BRAC Agricultural Research and Development Centre and Its Vegetable Sector (Bangladesh)
Vegetable Research, Seed Production & Marketing Activities in BRAC -PresentedBy Dr. Sitesh Chandra Biswas
Introduction• BRAC started agriculture activities during the year 1972 through homestead vegetable gardening.• Initially vegetable seeds were distributed to ‘group members’ collecting from BADC and open market sources.• Poor availability of quality seeds was limiting factor for vegetable cultivation.• Organized seed production started in 1996 with marketing facilities.
Objectives To provide food security and adequate nutrition to the small and low income groups. Generating income opportunities to increase the purchasing power of the poor peoples. Eradication of poverty and ensuring nutritional security. Reducing dependency for quality seeds on foreign companies and saving foreign money. Ensuring the supply of quality seeds to the farmers in proper time and facilitating commercial agriculture.
Vegetable Production & Consumption in BangladeshVegetable Cultivated Area 0.278 million haVegetable Production 2.50 million tonsPresent Consumption 80 g/day/personRecommendation 220 g/day/personRequirement (as per 11.24 million tonrecommendation)Production has to be increased (as 5 times more than the Presentper recommendation) production (Source: BBS, 04) Vegetable Seed Status in BangladeshSeed requirement 2652 MTQuality seed production 791.4 MT (29.84%)Imported 410 MT (15.46%)Farmers retained seed 1450.6 MT (54.70%)(Poor quality)
Target crops • We are dealing with 30 different types of vegetable crops including fruiting vegetables, leafy & salad vegetables, podded vegetables, stem & bulb vegetables, root & tuber vegetables etc.Fruiting Leafy & Podded Stem & Western Root &vegetables salad vegetables bulb brassicas tuber vegetables vegetables vegetablesOkra, Spinach, Yard long Stem Cauliflower Radish,pumpkin, pechay, red bean, amaranth, & cabbage carrotscucumber, amaranth, country onion etc. etc. etc.bitter gourd,bottle gourd, leaf bean,ridged mustard, mung beangourd, ash kang kong, etc.gourd, snake prince shakgourd etc. etc.
Major Activities• Variety Development• Variety Screening• Generation of New Technologies• Maintenance of Parents &• Grow out Trial
Released Hybrid and OP Varieties Hybrid varieties:Sl. No. Crop No. of Varieties01 Tomato 302 Brinjal 303 Bitter gourd 104 Ridge gourd 105 Bottle gourd 106 Pumpkin 107 Okra 1Total 11
OP varieties: Sl. No. Crop No. of Varieties 01 Radish 1 02 Cucumber 1 03 Spinach 1 Total 3Promising Hybrid and OP Varieties: Sl. No. Crop No. of Varieties 01 Tomato (Hybrid) 1 02 Brinjal (Hybrid) 1 03 Bottle gourd (Hybrid) 1 04 Ridge gourd (Hybrid) 1 05 Spinach (OP) 1 Total 5
Hybrid VarietiesTomato - Tripti-02Characteristics: It is a determinate, heat tolerant andearly type hybrid.Fruits are high round and have shiningred color. Average fruit weight 70-80g .Yield per acre 20 - 22 tons (50 - 55tons/ha). Fruit harvest starts from 60-65 days aftertransplanting.Fruits are firm, fleshy, tasty and suitablefor distant transportation. Tolerant to leaf curl virus and bacterialwilt.It can also be cultivated in the summerseason as summer tomato as well.
Bitter Gourd – Bulbuli Characteristics: This hybrid variety is a prolific bearer. Fruits are very fleshy, solid & have moderate bitterness taste . Fruit protuberances are slightly blunt, hence fruits usually do not suffer from injury during transportation. Glossy green coloured fruit and average fruit weight is 225-250g. Fruit harvest starts from 50-55 days after transplanting. Yield per acre is 10-12 tons.
Bottle Gourd – Green Super Characteristics: It is also a high yielding variety. Fruits are attractive deep green coloured with white spots and very tasty. Average fruit weight is 2.5-3.0 kg. Fruit harvest starts from 60-65 days after seed sowing. Fruit length is around 45-50 cm. It is a profuse bearer and yield per acre is 20- 25 tons.
Pumpkin – Beauty Characteristics: It is a high yielding F1 hybrid variety. Fruit color is blackish green at young stage and brown at the ripening stage. Fruits are solid and the flesh is yellow coloured. Very tasty at both green and ripening stage. Average fruit weight is 4.0 - 5.0 kg at maturity. Yield per acre is 20 - 25 tons.
Hybrid Okra – EvergreenCharacteristics:Evergreen is an early andhigh yielding F1 hybrid.Fruit angular type and deepgreen colored.The flesh is soft and verytasty.No. of fruits per plant isaround 40-45.Fruit harvest starts from 45-50 days after sowing.Yield per acre 9- 10 tons.This hybrid is tolerant toyellow vain mosaic virusdisease.
Hybrid Brinjal - Surobhi• Characteristics:• Medium size and robust type plants.• Fruits are medium long (20- 22 cm), and blackish purple in color.• Fruit harvest starts from 65- 70 days after transplanting.• Average fruit weight is 140 – 150g.• Yield per acre 30- 35 tons.• This hybrid is tolerant to bacterial wilt and brinjal shoot and fruit borer.
Hybrid Brinjal – Giant Green• Characteristics:• Bushy type robust plant.• Oval shaped fruits are green coloured with white tints.• The flesh is soft and very tasty.• Fruits harvest starts from 65- 70 days after transplanting.• Average fruit weight is 175 – 200g.• Yield per acre 22- 25 tons.• This hybrid is tolerant to bacterial wilt and brinjal shoot and fruit borer.
Hybrid Cucumber – BijoyCharacteristics:• It is an extra early type hybrid.• Attractive green colored fruit.• Fruits are uniform, fleshy and tasty.• Average fruit weight is 200- 250 g.• Harvest starts from 40-45 days after sowing.• Fruit length 18-20 cm .• Prolific bearer and yield per acre is 20-25 tons.
Hybrid Cabbage KE-739Characteristics:• It is a high yielding and mid season variety.• Heads are uniform, very compact, flattened round shaped and very tasty.• Average head weight is 2.00- 2.50 kg.• Harvest starts from 70-75 days after transplanting.• Yield per acre is 20-25 tons.
Cucumber –Sufala-01Characteristics: It is an early type & high yielding variety. Average fruit weight is 200-250 g. Harvest starts from 45- 50 days after sowing. Average fruit length is 20-25cm. Profuse bearing and yield per acre is 8-10 tons.
OP VarietiesSpinach –Sufala-01Characteristics:It is a quick growing andimproved spinach variety.Green colored, thicker, larger,soft and fleshy leaf. Harvest starts from 30-35 daysafter sowing. It is a late bolting and yearround variety. Yield per acre is 5-6 tons.
Radish –Sufala-40Characteristics:•Sufala-40 is a high yielding, yearround and heat tolerant variety.• Roots are attractive whitecolored (20-25 cm. long) and haveno mishappen roots.•Roots are straight & very muchuniform in size; harvest startsfrom 40-45 days after seedsowing.•Roots are tasty and have mildpungency; leaves can also be usedas vegetable.•Yield per acre is 20-24 tons.
Development of Uncommon Varieties1. Development of ornamental type okraor red okra.2. Development of red spinach.3. Development of yellow seeded mungbean.4. Development of summer countrybean.5. Development of red yard long bean.
Hybrid Red OkraCharacteristics:1. It is a dual purpose vegetablecrop, since it has decorativevalue.2. Robust type plant and hasattractive red colored fruit, stem,petioles & leaf veins.3. The flesh is soft, very tasty andhas nutritive value (carotene &anthocyanin) as well.4. No. of fruits per plant is 25-30. 5. Fruit harvest starts from 50-52 days after seed sowing.6. Yield per acre 7- 8 tons.7. This hybrid is relativelytolerant to yellow vein mosaicvirus disease.
Red SpinachCharacteristics:1.This is a quick growing andhigh yielding advance line.2. Leaf, stem, roots, petioles aswell as veins are red colored. 3. Leaves are thick, larger, softand fleshy.4. Harvest starts from 30-35days after sowing.5. It is a late bolting line andyield per acre around 5-6 tons.6. Anthocyanin, carotene & ironreach advance line.
Nutrient analysis in okra & spinach Table.1. Analysis of micronutrients in green & red okra. Ca Mg K P S B Fe Zn ß-caro- Brix TotalSample (%) (%) (%) (%) (%) (µg/ (µg/ (µg/ tene value NName gm) gm) gm) (mg/ (%) 100gm)Green 0.21 0.10 0.19 0.66 0.17 79.00 144.50 46.00 *0.17 4.00 3.33okraRed 0.21 0.11 0.19 0.65 0.21 74.50 129.50 28.50 1.48 6.00 3.15okra Table. 2. Analysis of micronutrients in green & red spinach. Ca Mg K Fe Zn ß-caro- Sample (%) (%) (%) (ppm) (ppm) tene Name (mg/100gm) Green 2.74 0.96 2.72 251.00 64.20 15.69 spinach Red 2.29 1.05 3.26 372.00 60.00 19.67 spinach
Yellow Seeded Mungbean1. Uncommon, golden yellow colouredshort duration improved line (cropduration 57- 58 days).2. Almost synchronized fruit ripeningand fruits can be harvested through 2pickings.3. Uncommon attractive golden yellowcoloured seed. 4. Tolerant to major diseases (MMV& CLS).5. Insensitive to seasonal influence andcan be grown throughout the year.6. Good cooking quality and lessturmeric is required for makingcooked products ( Dal, Khichuri etc.)and its preparations are very tasteful.
Table 2. Studies on yield related characters of 3 different varieties of mungbean (Kh-2’2011). Days Plant No. No. of No. Total Pod Yield/ Seed VirusVariety taken hei- of pod of no. length/ ha reco- inci- to ght/ bran clus- pod/ of pod (tons) very dence crop plant - ters/ clus- pods/ (cm) (%) (%) matu- (cm) ches/ plant ter plant rity plantYS-1 62.00 41.18 1.5 4.4 5.4 21.90 7.60 1045.00 65.22 5.43BARI-5 70.00 47.91 1.10 5.0 5.20 21.0 8.50 691.00 38.42 6.06BINA-7 74.00 50.25 3.60 7.7 7.10 28.90 6.30 544.00 52.31 17.70 Note. Yield of YS-1 was found to be 51.23% greater than BARI-5 & 92.09% than BINA-7.
Table. Determination of Calcium, Magnesium, Potassium, Sulphur,Boron, Zinc & Iron content in the 3 mungbean varieties. Ca Mg K S B Zn FeSampleID % ppmYS-1 0.895 0.415 1.345 0.330 23.700 32.940 154.590BARI-5 0.940 0.405 1.130 0.380 23.100 30.000 148.140BINA-7 0.670 0.320 1.015 0.300 24.300 28.050 161.100Remarks - than + than + than -than + than + than + than BARI-5 both both BARI-5 BARI-5 both BARI-5 &+ BARI-5 BARI-5 but + - than BARI-5 but – than & & than BINA-7 & than BINA-7 BINA-7 BINA-7 BINA-7 BINA-7 BINA-7
Yard Long Bean (Red)Characteristics•High yielding improved type variety.•Prolific bearer, red coloured fruits.•High seedling vigour and strongervines with broad deep green leaves.•Profuse fruiting and good uniformityin fruit size and shape.•Thicker fruit pulp and solid fruits;hence the fruits are fleshy.•Virus tolerant variety and can begrown throughout the year.•Tolerant to major diseases.•Wet tolerant variety and relativelytolerant to leaf miner attack.• Fruits have increased shelf life.
Summer Country BeanCharacteristics•These are year round andheat tolerant lines.•Green & greenish purplefruit color and fruit length is8-10 cm.•Harvest starts from 60-65days after sowing and fruitcan be harvested for a longerperiod (6 months).•Tolerant to major diseasesand pests.•Yield per acre 5-6 tons.
Coloured Vegetables (sources of different phytonutrients & their health benefits) Colour Nutrients Sources Health Benifits Red Lycopene, ellagic acid & Beets, onions (red), Maintain heart anthocyanins. potatoes (red), health, memory peppers (red), function, urinary radishes, tomatoes. tract health, lower the risk of some types of cancer. Blue & Health promoting Asparagus (purple), Gives extra Purple phytonutrients such as cabbage (purple), protection against polyphenols & anthocyanins carrots (purple), egg some types of cancer & powerful anti oxidants. plant (purple), & urinary tract peppers (purple), infections, help boost potatoes (purple- brain health & fleshed). vision. Yellow & Varying amount of Beets (yellow), May help promote Orange antioxidants such as Vit. C carrot, sweet corn, heart & vision health as well as other phyto- peppers (yellow), and a healthy nutrients, including potatoes (yellow), immune system, they carotenoids and pumpkin, squash, may also help to bioflavonoids. sweet potato, ward off cancer. tomatoes (yellow).
Contd.Green Varying amount of potent Beans (green), Lower the risk of phytochemicals such as broccoli, cancer, improve eye lutein & Indoles as well as cabbage(Chinese), health, keep the other nutrients. cabbage(green), bones and teeth celery, cucumber, strong. Chayote squash, greens (leafy), leeks, lettuce, okra, onions (green), peas (green), peppers (green), spinach.White/ Allicins Cauliflower, corn Play a role in heartTan/ Brown (white), garlic, health by helping ginger, kohlrabi, you maintain mushrooms, onions, healthy cholesterol potatoes(white- levels and may fleshed), turnips. lower the risk of some type of cancer.
Generation of New Technologies• Cut -and- come-again practice• Cloning technique• Growing vegetables in the off- season under polythene tunnel.
Jute mallow (Prince shak) Characteristics:It is a hardy type leafyvegetable and can be easilycultivated during the rainyseason.Very much similar to juteplants and can be used as analternative to jute leaves.Its leaves are tasty and can beharvested from 25-30 days afterseed sowing.Prince shak can be cultivatedalmost throughout the year.Very easy to grow and canalso be propagated throughstem cutting.
Maintenance of Parents & Grow out trial• Parents of the hybrid varieties are being maintained for ensuring the supply of good quality vegetable seeds.• After the production of hybrid seeds each samples are critically examined through grow out trial.
Research Strategy Short Term Strategies. Long Term Strategies.
Short Term Strategy Variety Screening. Improvement of Local Varieties. Generation of New Technologies.
Long Term Strategies Development of New Good Quality Improved Varieties (both F1 Hybrid & OP Varieties). Development of off-season varieties (Summer tomato & C. Bean). Development of Nutrient Rich Varieties. Development of Short Duration Varieties. Generation of New Techniques of Vegetable Cultivation.
Research Constraints Poor availability of innovative germplasm. Limited land area for conducting research in the rainy season. No permanent shade house for conducting research in the monsoon season. Absence of laboratory facilities for nutrient analysis.
Variety Screening• Imported seeds of Cole crops & Hybrid varieties of other crops are identified & recommended for marketing.• Best varieties of reputed companies are collected & adaptive trial experiments are conducted.• Trial experiments are also conducted in other farms as well.• Suitable varieties are chosen for marketing.
Trial experiments of some vegetable crops (2011-2012)• Variety screening trial of cabbage.• Variety screening trial of cauliflower.• Performance trial experiment of cucumber.• Performance trial of coriander varieties.
Variety Screening of CabbageSl. Variety 1st Final Crop Yield/ Remarksno. harves- harves- Dura- acre ting ting tion (MT) (days) (days) (days)1 Rare Ball 64 78 107 18.20 Early season type variety2 Green 76 94 123 23.13 Mid season type Coronet variety3 Advanta- 62 79 108 21.22 Early season type 1303 variety4 KE-739 75 93 122 29.69 Mid season type variety5 Tropic Sun 71 82 111 26.26 Mid season type Plus variety6 KA-780 59 72 101 20.54 Early season type variety
Variety Screening of CauliflowerSl. Variety 1st Final Crop Yield/ Remarksno. harves- harves- dura- acre ting ting tion (MT) (days) (days) (days)1 Advanta- 47 57 87 15.20 Mid season type 413 variety2 White 47 58 88 15.02 Early season type marble variety3 White 54 63 93 19.78 Late season type snow variety4 Tropical 51 61 91 19.15 Mid season type Eleven variety5 Advanta- 43 56 86 13.08 Extra early 403 season type variety6 Advanta- 48 59 89 15.76 Early season type 410 variety
Variety Screening of CucumberVari- Main No. of Total Fr. wt./ 1st Yield/ Remarksety vine br./ fr/ fruit picking acre length plant plant (days) (Kg)CV18 193.30 5.33 5.00 167.00 34.00 2338.00 Bitter tasteCV21 148.00 6.00 7.00 97.00 34.00 1086.40 Small size fruitsCV31 165.00 5.50 4.00 115.00 36.00 1833.00 Virus susceptibleCV80 180.00 6.00 4.00 168.00 36.00 1881.00 Good varietyCV88 185.00 5.67 5.67 180.00 37.00 2852.00 Good varietyCV93 200.00 7.00 6.50 228.67 34.00 2850.00 Best varietyAlavy 180.00 6.00 4.00 178.00 37.00 1993.00 Lal Teer(Check) Seed
Performance Trial of 3 Coriander VarietiesVariety Days Plant Plant Length Width Plant Yield/ Remarks taken to height spread- of of wt./ acre 1st harv- (cm) ing leaves leaves plant (tons) esting (cm) (cm) (cm) (g)Ramses 32.00 24.80 22.30 20.20 6.30 18.50 2.20 Lal Teer(Check ) VarietySungro 32.00 24.40 22.60 24.80 11.80 19.60 2.35 GoodSeeds variety(Check )Green 30.00 24.30 25.70 26.80 12.00 20.20 2.54 BestAroma variety
Seed Production Target for the Year 2011-2012.Hybrid OP Total No. of Land(MT) (MT) (MT) farmers (acres)2.85 54.60 57.45 360.00 290.00
Problems Usually Faced During Seed Production Unusual weather conditions. Farmers do not allow grading process. Farmers are shifting to other high value crops. Sometimes seed purchasing rate is lower compared to other companies.
Varieties marketed by BRAC: Sl. No. Sources of No. of Varieties origin 01 Own variety 14 02 BARI 4 03 BADC 6 04 Exotic 8Imported Vegetable Seed Cauliflower, Cabbage, Carrot,Imported Seed Turnip, Watermelon and Cucumber
Marketing Issues Seed market is now very competitive. Higher production cost. Lack of adequate no. of suitable varieties.