0.3393...
PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM after Heat integration
8
Relief System
 Spring-loaded relief valve
 Gas leaks when pressure
reaches 92-95%
 Bursting disc (rupture disc)
 ‘engi...
DESIGN OF RELIEF VALVE
Location Type Function A (mm2)
F-101 Spring-loaded To prevent the rupture of vessel due to
overpres...
11P&ID after HAZOP
DETAIL UNIT &
MECHANICAL DESIGN
i. Seed Fermenter, F-101
ii. Stripping Column, C-01
iii. Binary Distillation Column, C-102...
Dimension layout of impeller design
Axial hydrofoil with 3 blades Pitched-blade impeller
Source: Lightnin 2013
Source: Hay...
Detailed Design Fermenters
Design Parameters F-101 F-102 & F-103
Tank diameter, Dt 1.91 m 3.50 m
Tank height, Ht 5.72 m 10...
15
Design Parameters F-101 F-102 & F-103
Height of impeller above vessel floor, C 0.65 m 1.17 m
Impeller width, W 0.20 m 0...
16
MECHANICAL DESIGN
SEED FERMENTER, F-101
Process Description
 Microaerobic continuous fermentation with an aeration rat...
17
Design Specifications Details
Operating Pressure 1 atm (15 psia)
Operating Temperature 37 C (310 K)
Corrosion Allowance...
18
Vessel Parts Dimensions (mm)
Torispherical Top 5.72
Cylindrical Shell 8.89
Torispherical Bottom 5.72
Overall 11
Minimum...
19
Stresses Details
4.83
9.66
0.6324
Primary stresses
6.53
4.40
5.26
157
1361.54
Combined Loading
20
Design Parameters Details
Type of support Bracket support
Type of bracket Double gusset Type 1
Type of beam Wide-flange...
21
Flanged Joint Design
Design Parameters Details
Type of flanged joint Welding neck flange
Flange faces Gasket between bo...
DISTILLATION COLUMN (C-101)
SONIA DILIP PATEL (A133115)
C-101
D-101
H-101
BIOETHANOL
BIOMASS
WATER
55% Bioethanol
45%Water...
MECHANICAL DESIGN OF C-101
SONIA DILIP PATEL (A133115)
• Material used
SS-308
• Properties
Source : MIT Department of Civ...
• Design parameter for C-101
Parameter Value (SI unit) Value (English unit)
Temperature, T 100 OC 212 OF
Operating pressur...
• Combine loading
Primary Stress Value (N/mm2)
3.6226
7.2453
-0.7885
Criterion met. Design is satisfied.
25
Vessel Support
 Straight Cylindrical skirt.
Criterion satisfied, 2 mm CA added. Final skirt thickness = 12 mm
26
• Base ring and Anchor Belt Design
Nb = 4 bolts
Bolt size = nominal diameter (BS 4190: 1967)
Bolt used = M24 with root are...
28
DISTILLATION COLUMN (C-102)
LOW BEE CHAN (A132764)
Parameter Dimension
Column design Tray
Diameter, DT (m) 1.524
Height, H...
Mechanical Design Of Stripping Column C-102
LOW BEE CHAN A132764
Process Description:
Purify ethanol-water mixture to form...
Minimum wall thickness (mm)
Top and bottom heads 5.08
Cylindrical shell 15.24
Overall(standard) 18
Primary Stresses (N/mm2...
VESSEL SUPPORT DESIGN
Resultant Stresses (N/mm2)
<
STRAIGHT SKIRT SUPPORT
Skirt thickness (mm) 20
Skirt height (mm) 2000
B...
FLANGE DESIGN
Parameter
S26
feed
S27
top
S29
refluxed
S31
bottom
S32
reboiled
Flow rate (kg/s) 0.4233 4.314 3.356 1.054 4....
DESIGN SUMMARY
Parameter Value
Operating temperature 100
Operating pressure (atm) 1
Material of construction Austenitic st...
Specifications H-101 H-103
Pitch pattern Square pitch Square pitch
Brass, kw (W/m C) 110 110
Floating head Split-ring Spli...
KETTLE REBOILER DESIGN
Specifications H-102 H-104
Pitch pattern Square pitch Square pitch
Carbon steel, kw (W/m. C) 55 55
...
EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION COLUMN (C-103)
JAMILAH AHMAD (A133159)
Material Carbon steel 516
Actual no of stages 27
Diameter o...
MECHANICAL DESIGN
EXTRACTIVE COLUMN
JAMILAH AHMAD (A133159)
INTRODUCTION
• Wall thickness required for the vessel
• Pressu...
EXTRACTIVE COLUMN
Parts Value/Description
Main Part:
•Vessel height
•Diameter
•Shell height
•Top & bottom height
•Thicknes...
Detailed Design of Flash Drum C-104
KHAIRILAZIM (A133275)
Inlet
(S41)
Vapour Outlet
(S42)
Liquid Outlet
(S43)
h=1.219m
Dv=...
Mechanical Design of Flash Drum C-104
KHAIRILAZIM (A133275)
Parts Value/Description
Main Part:
•Height
•Diameter
•Thicknes...
Properties Value
Cooling water flow rate (kg/h) 105458
Water inlet temperature (°C) 37
Water outlet temperature (°C) 28
Am...
Number of tube 43
Length tube 4 m
Shell-Side Pressure Drop 78.94 kPa
Tube-Side Pressure Drop 1.84 kPa
Shell-side coefficie...
Parts Value/Description
Main Part:
•Vessel length
•Height vessel
•Inner diameter
•Outer diameter
4.0 m
0.267 m
0.016 m
0.0...
T-102 Primary Clarifier A-101 Air Blower T-105 Sludge Storage Tank
Check Pond
Wastewater
from production
plant
Air
Floccul...
46
PLANT LAYOUT
Process Hazard Analysis
Components Hazardous
Properties
Glycerol • Flammable
• Explosion
• Toxic
Ammonium phosphate • Toxi...
FMEA method
- Systematic process to identify potential failures to fulfill the intended function,
to identify possible fai...
Component Failure mode Failure effects Symptom Safeguard Action
Heat exchanger Tube failure High pressure and
could cause ...
PROCESS HAZARD ANALYSIS
HAZOP Analysis
• HAZOP Analysis is to identify how a process deviation can be prevented
or mitigat...
51
 A high yield and potential for ethanol as fuel from Enterobacter
aerogenes. Pengerang has been the best location judg...
FYDP Sem 2
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FYDP Sem 2

Bioethanol production . slides comprises of mechanical drawings, control, waste treatment, safety..

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FYDP Sem 2

  1. 1. Lim Kah Huay A132816 Low Bee Chan A132764 Sonia Dilip Patel A/P Dilip Kumar A133115 Fatin Atikah Binti Kassim A132739 Jamilah Binti Ahmad A133159 Muhammad Khairil Azim bin Abdullah A133275 PRODUCTION OF BIOETHANOL FROM GLYCEROL USING Enterobacter aerogenes TISTR1468 Group KB4
  2. 2. 2 CONTENT 1. Introduction 2. Summary of Production 3. List of improvement work 4. Heat integration 5. PFD after heat integration 6. Piping and Instrumentation 7. P&ID after HAZOP 8. Detailed Unit & Mechanical Design 9. Waste Management 10. Process Hazard Analysis 11. Plant Layout 12. Conclusion
  3. 3. SUMMARY OF PRODUCTION Specifications Description Product Bioethanol Microorganism used Enterobacter aerogenes TSITR 1468 Processes involved • Micro-aerobic fermentation • Stripping • Binary Distillation • Extraction • Flash Vaporization Production basis (per hour) 3676.47 kg Bioethanol sale price (RM / kg) 3.04 Return on investment, ROI 0.25 Payback period, PBP 3.46 years Net present value, NPV RM 10.37 million Discounted cash flow rate of return, DCFRR 0.19 Site location Pengerang, Johor 3
  4. 4. List of Improvement Work 4 CHAPTERS PROBLEM CORRECTION DONE Chapter 3 - PFD • Size of bioreactors in series doesn’t shows its effectiveness in improving productivity of fermentation process • Mass flow rate of medium from distillation column to condensers and reboilers are too big • Stream tables lacks of data • Bioreactors arrangement in parallel • Re-calculation of mass balance • Edited stream table data Chapter 5 - Heat integration Mistakes in inlet and outlet temperature Corrected pinch analysis with heat recovery integrated in PFD To be continued…
  5. 5. 5 CHAPTERS PROBLEM CORRECTION DONE Chapter 6 – Piping and Instrumentation • Control loops with electrical signal were not drawn correctly and some loops were not complete • Relief valve for after HAZOP study was not done • Mistakes in P&ID drawing • Complete drawing of controllers for the entire plant • Sizing calculated and type of valve determined • Improved drawing with second layer of safety incorporated Chapter 7 – Detailed Process Design Design calculation had some mistake since inlet and outlet of stream changed All the design calculation had been calculated and redesign for all unit Chapter 8 - Mechanical Design The calculation for the design and mechanical drawing are not complete All the calculation design and drawing AUTOCAD is done …continue List of Improvement Work To be continued…
  6. 6. 6 CHAPTERS PROBLEM CORRECTION DONE Chapter 10 – Production Hazard Analysis HAZOP was incomplete and did not consider P&ID HAZOP done after complete P&ID drawing Chapter 11 – Site Location and Plant Layout Plant layout need to reconstruct, details were not drawn out clearly and wrong arrangement of unit operations in plant layout Completed plant layout drawing List of Improvement Work …continue
  7. 7. 7 Temperature interval start with 0KW start with 5.915445 kW 107.5 0 105.5 0.004115 -0.004115 0.004115 5.91133 92.9 0.33933 -0.343445 0.33933 5.572 92.5 2.262 -2.605445 2.262 3.31 77.5 2.01 -4.615445 2.01 1.3 67.5 1.3 -5.915445 1.3 0 52.5 -0.4455 -5.469945 -0.4455 0.4455 29.5 0.0824 -5.552345 0.0824 0.3631E-103
  8. 8. PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM after Heat integration 8
  9. 9. Relief System  Spring-loaded relief valve  Gas leaks when pressure reaches 92-95%  Bursting disc (rupture disc)  ‘engineered weak spot’  Low cost, leak tight, instantaneous response , reliable operation 9
  10. 10. DESIGN OF RELIEF VALVE Location Type Function A (mm2) F-101 Spring-loaded To prevent the rupture of vessel due to overpressure during process and sterilization 20 921.57 F-102 Spring-loaded To prevent rupture of vessel due to overpressure during process and sterilization 18 673.24 F-103 Spring-loaded To prevent rupture of vessel due to overpressure during process and sterilization 21 879.60 C-101 Spring-loaded To avoid damage to C-101 due to overpressure 17 614.22 C-102 Spring-loaded To avoid damage to C-101 due to overpressure 16 392.17 C-103 Spring-loaded To avoid damage to C-101 due to overpressure 15 670.20 C-104 Spring-loaded To avoid damage to C-101 due to overpressure 17 986.11 10
  11. 11. 11P&ID after HAZOP
  12. 12. DETAIL UNIT & MECHANICAL DESIGN i. Seed Fermenter, F-101 ii. Stripping Column, C-01 iii. Binary Distillation Column, C-102 iv. Extractive Column, C-103 v. Flash Drum, C-104 vi. Cooling Tower vii. Heat Exchanger, E-103 12
  13. 13. Dimension layout of impeller design Axial hydrofoil with 3 blades Pitched-blade impeller Source: Lightnin 2013 Source: Hayward Gordon Ltd. 2013 Source: Geankoplis 2013 DETAILED DESIGN Lim Kah Huay (A132816) 13 Fermenter layout Source: iGEM 2010
  14. 14. Detailed Design Fermenters Design Parameters F-101 F-102 & F-103 Tank diameter, Dt 1.91 m 3.50 m Tank height, Ht 5.72 m 10.49 m Working volume, V 16.35 m3 100.86 m3 Design of Cooling Jacket Height of jacket 2 m 3.5 m Spacing between jacket and vessel wall 50 mm 50 mm Overall heat transfer coefficient, U 500.63 W/m.°C 201 W/m.°C Pressure drop, ∆P 0.42 kPa 0.16 kPa Design of Impeller Type of impeller Axial flow 3 blades hydrofoil Axial flow pitched-blade 45°impeller Impeller diameter, Da 0.98 m 1.05 m Depth of impeller in vessel, H 1.96 m 3.50 m To be continued… 14
  15. 15. 15 Design Parameters F-101 F-102 & F-103 Height of impeller above vessel floor, C 0.65 m 1.17 m Impeller width, W 0.20 m 0.13 m Length of impeller width, L 0.25 m 0.26 m Diameter of impeller base, Dd 0.65 m 0.70 m Baffle width, J 0.16 m 0.29 m Power number, Np 0.3 1.6 Flow number, Nq 0.55 0.85 Impeller speed 0.10 rps 0.01 rps Power, P 0.3057 W 0.0008 W Sparger ring diameter, Ds 1.08 m 1.15 m Sparger location above vessel floor, S 0.49 m 0.53 m Mixing time, tT 6.67 s 2041.06 s Circulation rate, Q 0.05 m3/s 0.29 m3/s …Continue Detailed Design Fermenters
  16. 16. 16 MECHANICAL DESIGN SEED FERMENTER, F-101 Process Description  Microaerobic continuous fermentation with an aeration rate of 0.5 vvm, medium consistently mixed by agitator.  Glycerol and ammonium phosphate serve as raw material of carbon and nitrogen source respectively  Fermentation output consists of bioethanol and carbon dioxide Material of Construction  Carbon Steel SA 537
  17. 17. 17 Design Specifications Details Operating Pressure 1 atm (15 psia) Operating Temperature 37 C (310 K) Corrosion Allowance 2 mm Vessel Layout Vertical H/D ratio 3:1 Volume Torispherical Head (Top and Bottom Design) Crown radius, R (m) 1.81 Knuckle radius, a (m) 0.19 Distance from the center of the torus to the center of the torus tube, c (m) 0.76 Height from the base of the dome to the top, h (m) 0.38 Cylindrical Shell (Shell Design) 4.96 Effective Length, L (m) 5.21
  18. 18. 18 Vessel Parts Dimensions (mm) Torispherical Top 5.72 Cylindrical Shell 8.89 Torispherical Bottom 5.72 Overall 11 Minimum Wall Thickness Design of Cooling Jacket Design Parameters Details Type Type 1 (confined entirely to the cylindrical shell) Closure Type (b-2) Material of Construction Carbon Steel SA537 Jacket Space 50 mm 0.91 mm 2.91 mm Corner radius of torus closures 5.84 mm
  19. 19. 19 Stresses Details 4.83 9.66 0.6324 Primary stresses 6.53 4.40 5.26 157 1361.54 Combined Loading
  20. 20. 20 Design Parameters Details Type of support Bracket support Type of bracket Double gusset Type 1 Type of beam Wide-flange Number of legs 4 47 kN Standard wide flange beam leg type base plate W6
  21. 21. 21 Flanged Joint Design Design Parameters Details Type of flanged joint Welding neck flange Flange faces Gasket between bolt circle Outside diameter of flange (mm) Stream 2&4 – 107.95 Stream 3&5 – 152.4 Stream 1&6 – 228.6
  22. 22. DISTILLATION COLUMN (C-101) SONIA DILIP PATEL (A133115) C-101 D-101 H-101 BIOETHANOL BIOMASS WATER 55% Bioethanol 45%Water WASTEWATER TREATMENT/ STILLAGE S14 S16 S18 S17 S20 S19 S21 Parameter Dimension Column design Tray Diameter, DT (m) 1.913 Height, H (m) 9.772 Tray spacing(m) 0.457 Number of actual stages 17 Design of plate Sieve plate Plate spacing (m) 0.457 Downcomer area 0.2725m2 Active area 1.726m2 Holes area, 0.173m2 Number of holes 8805 22
  23. 23. MECHANICAL DESIGN OF C-101 SONIA DILIP PATEL (A133115) • Material used SS-308 • Properties Source : MIT Department of Civil and Environment 1999 Element Content (%) Iron, Fe 66 Chromium, Cr 20 Nickel, Ni 11 Manganese, Mn 2.0 Silicon, Si 1.0 Carbon, C 0.080 Phosphorus, P 0.045 Sulfur, S 0.030 Properties Metric Density 8 g/cm3 Tensile strength 585 MPa Yield strength 240 MPa Poisson’s ratio 0.27-0.30 23
  24. 24. • Design parameter for C-101 Parameter Value (SI unit) Value (English unit) Temperature, T 100 OC 212 OF Operating pressure (gage), P0 101.325 kPa 15 psig Height of vessel , H 9.3262 m 367.1732’’, 30.5978’ Inside diameter of vessel, Di 1.91 m 75.1969’’,6.6224’ Height of cylinder shell, Hcylinder 7.772 m 305.9843”, 25.4987’ Height of torispherical heads, Htoris 0.3688 m 14.5197”, 1.2100’ Torispherical head 24
  25. 25. • Combine loading Primary Stress Value (N/mm2) 3.6226 7.2453 -0.7885 Criterion met. Design is satisfied. 25
  26. 26. Vessel Support  Straight Cylindrical skirt. Criterion satisfied, 2 mm CA added. Final skirt thickness = 12 mm 26
  27. 27. • Base ring and Anchor Belt Design Nb = 4 bolts Bolt size = nominal diameter (BS 4190: 1967) Bolt used = M24 with root area = 353 mm2. • Flanged Joint Welding Neck Flange 27
  28. 28. 28
  29. 29. DISTILLATION COLUMN (C-102) LOW BEE CHAN (A132764) Parameter Dimension Column design Tray Diameter, DT (m) 1.524 Height, H (m) 26.50 Tray spacing(m) 0.46 Number of actual stages 53 Design of plate Sieve Plate spacing (m) 0.457 Downcomer area (m2) 0.146 Active area (m2) 0.925 Holes area (m2) 0.0925 Number of holes 4720 29
  30. 30. Mechanical Design Of Stripping Column C-102 LOW BEE CHAN A132764 Process Description: Purify ethanol-water mixture to form azeotrope with 95.63% ethanol and 4.37% water (by weight) Material Selection: Austenitic Stainless Steel 304L Design Specification: • External pressure vessel • Cylindrical shell • Torispherical heads 31
  31. 31. Minimum wall thickness (mm) Top and bottom heads 5.08 Cylindrical shell 15.24 Overall(standard) 18 Primary Stresses (N/mm2) Longitudinal Stress, σL 2.1447 Circumferential Stress, σh 4.2894 Direct Stress, σw 6.65 Bending Stress, σb 46.66 Elasticity Stability (N/mm2) CYLINDRICAL COLUMN DESIGN 31
  32. 32. VESSEL SUPPORT DESIGN Resultant Stresses (N/mm2) < STRAIGHT SKIRT SUPPORT Skirt thickness (mm) 20 Skirt height (mm) 2000 Base Ring and Anchor Bolt Design Number of bolts 12 Actual width 220mm Minimum thickness 50mm M56 bolts (BS 4190: 1967) 32
  33. 33. FLANGE DESIGN Parameter S26 feed S27 top S29 refluxed S31 bottom S32 reboiled Flow rate (kg/s) 0.4233 4.314 3.356 1.054 4.314 Density (kg/m3) 846.389 1.507 770.216 796.255 1.429 Optimum diameter 34.103 614.71 97.20 54.47 625.19 Nominal pipe size 50.8 660.4 101.6 101.6 660.4 Flange class 150 150 150 150 150 Outside flange diameter, O 152.4 831.85 228.6 228.6 831.85 Thickness of flange, Tf 17.526 63.5 22.352 22.352 63.5 Diameter of hub, X 77.724 708.152 134.874 134.874 708.152 Chamfer beginning diameter, A 60.452 609.6 114.3 114.3 609.6 Length through Hub, Y 61.976 127 74.676 74.676 127 Bore 52.578 355.6 102.362 102.362 355.6 Number of bolts 8 8 8 8 8 • Welding Neck Flange 33
  34. 34. DESIGN SUMMARY Parameter Value Operating temperature 100 Operating pressure (atm) 1 Material of construction Austenitic stainless steel Type 304L Vessel internal diameter (m) 1.524 Vessel height (m) 2.65 Type of head and bottom Torispherical Type of vessel Cylindrical Vessel wall thickness (mm) 18 Stress analysis (N/mm2) (Δσ)max S < , (7.7128 < 137.89) [Safe] Elastic stability (N/mm2) Type of vessel support Straight conical skirt Type of flanged joint Welding neck flange Flange faces Gasket between bolt circle Flange diameter (mm) 50.8, 101.6, 660.4 34
  35. 35. Specifications H-101 H-103 Pitch pattern Square pitch Square pitch Brass, kw (W/m C) 110 110 Floating head Split-ring Split-ring Shell pass 1 1 Tube pass 4 4 Number of tubes, Nt 998 1596 Outer diameter, do(m) 0.0381 0.0381 Inner diameter, di(m) 0.0168 0.0168 Length of tubes, l (m) 5 7 Tube pitch, Pt (m) 0.0125 0.0125 Heat transfer area, A (m2) 596.96 1336.46 Shell inside diameter, Ds (m) 1.915 2.335 Baffle spacing, lB(m) 0.036 0.036 Baffle cut, (%) 45 45 Tube side coefficient, hi(W/m2∆ C) 12473.48 11138.26 Shell side coefficient, hs(W/m2∆ C) 3310.721 1053.628 Overall coefficient, Uo(W/m2 C) 991.88 603.28 Tube side pressure drop, ∆Pt(kPa) 78.83 44.67 Shell side pressure drop, ∆Ps (kPa) 1.47 14.36 CONDENSER DESIGN 35
  36. 36. KETTLE REBOILER DESIGN Specifications H-102 H-104 Pitch pattern Square pitch Square pitch Carbon steel, kw (W/m. C) 55 55 Number of U tubes 404 374 Outer diameter, do(m) 0.022 0.0381 Inner diameter, di(m) 0.01688 0.0168 Length of tubes, l (m) 5 4 Heat transfer area, A (m2) 158.78 94.09 Baffle spacing, lB (m) 0.036 0.036 Baffle cut (%) 45 45 Tube side coefficient, hi(W/m2∆ C) 736000 734000 Shell side coefficient, hnb (W/m2∆ C) 28137.52 28565.69 Overall coefficient, Uo (W/m2 C) 1444 1239.23 Tube side pressure drop, ∆Pt (kPa) 174.89 168.6 Shell side pressure drop, ∆Ps (kPa) 14.59 14.36 36
  37. 37. EXTRACTIVE DISTILLATION COLUMN (C-103) JAMILAH AHMAD (A133159) Material Carbon steel 516 Actual no of stages 27 Diameter of the column (m) 4.68 Height of the column (m) 21.19 CONDENSER H-105 Cooling water flow rate 11409.8 Area required 3.531 m2 Outside diameter 19.05 mm Inside diameter 14.83 mm Length 5 m Number of tube 12 Diameter of the bundle, Db 0.11 m Shell-side coefficient 1030.137 W/m2oC Tube-side coefficient 8982.51 W/m2oC Overall heat transfer cofficient, Uo 649.99 W/m2oC Total heat load (kW) 771 6.3 Shell side coefficient Overall heat transfercoefficient (W/m2oC) 496 Pressure drop (kPa) 12.1 KETTLE REBOILER H-106 37
  38. 38. MECHANICAL DESIGN EXTRACTIVE COLUMN JAMILAH AHMAD (A133159) INTRODUCTION • Wall thickness required for the vessel • Pressure exerted by the outside force weather the vessel can withstand or not. • Type of top & bottom and shell used for the vessel • Type of vessel support to withstand the vessel. 38
  39. 39. EXTRACTIVE COLUMN Parts Value/Description Main Part: •Vessel height •Diameter •Shell height •Top & bottom height •Thickness •Type of shell •Type of head & bottom •Material • 21.49 m • 4.68 m • 19.15 m • 1.17 m • 30 mm • Cylindrical • Torispherical • Carbon steel 516 Support •Type •Material •Height •Thickness • Straight skirt • Carbon Steel • 1.219 m • 30 mm Flanges • Type of flange • Welding neck 39
  40. 40. Detailed Design of Flash Drum C-104 KHAIRILAZIM (A133275) Inlet (S41) Vapour Outlet (S42) Liquid Outlet (S43) h=1.219m Dv=0.366 Flash drum C-104 is used to separate the vapour and liquid. For design calculations it is normally assumed that the vapour and liquid are in equilibrium and the vessel is adiabatic Condition Value Temperature 100 oC Pressure 1 atm Density of Water 958.4 kg/m3 Vapour Density 1.422 kg/m3 From the calculation, •The diameter must be large enough •The high of vessel outlet above the gas inlet should be sufficient for liquid drops. •Liquid level will depend on hold up time necessary for smooth operations and control hv=0.283 m3 The conclusion from the calculation, Minimum vessel diameter, Dv = 0.366 m Liquid depth required, hv = 0.238 m3 Height of the tank, H = 1.219 m
  41. 41. Mechanical Design of Flash Drum C-104 KHAIRILAZIM (A133275) Parts Value/Description Main Part: •Height •Diameter •Thickness •MAWPvessel 1.219 m 0.366 m 3.5 mm 1.714 kPa Support •Type •Material •Height •Thickness Conical skirt Plain Carbon Steel 0.25 m 3.5 mm Flanges •Feed •Liquid •Vapour Welding neck Welding neck Welding neck Design Summary of C-104 41
  42. 42. Properties Value Cooling water flow rate (kg/h) 105458 Water inlet temperature (°C) 37 Water outlet temperature (°C) 28 Ambient wet bulb temperature (°C) 23.9 Tower characteristic, KaL/V 1.5 Minimum tower area (m2) 17 Height of cooling tower (m) 10.4Source : HarrisonCooling Tower 2002 FATIN ATIKAH (A132739) 42
  43. 43. Number of tube 43 Length tube 4 m Shell-Side Pressure Drop 78.94 kPa Tube-Side Pressure Drop 1.84 kPa Shell-side coefficient 63.94 W/m2oC Tube-side coefficient 661 W/m2oC Overall heat transfer cofficient, Uo 549.47 W/m2oC Shell and Tube Exchanger FATIN ATIKAH (A132739) 43
  44. 44. Parts Value/Description Main Part: •Vessel length •Height vessel •Inner diameter •Outer diameter 4.0 m 0.267 m 0.016 m 0.02 m Support •Type •Material •Height •Thickness Saddle support Carbon Steel 0.8 m 0.15 m Flanges Welding neck Shell and Tube Exchanger Saddle support Welding neck flanges FATIN ATIKAH (A132739) 44
  45. 45. T-102 Primary Clarifier A-101 Air Blower T-105 Sludge Storage Tank Check Pond Wastewater from production plant Air Flocculants and Coagulant T-101 T-102 T-103 A-101 T-104 T-105 1 2 3 4 5 7 8 9 10 6 WASTEWATER MANAGEMENT ACTIVATED SLUDGE WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT PROCESS FLOW DIAGRAM Stream 1 Flowrate(m3/day) 892.99 S,BOD (mg/L) 362422.7 X, SS (mg/L) 16792.5 Stream 8 Flowrate (m3/day) 0.47 S,BOD (mg/L) - X, SS (mg/L) 5850.5 Stream 7 Flowrate (m3/day) 4.25 S,BOD (mg/L) - X, SS (mg/L) 5850.5 Stream 6 Flowrate(m3/day) 4.72 S,BOD (mg/L) - X, SS (mg/L) 5850.5 Stream 5 Flowrate (m3/day) 884.29 S,BOD (mg/L) 362422.7 X, SS (mg/L) 5940.5 Stream 4 Flowrate(m3/day) 9.45 S,BOD (mg/L) - X, SS (mg/L) 11775.7 Stream 3 Flowrate(m3/day) 883.54 S,BOD (mg/L) 362422.7 X, SS (mg/L) 5016.8 Stream 2 Flowrate (m3/day) 892.99 S,BOD (mg/L) 362422.7 X, SS (mg/L) 16792.5 Stream 10 Flowrate (m3/day) 879.57 S,BOD (mg/L) 45 X, SS (mg/L) 90 Stream 9 Flowrate(m3/day) 9.92 S,BOD (mg/L) - X, SS (mg/L) 12290.9 Flocculation tank Sludge storage tank Aeration tank Secondary clarifier Primary clarifier 46.51 m3 60 min 93.02 m3 SL: 40m3/m2.day 188. 06 m3 Length: 8.17 m Width: 3.8 m Height: 3m 93.02 m3 Length: 9.3 m Width: 5 m Height: 2 m 45
  46. 46. 46 PLANT LAYOUT
  47. 47. Process Hazard Analysis Components Hazardous Properties Glycerol • Flammable • Explosion • Toxic Ammonium phosphate • Toxic Oxygen • Flammable • Toxic Ethanol • Fire • Explosion • Toxic Carbon dioxide • Explosion • Toxic Nitrogen • Toxic Hazard Identification Legal Acts Requirement 1. Environmental Quality Act (EQA) 1974 2. Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) 1994 3. Factory and Machinery Act (FMA) 1967 Methods for PHA: 1. HAZOP analysis 2. FMEA Set of organized and systematic assessments of the potential hazards associated with an industrial process. A PHA provides information intended to assist managers and employees in making decisions for improving safety and reducing the consequences of unwanted or unplanned releases of hazardous chemicals. 47
  48. 48. FMEA method - Systematic process to identify potential failures to fulfill the intended function, to identify possible failure and locate the failure impacts - Example of the method is shown in Seed Fermenter F-101 Component Failure mode Failure effects Symptom Safeguard Action Level control valve Valve fails open Valve fails closed Fluid will exceed the level of storage tank causing overflow and rupture the tank Liquid overflow None Schedule inspection and maintenance required Pure glycerol valve Valve fails open No glycerol in the tank. Product produce does not meet the specification. The reaction is not complete None Daily check Temperature control valve Valve fails open High temperature in the tank. It will effect product reaction No cooling water is supply to the tank Low level alarm Daily check Process Hazard Analysis 48
  49. 49. Component Failure mode Failure effects Symptom Safeguard Action Heat exchanger Tube failure High pressure and could cause a cause a major fire Odors at the cooling tower None Daily check and schedule maintenance Centrifugal pump Pump stop Loss of power which cause mechanical failure Risk of upstream process pump damage due to overpressure None Preventive maintenance Temperature control valve Heater failure Electric device failure. Loss of electric power May cause over temperature which will rupture the wall None Schedule inspection and maintenance Condenser(Cooler) Power failure Unable to cool the outlet stream Very high temperature is flowing out None Back-up power supply generator Level control valve Valve fails open Valve fails closed Fluid will exceed the level of storage tank causing overflow and Liquid overflow None Schedule inspection and maintenance required - FMEA analysis for Distillation Column C-101 49
  50. 50. PROCESS HAZARD ANALYSIS HAZOP Analysis • HAZOP Analysis is to identify how a process deviation can be prevented or mitigate to minimize the potential hazard. Example of the analysis is in the distillation column. Project name : Process Plant Design Process : Bio ethanol production Part : Distillation Column Study node Process parameter Deviations (guide words) Possible causes Possible consequence Action required Stream 28 Flow NO Pipe broken or plugging Loss of feed into column/not achieve into desired output. Level decrease in distillation column. Off specification product. 1. Schedule inspection and maintene.an LOW 1. Pipe partial plugged or leakage. 1. Level decrease in distillation column. 2. Off specification product. 3. Back flow of material. Install check valve. HIGH 1. High pressure from source 1. Flooding in distillation column. 1. Install bypass line with manual valve. Distillation column Level HIGH 1. Output pipe blockage. Overpressure of reflux drum. Condensed liquid flow back to distillation. 1. Install high level alarm 2. Scheduling inspection LOW Pipe partial clogged & leakage. Level decrease in the vessel The valve closed. Back flow of material. 1. Scheduling inspection 2. Install valve. Temperature HIGH 1. Low incoming flow from H-101 cause overheating. Off specification product. Install temperature sensor. LOW 1. H-101 malfunction. 2. High incoming flow through H- 101. Low level inside reboiler. Off specification product. 1. Scheduling inspection 2. Install temperature sensor. 50
  51. 51. 51  A high yield and potential for ethanol as fuel from Enterobacter aerogenes. Pengerang has been the best location judging from the coming development as Asia’s largest storage terminal.  Production rate of 3276 kg/hr and high demand in 2018 (projection) will leave a very stable economic growth for ethanol.  65% saving of energy through pinch and heat exchanger installation will further bloom the net profit.  Mechanical calculations and drawings for main utilities provide a clearer insight of the sizing and supports.  Safety has been of top consideration through FMEA and HAZOP performed. Layers of control aspect will further enhance the safety and continuous operation of ethanol plant.  Waste management has been of top priority and calculations from waste treatment plant designed is able to lower down pollutants to allowable limits.

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