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THERMOELECTRIC
GENERATOR
AIM
To design a project that can be used to utilize the waste heat
energy of car engines into electricity for multipurpose use in
Automobiles. This system should be economical, easy to
implement and does not produce any burden on car
efficiency or engine efficiency.
Figure 1: Conceptual design of thermoelectric generator producing electricity
from waste heat in the engine exhaust. Copyright BMW.
INTRODUCTION
An Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a device that
converts waste heat in an internal combustion engine (IC)
into electricity using the Seebeck Effect. A typical TEG
consists of three main elements: A hot-side heat exchanger,
a cold-side heat exchanger, thermoelectric materials. ATEGs
can convert waste heat from an engine's coolant or exhaust
into electricity. By reclaiming this otherwise lost energy,
ATEGs decrease fuel consumed by the electric generator
load on the engine.
PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION
TEGs, thermoelectric materials are packed between the
hot-side and the cold-side heat exchangers. The
thermoelectric materials are made up of p-type and n-
type semiconductors, while the heat exchangers are
metal plates with high thermal conductivity.
PROJECT DESCRIPTION
Aim of our project is to design a thermo electric generator
that could generate electricity from the waste heat of car
engine on one side of peltier plates and heat sinking on
other side at atmospheric temperature. The complete
Thermo Electric Generator would be based on Seebeck
Effect that is reverse of peltier effect. The thermoelectric
effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences
to electric voltage and vice-versa. A thermoelectric device
creates a voltage when there is a different temperature on
each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it
creates a temperature difference.
PELTIER ELEMENT
Figure 1: Peltier Element (to be used in Thermo Electric Generator Design)
PERFORMANCE OF
PELTIER ELEMENTS
Thermoelectric junctions are generally only around 5–10% as
efficient as the ideal refrigerator (Carnot cycle), compared
with 40–60% achieved by conventional compression cycle
systems (reverse Rankine systems using compression/
expansion). Due to the relatively low efficiency, thermo
electric cooling is generally only used in environments where
the solid state nature (no moving parts, maintenance-free,
compact size) outweighs pure efficiency.
Figure 2: Peltier element schematic. Thermoelectric legs are thermally in
parallel and electrically in series
INNER VIEW OF PELTIER PLATE
OPERATING TIPS
Max. Operating Temperature: 80 degree Celsius
Do not exceed Imax or Vmax when operating module.
Protection options (seeling)
Life expectancy: 200,000 hours
Failure rate based on long time testings: 0.2%
WORKING OF TEG
GRAPH: DELTA
TEMPERATURE v/s POWER
ADVANTAGES OVER EXISTING
TECHNOLOGY
No moving parts. Therefore they require little or no
maintenance.
Enables reduced, low-noise operation of cooling fans.
Suitable for manufacture in very small sizes. Therefore ideal for
microelectronics.
Lightweight.
Long life. Exceeds 200,000 hrs MTBF (Mean Time Between
Failures).
Controllable (by voltage / current).
Small size.
Fast, dynamic response.
Enhanced ratio between heat sink and target element.
APPLICATIONS
AUTOMOTIVE THERMO ELECTRIC GENERATOR-
An attempt to harvest the waste heat energy produced by the car engine.
Thus,electricity produced can be used in the car to-
- glow car indicators
- run music system
- charge batteries
CANDLE OPERATED TABLE LAMP
ELECTRICITY FROM TEA CUP
ELECTRICITY FROM LAPTOP CHARGER
DESIGN OF HIGHLY EFFICIENT THERMO ELECTRIC GENERATOR GLACIERS
SOLAR CELLS-
Solar cells use only the high frequency part of the radiation, while the low
frequency heat energy is wasted. Several patents about the use of
thermoelectric devices in tandem with solar cells have been filed. The idea is to
increase the efficiency of the combined solar/thermoelectric system to convert
the solar radiation into useful electricity.
THANKS…

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Thermo electric generator

  • 2. AIM To design a project that can be used to utilize the waste heat energy of car engines into electricity for multipurpose use in Automobiles. This system should be economical, easy to implement and does not produce any burden on car efficiency or engine efficiency. Figure 1: Conceptual design of thermoelectric generator producing electricity from waste heat in the engine exhaust. Copyright BMW.
  • 3. INTRODUCTION An Thermoelectric generator (TEG) is a device that converts waste heat in an internal combustion engine (IC) into electricity using the Seebeck Effect. A typical TEG consists of three main elements: A hot-side heat exchanger, a cold-side heat exchanger, thermoelectric materials. ATEGs can convert waste heat from an engine's coolant or exhaust into electricity. By reclaiming this otherwise lost energy, ATEGs decrease fuel consumed by the electric generator load on the engine.
  • 4. PRINCIPLE OF OPERATION TEGs, thermoelectric materials are packed between the hot-side and the cold-side heat exchangers. The thermoelectric materials are made up of p-type and n- type semiconductors, while the heat exchangers are metal plates with high thermal conductivity.
  • 5. PROJECT DESCRIPTION Aim of our project is to design a thermo electric generator that could generate electricity from the waste heat of car engine on one side of peltier plates and heat sinking on other side at atmospheric temperature. The complete Thermo Electric Generator would be based on Seebeck Effect that is reverse of peltier effect. The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice-versa. A thermoelectric device creates a voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference.
  • 6. PELTIER ELEMENT Figure 1: Peltier Element (to be used in Thermo Electric Generator Design)
  • 7. PERFORMANCE OF PELTIER ELEMENTS Thermoelectric junctions are generally only around 5–10% as efficient as the ideal refrigerator (Carnot cycle), compared with 40–60% achieved by conventional compression cycle systems (reverse Rankine systems using compression/ expansion). Due to the relatively low efficiency, thermo electric cooling is generally only used in environments where the solid state nature (no moving parts, maintenance-free, compact size) outweighs pure efficiency. Figure 2: Peltier element schematic. Thermoelectric legs are thermally in parallel and electrically in series
  • 8. INNER VIEW OF PELTIER PLATE
  • 9. OPERATING TIPS Max. Operating Temperature: 80 degree Celsius Do not exceed Imax or Vmax when operating module. Protection options (seeling) Life expectancy: 200,000 hours Failure rate based on long time testings: 0.2%
  • 12. ADVANTAGES OVER EXISTING TECHNOLOGY No moving parts. Therefore they require little or no maintenance. Enables reduced, low-noise operation of cooling fans. Suitable for manufacture in very small sizes. Therefore ideal for microelectronics. Lightweight. Long life. Exceeds 200,000 hrs MTBF (Mean Time Between Failures). Controllable (by voltage / current). Small size. Fast, dynamic response. Enhanced ratio between heat sink and target element.
  • 13. APPLICATIONS AUTOMOTIVE THERMO ELECTRIC GENERATOR- An attempt to harvest the waste heat energy produced by the car engine. Thus,electricity produced can be used in the car to- - glow car indicators - run music system - charge batteries CANDLE OPERATED TABLE LAMP ELECTRICITY FROM TEA CUP ELECTRICITY FROM LAPTOP CHARGER DESIGN OF HIGHLY EFFICIENT THERMO ELECTRIC GENERATOR GLACIERS SOLAR CELLS- Solar cells use only the high frequency part of the radiation, while the low frequency heat energy is wasted. Several patents about the use of thermoelectric devices in tandem with solar cells have been filed. The idea is to increase the efficiency of the combined solar/thermoelectric system to convert the solar radiation into useful electricity.