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Work Life Balance and Demographic Variables:
Evidence from Empirical Analysis of Female
Doctors.
Presentation By:
Gayatri M P
28th December (Wednesday), 2022
Outline
• Introduction
• Research Questions
• Literature Review
• Gaps in the Existing Literature
• Research Methodology
• Results/Findings
• Suggestions
• Limitations
• Further Study and the way
Forward
• A Few Concluding Remarks
2
Introduction
Work life balance is one of the most emerging challenging
issues faced in twenty first century for both employers and
employees (Elizabeth W, Calvin W, and Janice R 2008). The term
Work life balance got its due consideration in the 1980’s when
there was an alarming rise of female population in the
organisations, mostly married and having child care
responsibilities. Work life balance is a situation in which
employees are able to devote the right amount of time to their
work as well as their personal lives (Anna 2010).
Research Questions?
• Does work life balance exist among female doctors?
• What are the factors responsible for work life
imbalance?
• What are the demographic variables that are
responsible for work life imbalance?
Literature Review
• Articles Reviewed: 38(54) 1980-2020
• Reports
• Websites
Research Gap
Factor Gap: most of the literature focused on variables
like workload, personal and family factors with less
focus on organisational factors.
Demographic Variable Gap: family type has an
influence on the female doctors, as this was not
included in the previous literature.
Sector Gap:The researcher found there is a dearth of
literature on work life balance among female doctors
working in Government hospitals
Research Methodology
Data Collection: Primary and Secondary
Sample Size: 105 female Doctors
Sampling Technique: Random sampling
Statistical test: CFA, Independent t-test and ANOVA
Data Analysis: SPSS 20 version
Reliability test
Factors Cronbach’s Alpha Items
Work Factors .822 07
Personal Factors .738 07
Family Factors .731 07
Organisational
Factors
.739 07
Source and Scale
Factor: Source :
Individual Factor Nilufer Azeez and R.G.
Priyadarshini (2018)
Family Factor Pankaj Trivedi (2016), S.
Lakshminaryanan and A.
Savarimuthu (2016)
Work Factor Sanskriti Singh and Lipsa
Dash (2016), Jain and
Mukherji (2010)
Organisational Factor Afza and Newaz (2008),
Kiaye and Singh (2013),
Tlaiss and Kauser, 2010
Source: Compiled
Objective of the Study
• To study and analyse the demographic data and their influence
on the work life balance of female doctors.
Hypotheses
• H₀1: There is no statistical significant difference in the mean
of work life balance factors between married and unmarried
female doctors.
• H02: There is no statistical significant difference in the mean
of work life balance factors between female doctors belonging
to nuclear and joint family.
• H03: There is no statistical significant difference in the mean
of work life balance factors among female doctors belonging
to different age groups.
WLB Factors – Marital Status
Levene
Statistics
Sig. t-test value Hypothesis
Decision
.842 .361 .187---------PF H0 Accepted
.636 .427 .930---------WF H0 Accepted
7.283 .008 .001----------FF H0 Rejected
.657 .419 .032---------OF H0 Rejected
WLB Factors – Family Type
Levene
Statistics
Sig. t-test value Hypothesis
Decision
.254 .615 .524 H0 Accepted
.118 .732 .121 H0 Accepted
.847 .360 .630 H0 Accepted
6.086 .015 .828 H0 Accepted
WLB Factors – Age
Levene
Statistics
Sig. t-test value Hypothesis
Decision
.376 .688 .977 H0 Accepted
.333 .717 .695 H0 Accepted
2.532 .085 .357 H0 Accepted
1.654 .196 .906 H0 Accepted
Principal Findings
• It was found that the majority of the female doctors’ work
more than 12 hours per day, which is again a cause for concern
as they are left with less time to focus on child care, domestic
chores, and personal care. Dividing equal time between work
and life must be planned properly so that one does not
overtake the other.
• It was also found that female doctors married to men of the
same profession spend less time with their spouse and
families.
• It was found that married female doctors are not able to
manage work and life due to family and organisational factors
when compared to unmarried female doctors. Hence,
organisation must frame some policies to address this issue.
• Next, it was found during the survey that a large number of
female doctors and interns belonging to the OBG
(Gynaecologist) division face more stress and find it more
difficult to manage both work and life when compared to the
doctors belonging to paediatrics, anastasia, skin, dental, etc.
Therefore, the organisation must make efforts in this regard.
Suggestions
• Firstly, from the respondents’ point of view, knowing the importance of
balancing work and life will help the doctors to figure out the factors that
are negatively affecting their well-being and build strategies for
overcoming those barriers.
• From the organisation’s point of view, this study will help them design their
work culture and policies so that less absenteeism, more commitment, and
better performance can be seen among the doctors.
• Hospitals must adopt family- friendly policies so that both men and women
can enjoy both work and life.
• A grievance cell and counselling system must be implemented so that
female employees can share their workplace issues and concerns.
• Provisions for child care facilities can be implemented, as most of the
respondents are married and have parental responsibility.
• On Sundays and other holidays, a shift system should be introduced so that
doctors find more time to manage both work and life and that more priority
is given to personal life.
Limitation and Further Study
There are few limitations that are worth mentioning. First, the
study is focused only on Ballari city, and a small sample size has
been involved. Second, simple statistical tools like the
independent t test and one way ANOVA are used. Therefore,
further research can include female nurses, and comparisons
between public and private hospitals can be made. In addition, a
large sample size can be adopted, and other advanced and
complicated statistical tools can be applied to arrive at a better
result.
Conclusion
Work life balance is a burning issue in the
field of human resource management as it has an
impact on employee, employer, productivity, and
the organisation as a whole.
“Life is all about balance, too much and too little can
kill. The best way to balance life, is by setting your
boundaries in learning to say enough”.
Thank You

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Work Life Balance and Demographic Variables.pdf

  • 1. Work Life Balance and Demographic Variables: Evidence from Empirical Analysis of Female Doctors. Presentation By: Gayatri M P 28th December (Wednesday), 2022
  • 2. Outline • Introduction • Research Questions • Literature Review • Gaps in the Existing Literature • Research Methodology • Results/Findings • Suggestions • Limitations • Further Study and the way Forward • A Few Concluding Remarks 2
  • 3. Introduction Work life balance is one of the most emerging challenging issues faced in twenty first century for both employers and employees (Elizabeth W, Calvin W, and Janice R 2008). The term Work life balance got its due consideration in the 1980’s when there was an alarming rise of female population in the organisations, mostly married and having child care responsibilities. Work life balance is a situation in which employees are able to devote the right amount of time to their work as well as their personal lives (Anna 2010).
  • 4. Research Questions? • Does work life balance exist among female doctors? • What are the factors responsible for work life imbalance? • What are the demographic variables that are responsible for work life imbalance?
  • 5. Literature Review • Articles Reviewed: 38(54) 1980-2020 • Reports • Websites
  • 6. Research Gap Factor Gap: most of the literature focused on variables like workload, personal and family factors with less focus on organisational factors. Demographic Variable Gap: family type has an influence on the female doctors, as this was not included in the previous literature. Sector Gap:The researcher found there is a dearth of literature on work life balance among female doctors working in Government hospitals
  • 7. Research Methodology Data Collection: Primary and Secondary Sample Size: 105 female Doctors Sampling Technique: Random sampling Statistical test: CFA, Independent t-test and ANOVA Data Analysis: SPSS 20 version
  • 8. Reliability test Factors Cronbach’s Alpha Items Work Factors .822 07 Personal Factors .738 07 Family Factors .731 07 Organisational Factors .739 07
  • 9. Source and Scale Factor: Source : Individual Factor Nilufer Azeez and R.G. Priyadarshini (2018) Family Factor Pankaj Trivedi (2016), S. Lakshminaryanan and A. Savarimuthu (2016) Work Factor Sanskriti Singh and Lipsa Dash (2016), Jain and Mukherji (2010) Organisational Factor Afza and Newaz (2008), Kiaye and Singh (2013), Tlaiss and Kauser, 2010 Source: Compiled
  • 10. Objective of the Study • To study and analyse the demographic data and their influence on the work life balance of female doctors. Hypotheses • H₀1: There is no statistical significant difference in the mean of work life balance factors between married and unmarried female doctors. • H02: There is no statistical significant difference in the mean of work life balance factors between female doctors belonging to nuclear and joint family. • H03: There is no statistical significant difference in the mean of work life balance factors among female doctors belonging to different age groups.
  • 11. WLB Factors – Marital Status Levene Statistics Sig. t-test value Hypothesis Decision .842 .361 .187---------PF H0 Accepted .636 .427 .930---------WF H0 Accepted 7.283 .008 .001----------FF H0 Rejected .657 .419 .032---------OF H0 Rejected
  • 12. WLB Factors – Family Type Levene Statistics Sig. t-test value Hypothesis Decision .254 .615 .524 H0 Accepted .118 .732 .121 H0 Accepted .847 .360 .630 H0 Accepted 6.086 .015 .828 H0 Accepted
  • 13. WLB Factors – Age Levene Statistics Sig. t-test value Hypothesis Decision .376 .688 .977 H0 Accepted .333 .717 .695 H0 Accepted 2.532 .085 .357 H0 Accepted 1.654 .196 .906 H0 Accepted
  • 14. Principal Findings • It was found that the majority of the female doctors’ work more than 12 hours per day, which is again a cause for concern as they are left with less time to focus on child care, domestic chores, and personal care. Dividing equal time between work and life must be planned properly so that one does not overtake the other. • It was also found that female doctors married to men of the same profession spend less time with their spouse and families. • It was found that married female doctors are not able to manage work and life due to family and organisational factors when compared to unmarried female doctors. Hence, organisation must frame some policies to address this issue.
  • 15. • Next, it was found during the survey that a large number of female doctors and interns belonging to the OBG (Gynaecologist) division face more stress and find it more difficult to manage both work and life when compared to the doctors belonging to paediatrics, anastasia, skin, dental, etc. Therefore, the organisation must make efforts in this regard.
  • 16. Suggestions • Firstly, from the respondents’ point of view, knowing the importance of balancing work and life will help the doctors to figure out the factors that are negatively affecting their well-being and build strategies for overcoming those barriers. • From the organisation’s point of view, this study will help them design their work culture and policies so that less absenteeism, more commitment, and better performance can be seen among the doctors. • Hospitals must adopt family- friendly policies so that both men and women can enjoy both work and life. • A grievance cell and counselling system must be implemented so that female employees can share their workplace issues and concerns. • Provisions for child care facilities can be implemented, as most of the respondents are married and have parental responsibility. • On Sundays and other holidays, a shift system should be introduced so that doctors find more time to manage both work and life and that more priority is given to personal life.
  • 17. Limitation and Further Study There are few limitations that are worth mentioning. First, the study is focused only on Ballari city, and a small sample size has been involved. Second, simple statistical tools like the independent t test and one way ANOVA are used. Therefore, further research can include female nurses, and comparisons between public and private hospitals can be made. In addition, a large sample size can be adopted, and other advanced and complicated statistical tools can be applied to arrive at a better result.
  • 18. Conclusion Work life balance is a burning issue in the field of human resource management as it has an impact on employee, employer, productivity, and the organisation as a whole. “Life is all about balance, too much and too little can kill. The best way to balance life, is by setting your boundaries in learning to say enough”.