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By: Dr. Ritu Gautam
Assistant Professor,
School Of Law, Sharda University
Trained Mediator from ICADR
Mediation Expert & Coordinator FDRC
 The Hon'ble Chief Justice of India is also keen that the art of
Mediation is taught to LL.B students as it will go a long way in
reducing the backlog and flood of cases. With litigants, students and
Lawyers being more aware and keen about Mediation, this will be
looked upon more as an option instead of filing suits/cases straight
away.
 However, what is required is that students of LL.B and Lawyers are
also trained in the art of Mediation and Conciliation to understand it's
true benefits and reap it's true fruits which will pave the way for a
great reform in the Indian Legal System, which will lead to reduction
of burden on courts and quick and efficacious resolution being agreed
upon by parties in disputes having varied points of conflict.
 This will lead to blending judicial and non-judicial dispute resolution
mechanism and bring mediation to the centre of the Indian Judicial
System. The long-drawn process of litigation, the costs incurred by
both parties for the same have made Mediation an important aspect
of the Judicial system to ensure swifter and speedier justice.
 Understanding Conflict and Disputes: Modes of Dispute Resolution, need for
ADR & the importance of Mediation
 2. Mediation and Restorative Justice: Theory of restorative justice and its
application, Gandhian principles of non-violent conflict resolution, traditional
mediation practices in India and abroad
 3. Mediation Laws in India: Judicial interpretation and relevant case law,
dispute resolution institutions in India
 4. Key Concepts in Mediation: Essential elements, process and stages,
approaches to Mediation, role of the mediator
 5. Importance of Communication: Elements of verbal and non-verbal
communication, effective and ineffective communication techniques
 6. Conducting Effective Mediation: Decision-making techniques, problem-
solving tactics, ensuring positive outcomes
 7. Qualities and Skills of Mediators: Developing mediation skills, code of
ethics, confidentiality requirements
 8. Status of Mediated Agreements: Drafting of agreements, sanctity of
mediated agreements, enforcement laws and procedures
 9. Important Developments in Mediation: Growth of virtual dispute resolution,
Pre-Institution Mediation, UNCITRAL Model Law, Singapore Convention
 Causes for conflict
 Kinds of conflict
 Escalation and De-escalation of conflict.
 Dispute as a manifestation or starting point
of conflict.
 The role of Law and Society in ensuring
settlement of disputes and effective conflict
resolution.
 There are different ways to come with a definition of
conflict. When speaking of conflict, what would
immediately come into mind would most likely be
how differences and disagreements make such an
occurrence to spring up. Having that, let us have that
question again, for the purpose of a more
comprehensive discussion.
 Hence, what is conflict? It can be described as a
disagreement among groups or individuals
characterized by animosity and hostility. This is
usually fueled by the opposition of one party to
another, in an attempt to reach an objective
different from that of the other party. The elements
involved in the conflict have varied sets of principles
and values, thus allowing such a conflict to arise.
Is a
• Strong Emotion/Disagreement/ difference of
opinion
• Difference in exception and reality/ realization
Between
• Self/ within person
• two people/ group/ Society
Arise
because of
• Incompatibility/ difference of opinion
• Overpowering/ unaccepted approach/
avoidance/ ignorance
Resulted into
Violence/ argument/serious offence/ clashes/
fight
ispute
Dispute
Conflict is a Strong emotion or disagreement
or a self realization, within an individual or
between a group or society, which arise
because of Incompatibility or difference of
opinion overpowering or unaccepted
approach or avoidance or ignorance
 According to David L. Austin,
“It can be defined as a disagreement between
two or more individuals or groups, with each
individual or group trying to gain acceptance of
its view or objectives over others.”
 Internal Conflict
 External Conflict
 OR
 Ego Conflict
 Power Conflict
 Money Conflict
 Status Conflict
 Other
 Internal conflict -- also called man vs. self --
is a battle inside a character. In movies or TV
shows, this might be shown as the good angel
on one shoulder and the evil demon on the
other.
With internal conflicts, you might feel a
clash between competing desires. For
example, an alcoholic may struggle not to
reach for the bottle of bourbon. That person
knows they need to stop drinking, but the
desire to drink is very strong, leading to an
intense internal struggle.
 Conflicts about religion
 Moral conflict
 Sexual conflicts are a war between your
morals and sexual desires
 Conflicts of love
 Conflict about the self existence
 Conflict to fulfillment of desires
 Interpersonal Conflict
 External conflict is when a person faces
forces outside themselves, beyond their
control, which oppose/ supress their needs
and wants.
 Self v. Society
Self v. Groups
Self v. Religious / political status
Self v. Family
 Escalation and De-escalation of conflict
 Dispute as a manifestation or starting point
of conflict.
 If a conflict has not been decided timely, it
will become a Dispute, fight, separation,
dissolution, offence, wrong.
 The role of Law and Society in ensuring
settlement of disputes and effective conflict
resolution.
 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=weMGBz
t-aUY
 Conflict escalation in the sense of an intensifying, difficult-
to-control, hostile aggravation of forms of interaction is as
Omnipresent as conflict itself. From the process of
increasing emotionalization in interpersonal disputes to
the brutalization of relations between persons, groups or
families to the point where violence, tourture, and hurt are
involved: wherever conflicts arise there is a risk of
escalation
Conflict De-escalation is a behavior that is intended to
prevent escalation of conflicts. It may also refer to
approaches in conflict resolution. People may become
committed to behaviors that tend to escalate conflict, so
specific measures must be taken to avoid such escalation.
 Move to a private area.
 Be empathetic and non-judgmental.
 Respect personal space.
 Keep your tone and body language neutral
 Avoid over-reacting
 Focus on the thoughts behind the feelings
 Ignore challenging questions
 Set boundaries/ Choose boundaries wisely.
 Allow silence.
 Allow time for decisions
Conflict
Conflict
Conflict
Conflict
 If a conflict has not been decided timely,
it will become a Dispute, fight,
separation, dissolution, offence, wrong,
case
Manifestation of Conflict
Provocation
Harassment
Violence
Assault
Any other
Dispute
Broadly, there are three methods of dispute
resolution
 1- Traditional Dispute resolution
 2- Alternative Dispute Resolution
 3- Hybrid Methods of Dispute Resolution
Constitutional
Provisions
CPC provision
Arbitration
and
conciliation
Act
Lok Adalat
Panchayat
Sysytem in
India
NGO’s
Other Social
Orgnisation
Negotiation
Mediation
Conciliation
Arbitration
Adjudication

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What is Conflict and its Types , Conflict escalation anf

  • 1. By: Dr. Ritu Gautam Assistant Professor, School Of Law, Sharda University Trained Mediator from ICADR Mediation Expert & Coordinator FDRC
  • 2.  The Hon'ble Chief Justice of India is also keen that the art of Mediation is taught to LL.B students as it will go a long way in reducing the backlog and flood of cases. With litigants, students and Lawyers being more aware and keen about Mediation, this will be looked upon more as an option instead of filing suits/cases straight away.  However, what is required is that students of LL.B and Lawyers are also trained in the art of Mediation and Conciliation to understand it's true benefits and reap it's true fruits which will pave the way for a great reform in the Indian Legal System, which will lead to reduction of burden on courts and quick and efficacious resolution being agreed upon by parties in disputes having varied points of conflict.  This will lead to blending judicial and non-judicial dispute resolution mechanism and bring mediation to the centre of the Indian Judicial System. The long-drawn process of litigation, the costs incurred by both parties for the same have made Mediation an important aspect of the Judicial system to ensure swifter and speedier justice.
  • 3.  Understanding Conflict and Disputes: Modes of Dispute Resolution, need for ADR & the importance of Mediation  2. Mediation and Restorative Justice: Theory of restorative justice and its application, Gandhian principles of non-violent conflict resolution, traditional mediation practices in India and abroad  3. Mediation Laws in India: Judicial interpretation and relevant case law, dispute resolution institutions in India  4. Key Concepts in Mediation: Essential elements, process and stages, approaches to Mediation, role of the mediator  5. Importance of Communication: Elements of verbal and non-verbal communication, effective and ineffective communication techniques  6. Conducting Effective Mediation: Decision-making techniques, problem- solving tactics, ensuring positive outcomes  7. Qualities and Skills of Mediators: Developing mediation skills, code of ethics, confidentiality requirements  8. Status of Mediated Agreements: Drafting of agreements, sanctity of mediated agreements, enforcement laws and procedures  9. Important Developments in Mediation: Growth of virtual dispute resolution, Pre-Institution Mediation, UNCITRAL Model Law, Singapore Convention
  • 4.  Causes for conflict  Kinds of conflict  Escalation and De-escalation of conflict.  Dispute as a manifestation or starting point of conflict.  The role of Law and Society in ensuring settlement of disputes and effective conflict resolution.
  • 5.  There are different ways to come with a definition of conflict. When speaking of conflict, what would immediately come into mind would most likely be how differences and disagreements make such an occurrence to spring up. Having that, let us have that question again, for the purpose of a more comprehensive discussion.  Hence, what is conflict? It can be described as a disagreement among groups or individuals characterized by animosity and hostility. This is usually fueled by the opposition of one party to another, in an attempt to reach an objective different from that of the other party. The elements involved in the conflict have varied sets of principles and values, thus allowing such a conflict to arise.
  • 6. Is a • Strong Emotion/Disagreement/ difference of opinion • Difference in exception and reality/ realization Between • Self/ within person • two people/ group/ Society Arise because of • Incompatibility/ difference of opinion • Overpowering/ unaccepted approach/ avoidance/ ignorance
  • 7. Resulted into Violence/ argument/serious offence/ clashes/ fight ispute Dispute
  • 8. Conflict is a Strong emotion or disagreement or a self realization, within an individual or between a group or society, which arise because of Incompatibility or difference of opinion overpowering or unaccepted approach or avoidance or ignorance
  • 9.  According to David L. Austin, “It can be defined as a disagreement between two or more individuals or groups, with each individual or group trying to gain acceptance of its view or objectives over others.”
  • 10.  Internal Conflict  External Conflict  OR  Ego Conflict  Power Conflict  Money Conflict  Status Conflict  Other
  • 11.  Internal conflict -- also called man vs. self -- is a battle inside a character. In movies or TV shows, this might be shown as the good angel on one shoulder and the evil demon on the other. With internal conflicts, you might feel a clash between competing desires. For example, an alcoholic may struggle not to reach for the bottle of bourbon. That person knows they need to stop drinking, but the desire to drink is very strong, leading to an intense internal struggle.
  • 12.  Conflicts about religion  Moral conflict  Sexual conflicts are a war between your morals and sexual desires  Conflicts of love  Conflict about the self existence  Conflict to fulfillment of desires  Interpersonal Conflict
  • 13.  External conflict is when a person faces forces outside themselves, beyond their control, which oppose/ supress their needs and wants.  Self v. Society Self v. Groups Self v. Religious / political status Self v. Family
  • 14.  Escalation and De-escalation of conflict  Dispute as a manifestation or starting point of conflict.  If a conflict has not been decided timely, it will become a Dispute, fight, separation, dissolution, offence, wrong.  The role of Law and Society in ensuring settlement of disputes and effective conflict resolution.
  • 16.
  • 17.  Conflict escalation in the sense of an intensifying, difficult- to-control, hostile aggravation of forms of interaction is as Omnipresent as conflict itself. From the process of increasing emotionalization in interpersonal disputes to the brutalization of relations between persons, groups or families to the point where violence, tourture, and hurt are involved: wherever conflicts arise there is a risk of escalation Conflict De-escalation is a behavior that is intended to prevent escalation of conflicts. It may also refer to approaches in conflict resolution. People may become committed to behaviors that tend to escalate conflict, so specific measures must be taken to avoid such escalation.
  • 18.  Move to a private area.  Be empathetic and non-judgmental.  Respect personal space.  Keep your tone and body language neutral  Avoid over-reacting  Focus on the thoughts behind the feelings  Ignore challenging questions  Set boundaries/ Choose boundaries wisely.  Allow silence.  Allow time for decisions
  • 20.  If a conflict has not been decided timely, it will become a Dispute, fight, separation, dissolution, offence, wrong, case
  • 22. Broadly, there are three methods of dispute resolution  1- Traditional Dispute resolution  2- Alternative Dispute Resolution  3- Hybrid Methods of Dispute Resolution

Editor's Notes

  1. Negotiation is the process of dispute resolution between parties, through mutual understanding and agreement where there is no involvement of the third party. Negotiation is a contemporary form of dispute resolution. It is a part of the ADR (Alternative Dispute.