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Understanding Vegetables
Salad, Salad Dressing
Group Members :
Jeyaprathish Nair
Ong Pang Kan (Owen)
Chamil Viraj
Mustafa Ahmed Khan
Type of Vegetables
• Root: The fleshy roots of edible plants consumed as vegetable
Example: Beetroot, Carrot, Radish,
Turnips
• Tubers & Yams : Grown Underground.
Example: Potatoes
• Bulbs: Is underground structure where
the plant’s nutrient reserves are stored.
Example: Garlic, Leeks, Onions, Shallots
Type of Vegetables
• Leafy: Leave of edible plants consumed as
vegetables.
Example: Lettuce, Spinach, Watercress,
Iceberg
• Brassicas & Flowers: The Blooms or flower buds of edible
plants eaten as vegetables.
Example: Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussels sprouts
Type of Vegetables
• Pods and Seeds: Vegetables grown and eaten from seeds.
Example: Beans, Okra, Peas, Sweet corn,
Runner beans
• Fruiting: Contain the seeds of the vegetable.
Example: Aubergine, Avocado, Cucumber, Peppers, Tomatoes,
Pumpkin, Marrow, Squash
Type of Vegetables
• Stems and Shoots: Edible stalk and leaves of plants consumed
as vegetables.
Example: Asparagus, Bean sprouts, Celery,
Globe Artichokes, Kohlrabi
• Mushrooms and fungi: Morels, Mushrooms
( Wild and cultivated )
Preservation
• Canning: Asparagus, Beans, Tomatoes (whole / pure) , Mushrooms
• Drying: Seeds (Peas and Beans)
• Pickling: Onions, Red Cabbage preserved in special vinegar
• Freezing: Peas, Cauliflower
• Dehydration: Onions, Carrots, Potatoes, Cabbage(5% water contain)
Nutrients provided by
vegetables
• Minerals:
Potassium : Good blood pressure
Magnesium : Healthy bones
Sodium : Normal cell function and blood
pressure
Iron : Healthy blood cells
Calcium : Healthy bones and teeth
• Vitamins:
Vitamin C : Helps heal wounds;
healthy teeth and gums.
Vitamin A : Healthy Eyes/Skin ;
protect against infection.
Vitamin E : Protect the cells of your body.
“B” Vitamin Complex : Healthy skin,
nerves, tissues, help your body make
energy.
Purchasing
The purchasing of vegetables is affected by:
• The perishable nature of the products.
• Varying availability owing to seasonal fluctuations, and
supply and demand.
• The effects to preservation ( freezing, drying, canning vegetables)
How to Select Vegetables
The high perishability of vegetables causes problems not
encountered in other markets. Fresh vegetables are living
organisms and will lose quality quickly if not properly stored and
handled.
The EU vegetable quality grading system is:
• Extra class : produce of the highest quality
• Class 1 : produce of good quality
• Class 2 : produce of reasonably good quality
• Class 3 : produce of low market quality
Quality points
Root vegetables must be:
• Clean, free from soil
• Firm, not soft or spongy
• Sound
• Free from blemishes
• Of an even size
• Of an even shape
Quality points
Green vegetables must be absolutely fresh and have leaves that
are bright in colour, crisp and not wilted.
In addition:
• Cabbage and Brussels sprouts should be compact and firm.
• Cauliflowers should have closely grown flowers, a firm white
head and not too much stalk or too many outer leaves.
• Peas and beans should be crisp and of medium size; pea pods
should be full and beans not stringy.
• Blanched stems must be firm, white, crisp and free from soil.
Storage
Key points for storage
• Store all vegetables in a cool, dry, well-ventilated room at an
even temperature of 4-8°C, which will help to minimise
spoilage. Check vegetables daily and discard any that are
unsound.
• Remove root vegetables form their sacks and store in bins or
racks.
• Store green vegetables on well-ventilated racks.
• Store salad vegetables in a cool place and leave in their
containers.
Storage
• Store frozen vegetables at-- 18°C or below. Keep a check on
use –by dates, damaged packages and any signs of freezer
burn.
• The fresher the vegetables the better the flavour, so ideally
they should not be stored at all. However, as in many cases
storage is necessary, then it should be for the shortest time
possible.
• Green vegetables lose Vitamin C quickly if they are bruised,
damaged, stored or too long, prepared too early or cooked.
Health, safety and
hygiene
Additional food safety points are as follows.
• If vegetables are stored at the incorrect.
• If vegetables are stored in damp conditions moulds may
develop.
• To prevent bacteria from raw vegetables passing on to cooked
vegetables, stored them in separate areas.
• Thaw out frozen vegetables correctly (if not cooking from
frozen) and never refreeze them once they have thawed out.
Best way preserve
Nutrients
• Cook in the shortest time possible with a LOW heat.
• Cook vegetables whole and unpeeled whenever possible.
• Cook vegetables in a covered pot to prevent nutrients from
escaping in the steam.
• Cook foods as close to serving time as possible.
• Cut produce with long cooking times into large piece. With
less surfaces exposed, fewer vitamins are lost.
• Leave edible skins on vegetables when possible. Many
vitamins and minerals are found in the outer leaves, skin, and
area just below the skin.
Salads
• Salads are made with salads vegetables, meat, fish, seafood,
game, poultry, eggs, pastas, fruits, nuts, dairy product etc…
• Salads can be served cold, warm and cold combination.
• Salads not only act as accompaniments to roast and cold
dishes, but also an alternative or an additional to vegetables
at luncheons, dinners, suppers, tea, high tea and snack meals.
Salads• Salads can be served as a:
1.Accompaniment
2.Starter/ Appetizer
3.Main dish or Course
4.Salads can be served as a separate dish in the table.
Types of Salads
• These simple or plain salads are normally composed of green stuff or salads
vegetables alone usually of one or at most, two ingredients. Many of the
simple salads could be served raw, like cucumber or tomatoes.
• Dressings of simple salads are usually vinaigrette or one of its variation and
acidulated cream or one variations.
Example: Lettuce salad, Beetroot Salad, Watercress Salad,
Celery Salad, Endive Salad, Potato Salad,
Tomato Salad, Cucumber Salad
Simple salad
Compound Salads
• Compound salads are made from a combination of ingredients,
such as vegetable, fruits, fish, meats, poultry, game etc.
• Acidulated cream or one of it’s variation or mayonnaise or one of
it’s variation.
Example : *Apple Salad *Russian Salad *Japanese Salad
*Rice Salad *Waldorf Salad * Nicoise Salad
Salads Green
Raw Vegetable
Red Cabbage
Carrot
Tomatoes
Cucumber
Salads
Green Salads
• Salad greens must be:
• Fresh
• Clean
• Crisp
• Cold
• Good greens depend on proper preparation.
• Moisture and air are necessary to keep greens crisp.
Methods of Presenting Salads
• Salad bowls ( wooden, ceramic, glass, fibre )
• Salad Plate
• In a Crescent
• Mirrors
• Granite Plate
• Salad trolleys or Wagon
• Salad Bar
Categories of Salad
Dressing
• Vinaigrette and its variations
• Mayonnaise and its variations
• Acidulated Cream and its
• Natural Yoghurt and its variations
Types of Dressing
• Vinaigrette
• Lemon dressings
• English Mustard Dressing
• French Mustard Dressing
• Fine herb Dressing
Types of Dressing cont.
• Hiffonade Dressing
• Roquefort Dressing
• Thousand Island Dressing
• Acidulated Cream
• Mayonnaise
• Cocktail Dressing
Salad Dressing cont.
• Emulsion – A mixture of two un mixable ingredients.
• Emulsification is another method of thickening sauces.
• Emulsions are made by mixing two or more liquid ingredients
that normally do not combine, with the aid of an emulsifying
agent.
Salad Dressing cont.
Three kind of Emulsion
Permanent – A permanent emulsion usually lasts several days or more
Ex: Mayonnaise
Semi-permanent – A semi-permanent emulsion lasts a shorter period of
time than a permanent emulsion, usually several hours.
Ex: Hollandaise
Temporary – A temporary emulsion lasts the shortest period of time,
usually only several minutes. A temporary emulsion is classified as
such because it does not contain an emulsifying agent.
Ex: Vinaigrette
Salad Dressings
Standards of Quality
• Have well-balanced flavors.
• Have a pleasant tartness.
• Harmonize with and complement the salad with which they are
served.
Thank You~~

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understanding vegetables&Salad

  • 1. Understanding Vegetables Salad, Salad Dressing Group Members : Jeyaprathish Nair Ong Pang Kan (Owen) Chamil Viraj Mustafa Ahmed Khan
  • 2. Type of Vegetables • Root: The fleshy roots of edible plants consumed as vegetable Example: Beetroot, Carrot, Radish, Turnips • Tubers & Yams : Grown Underground. Example: Potatoes • Bulbs: Is underground structure where the plant’s nutrient reserves are stored. Example: Garlic, Leeks, Onions, Shallots
  • 3. Type of Vegetables • Leafy: Leave of edible plants consumed as vegetables. Example: Lettuce, Spinach, Watercress, Iceberg • Brassicas & Flowers: The Blooms or flower buds of edible plants eaten as vegetables. Example: Broccoli, Cabbage, Cauliflower, Brussels sprouts
  • 4. Type of Vegetables • Pods and Seeds: Vegetables grown and eaten from seeds. Example: Beans, Okra, Peas, Sweet corn, Runner beans • Fruiting: Contain the seeds of the vegetable. Example: Aubergine, Avocado, Cucumber, Peppers, Tomatoes, Pumpkin, Marrow, Squash
  • 5. Type of Vegetables • Stems and Shoots: Edible stalk and leaves of plants consumed as vegetables. Example: Asparagus, Bean sprouts, Celery, Globe Artichokes, Kohlrabi • Mushrooms and fungi: Morels, Mushrooms ( Wild and cultivated )
  • 6. Preservation • Canning: Asparagus, Beans, Tomatoes (whole / pure) , Mushrooms • Drying: Seeds (Peas and Beans) • Pickling: Onions, Red Cabbage preserved in special vinegar • Freezing: Peas, Cauliflower • Dehydration: Onions, Carrots, Potatoes, Cabbage(5% water contain)
  • 7. Nutrients provided by vegetables • Minerals: Potassium : Good blood pressure Magnesium : Healthy bones Sodium : Normal cell function and blood pressure Iron : Healthy blood cells Calcium : Healthy bones and teeth • Vitamins: Vitamin C : Helps heal wounds; healthy teeth and gums. Vitamin A : Healthy Eyes/Skin ; protect against infection. Vitamin E : Protect the cells of your body. “B” Vitamin Complex : Healthy skin, nerves, tissues, help your body make energy.
  • 8. Purchasing The purchasing of vegetables is affected by: • The perishable nature of the products. • Varying availability owing to seasonal fluctuations, and supply and demand. • The effects to preservation ( freezing, drying, canning vegetables)
  • 9. How to Select Vegetables The high perishability of vegetables causes problems not encountered in other markets. Fresh vegetables are living organisms and will lose quality quickly if not properly stored and handled. The EU vegetable quality grading system is: • Extra class : produce of the highest quality • Class 1 : produce of good quality • Class 2 : produce of reasonably good quality • Class 3 : produce of low market quality
  • 10. Quality points Root vegetables must be: • Clean, free from soil • Firm, not soft or spongy • Sound • Free from blemishes • Of an even size • Of an even shape
  • 11. Quality points Green vegetables must be absolutely fresh and have leaves that are bright in colour, crisp and not wilted. In addition: • Cabbage and Brussels sprouts should be compact and firm. • Cauliflowers should have closely grown flowers, a firm white head and not too much stalk or too many outer leaves. • Peas and beans should be crisp and of medium size; pea pods should be full and beans not stringy. • Blanched stems must be firm, white, crisp and free from soil.
  • 12. Storage Key points for storage • Store all vegetables in a cool, dry, well-ventilated room at an even temperature of 4-8°C, which will help to minimise spoilage. Check vegetables daily and discard any that are unsound. • Remove root vegetables form their sacks and store in bins or racks.
  • 13. • Store green vegetables on well-ventilated racks. • Store salad vegetables in a cool place and leave in their containers.
  • 14. Storage • Store frozen vegetables at-- 18°C or below. Keep a check on use –by dates, damaged packages and any signs of freezer burn. • The fresher the vegetables the better the flavour, so ideally they should not be stored at all. However, as in many cases storage is necessary, then it should be for the shortest time possible. • Green vegetables lose Vitamin C quickly if they are bruised, damaged, stored or too long, prepared too early or cooked.
  • 15. Health, safety and hygiene Additional food safety points are as follows. • If vegetables are stored at the incorrect. • If vegetables are stored in damp conditions moulds may develop. • To prevent bacteria from raw vegetables passing on to cooked vegetables, stored them in separate areas. • Thaw out frozen vegetables correctly (if not cooking from frozen) and never refreeze them once they have thawed out.
  • 16. Best way preserve Nutrients • Cook in the shortest time possible with a LOW heat. • Cook vegetables whole and unpeeled whenever possible. • Cook vegetables in a covered pot to prevent nutrients from escaping in the steam. • Cook foods as close to serving time as possible. • Cut produce with long cooking times into large piece. With less surfaces exposed, fewer vitamins are lost. • Leave edible skins on vegetables when possible. Many vitamins and minerals are found in the outer leaves, skin, and area just below the skin.
  • 17. Salads • Salads are made with salads vegetables, meat, fish, seafood, game, poultry, eggs, pastas, fruits, nuts, dairy product etc… • Salads can be served cold, warm and cold combination. • Salads not only act as accompaniments to roast and cold dishes, but also an alternative or an additional to vegetables at luncheons, dinners, suppers, tea, high tea and snack meals.
  • 18. Salads• Salads can be served as a: 1.Accompaniment 2.Starter/ Appetizer
  • 19. 3.Main dish or Course 4.Salads can be served as a separate dish in the table.
  • 20. Types of Salads • These simple or plain salads are normally composed of green stuff or salads vegetables alone usually of one or at most, two ingredients. Many of the simple salads could be served raw, like cucumber or tomatoes. • Dressings of simple salads are usually vinaigrette or one of its variation and acidulated cream or one variations. Example: Lettuce salad, Beetroot Salad, Watercress Salad, Celery Salad, Endive Salad, Potato Salad, Tomato Salad, Cucumber Salad Simple salad
  • 21. Compound Salads • Compound salads are made from a combination of ingredients, such as vegetable, fruits, fish, meats, poultry, game etc. • Acidulated cream or one of it’s variation or mayonnaise or one of it’s variation. Example : *Apple Salad *Russian Salad *Japanese Salad *Rice Salad *Waldorf Salad * Nicoise Salad
  • 24. Salads Green Salads • Salad greens must be: • Fresh • Clean • Crisp • Cold • Good greens depend on proper preparation. • Moisture and air are necessary to keep greens crisp.
  • 25. Methods of Presenting Salads • Salad bowls ( wooden, ceramic, glass, fibre ) • Salad Plate • In a Crescent • Mirrors • Granite Plate • Salad trolleys or Wagon • Salad Bar
  • 26. Categories of Salad Dressing • Vinaigrette and its variations • Mayonnaise and its variations • Acidulated Cream and its • Natural Yoghurt and its variations
  • 27. Types of Dressing • Vinaigrette • Lemon dressings • English Mustard Dressing • French Mustard Dressing • Fine herb Dressing
  • 28. Types of Dressing cont. • Hiffonade Dressing • Roquefort Dressing • Thousand Island Dressing • Acidulated Cream • Mayonnaise • Cocktail Dressing
  • 29. Salad Dressing cont. • Emulsion – A mixture of two un mixable ingredients. • Emulsification is another method of thickening sauces. • Emulsions are made by mixing two or more liquid ingredients that normally do not combine, with the aid of an emulsifying agent.
  • 30. Salad Dressing cont. Three kind of Emulsion Permanent – A permanent emulsion usually lasts several days or more Ex: Mayonnaise Semi-permanent – A semi-permanent emulsion lasts a shorter period of time than a permanent emulsion, usually several hours. Ex: Hollandaise Temporary – A temporary emulsion lasts the shortest period of time, usually only several minutes. A temporary emulsion is classified as such because it does not contain an emulsifying agent. Ex: Vinaigrette
  • 31. Salad Dressings Standards of Quality • Have well-balanced flavors. • Have a pleasant tartness. • Harmonize with and complement the salad with which they are served.