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THE THERMO-
ELECTRIC EFFECT
          By, Prajwal Keranahalli
WHAT IS IT?

The thermoelectric effect is the
 direct conversion of
 temperature differences to
 electric voltage or vice-versa.
The direction of heat flow can
 be controlled by changing
 polarity of the voltage source
HISTORY

In the 1820’s Thomas Seebeck
 (Germany) discovered that if two metals
 at different temperatures were touching
 you could create an electric current
Jean Peltier discovered that the opposite
 was also true. By sending a current
 through two metals you could create
 differences in temperature
WHY DOES THIS EFFECT OCCUR?

Charge Carrier Diffusion and Phonon Drag




      Seebeck Effect     Peltier Effect
THERMOELECTRIC MODULE
THE ZEROTH LAW OF
THERMODYNAMICS
Pairs of P and N type conductors are
 both it contact with a copper plate.
There will thermo power until the system
 is at equilibrium. (All three materials are
 at the same temperature)
SEMICONDUCTORS

 Semiconductors have an electrical
 conductivity between materials like copper
 and glass
They possess and interesting property
 where its conductivity increases with added
 temperature
P and N type (thermocouples)
 semiconductors are created by doping.
PHYSICS BEHIND IT

THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF
CERAMICS

APPLICATIONS
Thermoelectric generator
Cooling Computers
Drink Coolers
Recharging Devices
Space Probes
Solar Power
Clothing
Useful, Quiet, no Moving Parts
It is less efficient (10%) and more expensive
TEST FOR UNDERSTANDING

The USB Coffee cup warmer is an
 example of the Seebeck Effect or the
 Peltier Effect?
Before the P and N type Semiconductors
 what material were used instead as
 thermal couples for thermoelectric
 modules?
What are the advantages of using
 thermoelectric generators over, for
 example heat engines?
REFERENCES
Rockwood, Alan L. (1984). "Relationship of thermoelectricity
to electronic entropy". Phys. Rev. A 30 (5): 2843–4. Bibcode
1984PhRvA..30.2843R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.30.2843

G. Jeffrey Snyder and Eric S. Toberer "Complex
Thermoelectric Materials" Nature Materials 7, 105-114
(2008).

CRC Handbook of Thermoelectrics, Introduction, Edited by
D.M. Rowe, CRC Press, 1995.

G. Jeffrey Snyder, Tristan Ursell. "Thermoelectric efficiency
and compatibility" Physical Review Letters, Vol 91 p. 148301
(2003)

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The thermo electric effect

  • 1. THE THERMO- ELECTRIC EFFECT By, Prajwal Keranahalli
  • 2. WHAT IS IT? The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage or vice-versa. The direction of heat flow can be controlled by changing polarity of the voltage source
  • 3. HISTORY In the 1820’s Thomas Seebeck (Germany) discovered that if two metals at different temperatures were touching you could create an electric current Jean Peltier discovered that the opposite was also true. By sending a current through two metals you could create differences in temperature
  • 4. WHY DOES THIS EFFECT OCCUR? Charge Carrier Diffusion and Phonon Drag Seebeck Effect Peltier Effect
  • 6. THE ZEROTH LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS Pairs of P and N type conductors are both it contact with a copper plate. There will thermo power until the system is at equilibrium. (All three materials are at the same temperature)
  • 7. SEMICONDUCTORS  Semiconductors have an electrical conductivity between materials like copper and glass They possess and interesting property where its conductivity increases with added temperature P and N type (thermocouples) semiconductors are created by doping.
  • 10. APPLICATIONS Thermoelectric generator Cooling Computers Drink Coolers Recharging Devices Space Probes Solar Power Clothing Useful, Quiet, no Moving Parts It is less efficient (10%) and more expensive
  • 11. TEST FOR UNDERSTANDING The USB Coffee cup warmer is an example of the Seebeck Effect or the Peltier Effect? Before the P and N type Semiconductors what material were used instead as thermal couples for thermoelectric modules? What are the advantages of using thermoelectric generators over, for example heat engines?
  • 12. REFERENCES Rockwood, Alan L. (1984). "Relationship of thermoelectricity to electronic entropy". Phys. Rev. A 30 (5): 2843–4. Bibcode 1984PhRvA..30.2843R. doi:10.1103/PhysRevA.30.2843 G. Jeffrey Snyder and Eric S. Toberer "Complex Thermoelectric Materials" Nature Materials 7, 105-114 (2008). CRC Handbook of Thermoelectrics, Introduction, Edited by D.M. Rowe, CRC Press, 1995. G. Jeffrey Snyder, Tristan Ursell. "Thermoelectric efficiency and compatibility" Physical Review Letters, Vol 91 p. 148301 (2003)

Editor's Notes

  1. Change in electrons
  2. Charge carrier diffusion if electrons move from hot to cold, then a positive immobile nucleus is left at hot side to conserve charge. So this gives rise to a voltage. Phonon Drag: Similar, P has holes while N has excess by running current the incoming electrons distort nearby electrons thus causing a degradation in mobility and thus a lower temperature.
  3. Thermo Couples used to be only two different metals but now you have p and n type Used to be metal not p and n semiconductors2000 degress Celsiusseries
  4. P type has a deficiency of charge carriers and n types have an excess
  5. Thermo power is measured across the material