Nutrient Management in Wisconsin: Education, On-Farm Research, Training 2

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  • Equipment:
    With regard to monitoring WI runoff
    In order to compute losses (yields for ag) we need to get the water right! Most important thing to do is get the volume!!! For high accuracy data.
    Water volume and it’s importance
  • These are all ancillary variables that can come into play when trying to make links between the landscape and what we measure in the water.
  • This is the “when” the runoff happens and leads into the why
  • Nutrient Management in Wisconsin: Education, On-Farm Research, Training 2

    1. 1. Dennis Frame Professor, UW-Extension Co-Director UW–Discovery Farms UW-Discovery Farms On-Farm Research/Monitoring Activities & Findings
    2. 2. Special Projects Environmental Training Core Farms
    3. 3. Discovery Farm? Discovery farms are real-life Wisconsin farms in different geographic areas facing different environmental challenges. Our goal is to better understand and reduce the sources of phosphorus, nitrogen, and other pollutants that may impair the surface and groundwater. Farms participate for 5-7 years
    4. 4. Mission Statement  The Discovery Farms Program will develop on-farm and related research to determine the economic and environmental effects of Best Management Practices on a diverse group of Wisconsin farms;
    5. 5.  The Discovery Farms Program will develop on-farm and related research to determine the economic and environmental effects of Best Management Practices on a diverse group of Wisconsin farms;  and educate and improve communications among the agricultural community, consumers, researchers, and policy-makers to better identify and implement effective environmental management practices that are compatible with profitable agriculture.
    6. 6. About UW-Discovery Farms  6 Core Farms  3 Special Project Farms  21 Monitoring Stations  Steering Committee  Education and Outreach
    7. 7. Locations of Discovery Farms Projects  1 Beef  1 Swine – odor  3 Poultry-stacking  2 dairy – grazing  1 dairy -grazing/organic  6 dairy - confinement
    8. 8. Different Physiographic Hydrogeologic Settings
    9. 9. Surface & tile monitoring
    10. 10. …the brains of the operation
    11. 11. What else are we collecting?  Meteorological data: precipitation, wind speed and direction, air temperature, solar radiation, relative humidity, soil moisture and temperature
    12. 12. What have we learned?  Identified critical risk periods  Snowmelt, rain on snow/frozen ground  Non-frozen soils that are close to saturation.  All farms/farming systems have losses.  Tile drainage a major contributor in areas  Sediment losses are lower than expected.
    13. 13. Timing – Critical Runoff Periods Mean- Monthly Runoff Mean-Monthly Runoff as a Percentage of Annual Runoff Runoff Frequency Total Precip Mean-Monthly Runoff as a Percentage of Total Precip October 0.07 3% 23% 2.32 3% November 0.02 <1% 15% 2.22 1% December 0.04 1% 35% 1.73 2% January 0.10 4% 50% 1.68 6% February 0.41 16% 58% 1.48 28% March 0.87 34% 100% 2.22 39% April 0.11 4% 54% 3.42 3% May 0.32 12% 38% 3.70 9% June 0.48 19% 42% 3.83 13% July 0.07 3% 42% 3.90 2% August 0.07 3% 19% 3.55 2% September <0.01 <1% 19% 2.76 <1%
    14. 14. 0.00 1.00 2.00 3.00 4.00 5.00 6.00 7.00 8.00 SW1,2005 SW1,2006 SW1,2007 SW2,2004 SW2,2005 SW2,2006 SW2,2007 SW2,2008 Pioneer,2003 Pioneer,2004 Pioneer,2005 Pioneer,2006 Pioneer,2007 Pioneer,2008 SE1,2006 SE1,2007 SE1,2008 NE1,2004 NE1,2005 NE1,2006 NE1,2007 NE1,2008 NE2,2005 NE2,2006 NE2,2007 NE2,2008 Totalphosphorusyield,inpoundsperacre Non-Frozen Ground Frozen Ground Mean Average annual yields of total phosphorus, by farm and year, 2003–2008.
    15. 15. Distribution of event-mean total P concentration 2003 - 2008
    16. 16. How much phosphorus?
    17. 17. How much phosphorus?
    18. 18. So now what?  Discovery Farms is wrapping up a number of sites.  Organizing and writing up the results from the first nine projects  Move toward linking field and stream monitoring
    19. 19. Discovery Watersheds  In-stream and in-field water quality monitoring  Providing information that helps farmers and their advisors to make changes that protect water quality  Identify critical sites (contributors or major sinks)  Engage producers and their advisors in the identification and adoption of practices which reduce losses
    20. 20.  Nutrient management  Evaluate fields to identify critical sites  Relate edge-of-field losses to P – Index  Identify fields based on level of risk (timing and location)  Low risk  Medium risk  High risk
    21. 21.  Compare critical sites with other methods of identification (LIDAR)  Look for alternative practices on critical sites Critical Sites
    22. 22. Questions?

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