is the base ingredient of a
salad. Leafy greens such as romaine, bibb,
Boston, or iceberg lettuce often serve as a
Used whole or cut into a chiffonade, the
lettuce leaves provide a base for other salad
ingredients. Specially prepared vegetables or
fruits, such as a julienne of red pepper or a
poached and sliced pear, sometimes function
as a salad’s foundation.
- main ingredients of a salad
make up its body. The body creates the
salad’s identity and often gives the
salad its name. Garden-fresh
vegetables, for example, form the body
of a garden salad. The body of a
protein salad might be meat, poultry,
fish, or legumes.
Garnish - contributes to a salad’s visual appeal
and very often to its flavor. A garnish should be
colorful, edible, and the same temperature as
the salad itself.
Most important, the garnish should be simple so
that it does not overpower the presentation of
Common salad garnishes include herbs, hardcooked eggs, olives, fruits, cheese, and nuts.
Some salads, such as fruit salads, do not require
a garnish or dressing.
- is a sauce that complements
a salad’s flavor and sometimes binds the
salad ingredients together. Salad
dressings fall into three groups:
Vinaigrettes - Temporary emulsion.
Cream-style or fatty – Permanent
Simple - oil and vinegar, flavored oils.
EMULSION – A mixture of two unmixable ingredients.
Emulsification is another method of thickening sauces.
Emulsions are made by mixing two or more liquid ingredients
that normally do not combine, with the aid of an emulsifying
Three kinds of Emulsion
Permanent - A permanent emulsion usually lasts several days
Semi-permanent - A semi-permanent emulsion lasts a
shorter period of time than a permanent emulsion, usually
Temporary - A temporary emulsion lasts the shortest period
of time, usually only several minutes. A temporary emulsion is
classified as such because it does not contain an emulsifying
is a temporary emulsion of oil and vinegar.
The mixture is temporary because oil and
vinegar have a natural tendency to separate.
Cream-style or fatty –
Is a permanent emulsion of creamy dressing
such as; mayonnaise, yoghurt, cream or
Simple Dressings - The simplest salad
dressings are not emulsions or blended mixtures.
They are simple liquids that contribute moisture
and flavor to salads.
Lemon juice - on its own, freshly squeezed
lemon juice is an acidic dressing that gives a
tang to salad.
Olive oil - more flavorful than vegetable oils,
olive oil is a fruity, aromatic dressing when
used alone on a salad.
Flavored vinegars - vinegars flavored with
fruit, herbs, or garlic are popular dressings
because they add vivid flavor to salads but no
A variety of greens are available for use in salads.
Although all are leafy vegetables, not all are green.
More tender greens such as arugula and butterhead
are preferred over greens such as collards and chard
that require cooking to make them more palatable.
Baby varieties of sturdier greens not usually used in
salads, such as beet greens and mustard greens, also
make excellent additions. Salad greens can be
classified into two general categories: mild greens
and flavor-adding greens.
Flavor-adding greens can be either spicy or bitter.
Types of Salad Greens
Greens: Have a mild
flavor; can be used by themselves or
combined with other greens.
Flavor-Adding Greens: Classified as
greens although they may be red,
yellow, brown, or white.
Herbs & Other Specialty Items
A cabbage like plant with
a slightly bitter, red leaf; adds color
and flavor to fresh salads.
Mesclun: A popular mix of baby
leaves of lettuces and other more
Edible Flowers: Add unusual flavors,
dashes of bright color, and
interesting textures to salads.
ROMAINE OR COS LETTUCE
A dressing is both a sauce and a
seasoning. As such, it should complement
the flavors and textures of the salad
ingredients, not dominate them.
Separate the leaves and submerge
them in cold water several times to
rinse off all dirt and grit.
Lift greens out of the water and dry
the leaves thoroughly with paper
Cut or tear the greens into bite-size
greens in their original
Store greens 3 to 4 degrees
Keep greens away from
TYPES OF SALAD
Salads – leafy greens
Side Salads - made from vegetables,
potatoes, grains, pastas, legumes.
Composed Salads – are made by
carefully arranging items on a
plate, rather than tossing them
Desserts Salads - salads served as
dessert are often sweet and usually
contain fruits, nuts, and/or gelatin.
Dressings for dessert salads may
incorporate cream or liqueur.
TYPE OF SALADS
Salad – Served as the first dish
of the course or before the entrée.
Accompaniment Salad – Served with the
main dish or entrée. Usually made from,
pasta, legumes and potatoes.
Main-course Salad – Served as a main
Separate Course Salad – Served after the
Dessert Salad – Served as a dessert
usually contains fruit and syrup.
TYPES OF SALAD
(By method of preparation)
Salad / Green Salads – leafy
Composed Salads – are made by carefully
arranging items on a plate, rather than
tossing them together.
Tossed Salad – The salad that the chef
would combine all ingredients in the bowl
with the dressing.