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Understanding the
radioactivity at Fukushima
           A physics and engineering perspective
                 Prof. Ben Monreal
             UCSB Department of Physics

   Q&A Panel:
   Ben Monreal
   Prof. Theo Theofanous, UCSB Chem E.
   Prof. Patrick McCray, UCSB History

Ben Monreal, UCSB Physics 3/11
• Introduction to radioactivity
  • Radiation hazards and health
  • What escapes in a meltdown?
  • Where does it go?
  • How worried should we be?


Ben Monreal, UCSB Physics 3/11
Periodic Table of the Elements                                                           Chemistry Reference Sheet                                                                                  California Standards Test
          1                                                                                                                                                                                                                     18
         1A                                                                                                                                                                                                                     8A

 1       H
          1

      Hydrogen        2
                                 “Tritium” (hydrogen)                                                                                                            13          14           15           16           17
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               He
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2

                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Helium
        1.01         2A                                                                         Key                                                              3A          4A           5A           6A           7A         4.00
          3           4                                                                                                                                           5           6            7            8            9          10
                                                                               11             Atomic number
 2       Li         Be                                                       Na               Element symbol
                                                                                                                                                                 B           C            N            O             F         Ne
       Lithium    Beryllium                                                                                                                                     Boron      Carbon       Nitrogen     Oxygen       Fluorine     Neon
        6.94        9.01                                                    Sodium            Element name                                                      10.81       12.01        14.01        16.00        19.00       20.18
                                                                            22.99
         11          12                                                                       Average atomic mass*                                               13          14           15           16            17         18
 3      Na          Mg                                                                                                                                           Al         Si            P             S           Cl         Ar
       Sodium     Magnesium       3             4             5            6             7            8         9            10          11          12       Aluminum     Silicon     Phosphorus     Sulfur      Chlorine     Argon
       22.99        24.31        3B            4B            5B           6B            7B                      8B                       1B          2B         26.98       28.09        30.97        32.07        35.45      39.95
         19          20          21            22            23           24            25          26          27           28          29          30          31          32           33           34            35         36
 4       K          Ca          Sc             Ti            V           Cr            Mn          Fe          Co           Ni          Cu           Zn         Ga          Ge           As            Se           Br         Kr
      Potassium    Calcium    Scandium      Titanium       Vanadium   Chromium Manganese           Iron        Cobalt      Nickel      Copper        Zinc      Gallium    Germanium     Arsenic     Selenium      Bromine     Krypton
       39.10        40.08       44.96        47.87          50.94       52.00          54.94      55.85        58.93       58.69        63.55       65.39       69.72       72.61        74.92        78.96        79.90      83.80
         37          38          39            40            41           42            43          44          45           46          47           48         49          50           51           52            53         54
 5      Rb          Sr           Y             Zr           Nb          Mo             Tc          Ru          Rh           Pd          Ag           Cd          In         Sn           Sb            Te            I         Xe
      Rubidium    Strontium    Yttrium     Zirconium       Niobium    Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium        Rhodium      Palladium     Silver     Cadmium      Indium       Tin        Antimony     Tellurium     Iodine     Xenon
       85.47        87.62       88.91        91.22          92.91       95.94          (98)       101.07      102.91       106.42      107.87       112.41     114.82      118.71       121.76       127.60       126.90      131.29
         55          56          57            72            73           74            75          76          77           78          79           80         81          82           83           84            85         86
 6      Cs          Ba          La            Hf             Ta          W             Re          Os           Ir          Pt          Au           Hg          Tl         Pb            Bi          Po            At         Rn
       Cesium      Barium     Lanthanum     Hafnium        Tantalum    Tungsten       Rhenium     Osmium      Iridium     Platinum      Gold       Mercury     Thallium     Lead        Bismuth      Polonium     Astatine    Radon


                                                                                                                                                                                                          Iodine
       132.91      137.33      138.91       178.49         180.95       183.84        186.21      190.23      192.22       195.08      196.97       200.59     204.38       207.2       208.98        (209)        (210)       (222)
         87          88          89           104            105         106           107         108         109
 7      Fr          Ra          Ac            Rf            Db           Sg            Bh          Hs          Mt
      Francium     Radium      Actinium    Rutherfordium   Dubnium    Seaborgium      Bohrium     Hassium    Meitnerium



     Cesium
        (223)       (226)       (227)         (261)         (262)       (266)          (264)       (269)       (268)




  * If this number is in parentheses, then
                                                             58
                                                             Ce
                                                            Cerium
                                                            140.12
                                                                          59
                                                                         Pr
                                                                      Praseodymium
                                                                        140.91
                                                                                        60
                                                                                       Nd         Pm
                                                                                                    61          62
                                                                                                               Sm
                                                                                     Neodymium Promethium Samarium
                                                                                      144.24       (145)      150.36
                                                                                                                        Uranium and Plutonium
                                                                                                                             63
                                                                                                                            Eu
                                                                                                                          Europium
                                                                                                                           151.96
                                                                                                                                         64
                                                                                                                                        Gd
                                                                                                                                      Gadolinium
                                                                                                                                       157.25
                                                                                                                                                      65
                                                                                                                                                     Tb
                                                                                                                                                   Terbium
                                                                                                                                                   158.93
                                                                                                                                                                 66
                                                                                                                                                                Dy
                                                                                                                                                             Dysprosium
                                                                                                                                                               162.50
                                                                                                                                                                             67
                                                                                                                                                                            Ho
                                                                                                                                                                           Holmium
                                                                                                                                                                           164.93
                                                                                                                                                                                          68
                                                                                                                                                                                          Er
                                                                                                                                                                                        Erbium
                                                                                                                                                                                        167.26
                                                                                                                                                                                                       69
                                                                                                                                                                                                      Tm
                                                                                                                                                                                                     Thulium
                                                                                                                                                                                                     168.93
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    70
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Yb
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ytterbium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  173.04
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                71
                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Lu
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Lutetium
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              174.97
     it refers to the atomic mass of the
                                                             90           91            92          93          94           95          96           97         98          99          100           101          102        103
     most stable isotope.
                                                             Th          Pa             U          Np          Pu          Am           Cm           Bk          Cf         Es           Fm           Md           No           Lr
                                                           Thorium    Protactinium    Uranium    Neptunium   Plutonium    Americium    Curium      Berkelium Californium Einsteinium    Fermium     Mendelevium   Nobelium Lawrencium
                                                            232.04      231.04        238.03       (237)       (244)       (243)        (247)       (247)       (251)       (252)        (257)        (258)        (259)       (262)



Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education
230 keV     126.5 ms        19.255 s       20.39 m                                     5730 y
                                             6              +2+4-4
                                                                12.0107
                                                                0.033%
                                                                                     0+         (3/2-)
                                                                                              ECp,ECp2",...
                                                                                                        EC
                                                                                                                  0+
                                                                                                                          EC
                                                                                                                                3/2-           0+
                                                                                                                                              98.90
                                                                                                                                                            1/2-
                                                                                                                                                            1.10     !-
                                                                                                                                                                            0+

                                                       2               2075°
                                                       3   B           4000°         B7            B8            B9            B10            B11          B12             B13
               Boron
                                                                                   1.4 MeV     770 ms      0.54 keV                                       20.20 ms       17.36 ms
                                             5              +3
                                                             10.811
                                                                  -8
                                                           6.9#10 %
                                                                                     (3/2-)      2+
                                                                                              EC2"        2p"
                                                                                                              3/2-               3+
                                                                                                                               19.9
                                                                                                                                              3/2-
                                                                                                                                              80.1    !-3"
                                                                                                                                                             1+
                                                                                                                                                                     !-n
                                                                                                                                                                           3/2-

                                2             1287°
                                2    Be       2471°              Be5                Be6         Be7             Be8            Be9           Be10         Be11            Be12
                                                                                    92 keV     53.29 d         6.8 eV                   1.51E+6 y         13.81 s         23.6 ms
             Beryllium 9.012182
                   4                  +2                                              0+        3/2-             0+            3/2-         0+             1/2+             0+
                                                  -9
                                     2.38#10 %                                 2p             EC          2"                   100      !-            !-"            !-
                                2             180.5°
                                1    Li       1342°              Li4                 Li5           Li6          Li7            Li8            Li9          Li10           Li11
                                                                                   1.5 MeV                                    838 ms     178.3 ms         1.2 MeV         8.5 ms
              Lithium
                   3                  +1
                                        6.941
                                                                  2-                 3/2-          1+            3/2-           2+         3/2-                            3/2-
elements
Different



                                     1.86#10 -7%                               p                   7.5          92.5      !-2"          !-n           n              !-n,!-2n,...
                                2            -272.2°
                                     He     -268.93°            He3                 He4         He5             He6            He7           He8           He9            He10
              Helium                        -267.96°                                          0.60 MeV     806.7 ms           160 keV    119.0 ms     0.30 MeV           0.3 MeV
                   2                  0
                                      4.002602
                                        8.9%
                                                                 1/2+
                                                            0.000137
                                                                                      0+
                                                                               99.999863 n
                                                                                                 3/2-
                                                                                                          !-
                                                                                                              0+
                                                                                                                          n
                                                                                                                               (3/2)-
                                                                                                                                        !-n
                                                                                                                                            0+
                                                                                                                                                      n
                                                                                                                                                        (1/2-)
                                                                                                                                                                     n
                                                                                                                                                                            0+

               1          -259.34°
                   H      -252.87°         H1                    H2                  H3            H4           H5             H6
            Hydrogen
             1 1.00794
                   +1-1

                    91.0%
                          -240.18°
                                           1/2+
                                          99.985
                                                                  1+
                                                                 0.015         !-
                                                                                    12.33 y
                                                                                     1/2+          2-
                                                                                                                                                6                            8
                                                                 n1

                                                           !-
                                                                614.8 s
                                                                 1/2+
                                                                                       2                           4
                       Different
                       isotopes

     Ben Monreal, UCSB Physics 3/11                                                                                              http://nndc.lbl.gov
230 keV     126.5 ms        19.255 s       20.39 m                                     5730 y
                                             6              +2+4-4
                                                                12.0107
                                                                0.033%
                                                                                     0+         (3/2-)
                                                                                              ECp,ECp2",...
                                                                                                        EC
                                                                                                                  0+
                                                                                                                          EC
                                                                                                                                3/2-           0+
                                                                                                                                              98.90
                                                                                                                                                            1/2-
                                                                                                                                                            1.10     !-
                                                                                                                                                                            0+

                                                       2               2075°
                                                       3   B           4000°         B7            B8            B9            B10            B11          B12             B13
               Boron
                                                                                   1.4 MeV     770 ms      0.54 keV                                       20.20 ms       17.36 ms
                                             5              +3
                                                             10.811
                                                                  -8
                                                           6.9#10 %
                                                                                     (3/2-)      2+
                                                                                              EC2"        2p"
                                                                                                              3/2-               3+
                                                                                                                               19.9
                                                                                                                                              3/2-
                                                                                                                                              80.1    !-3"
                                                                                                                                                             1+
                                                                                                                                                                     !-n
                                                                                                                                                                           3/2-

                                2             1287°
                                2    Be       2471°              Be5                Be6         Be7             Be8            Be9           Be10         Be11            Be12
                                                                                    92 keV     53.29 d         6.8 eV                   1.51E+6 y         13.81 s         23.6 ms
             Beryllium 9.012182
                   4                  +2                                              0+        3/2-             0+            3/2-         0+             1/2+             0+
                                                  -9
                                     2.38#10 %                                 2p             EC          2"                   100      !-            !-"            !-
                                2             180.5°
                                1    Li       1342°              Li4                 Li5           Li6          Li7            Li8            Li9          Li10           Li11
                                                                                   1.5 MeV                                    838 ms     178.3 ms         1.2 MeV         8.5 ms
              Lithium
                   3                  +1
                                        6.941
                                                                  2-                 3/2-          1+            3/2-           2+         3/2-                            3/2-
elements
Different



                                     1.86#10 -7%                               p                   7.5          92.5      !-2"          !-n           n              !-n,!-2n,...
                                2            -272.2°
                                     He     -268.93°            He3                 He4         He5             He6            He7           He8           He9            He10
              Helium                        -267.96°                                          0.60 MeV     806.7 ms           160 keV    119.0 ms     0.30 MeV           0.3 MeV
                   2                  0
                                      4.002602
                                        8.9%
                                                                 1/2+
                                                            0.000137
                                                                                      0+
                                                                               99.999863 n
                                                                                                 3/2-
                                                                                                          !-
                                                                                                              0+
                                                                                                                          n
                                                                                                                               (3/2)-
                                                                                                                                        !-n
                                                                                                                                            0+
                                                                                                                                                      n
                                                                                                                                                        (1/2-)
                                                                                                                                                                     n
                                                                                                                                                                            0+

               1          -259.34°
                   H      -252.87°         H1                    H2                  H3            H4           H5             H6
            Hydrogen
             1 1.00794
                   +1-1

                    91.0%
                          -240.18°
                                           1/2+
                                          99.985
                                                                  1+
                                                                 0.015         !-
                                                                                    12.33 y
                                                                                     1/2+          2-
                                                                                                                                                6                            8
                                                                 n1

                                                           !-
                                                                614.8 s
                                                                 1/2+
                                                                                       2                           4
                       Different
                       isotopes

     Ben Monreal, UCSB Physics 3/11                                                                                              http://nndc.lbl.gov
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima
Understanding the  radioactivity at Fukushima

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Understanding the radioactivity at Fukushima

  • 1. Understanding the radioactivity at Fukushima A physics and engineering perspective Prof. Ben Monreal UCSB Department of Physics Q&A Panel: Ben Monreal Prof. Theo Theofanous, UCSB Chem E. Prof. Patrick McCray, UCSB History Ben Monreal, UCSB Physics 3/11
  • 2. • Introduction to radioactivity • Radiation hazards and health • What escapes in a meltdown? • Where does it go? • How worried should we be? Ben Monreal, UCSB Physics 3/11
  • 3. Periodic Table of the Elements Chemistry Reference Sheet California Standards Test 1 18 1A 8A 1 H 1 Hydrogen 2 “Tritium” (hydrogen) 13 14 15 16 17 He 2 Helium 1.01 2A Key 3A 4A 5A 6A 7A 4.00 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Atomic number 2 Li Be Na Element symbol B C N O F Ne Lithium Beryllium Boron Carbon Nitrogen Oxygen Fluorine Neon 6.94 9.01 Sodium Element name 10.81 12.01 14.01 16.00 19.00 20.18 22.99 11 12 Average atomic mass* 13 14 15 16 17 18 3 Na Mg Al Si P S Cl Ar Sodium Magnesium 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Aluminum Silicon Phosphorus Sulfur Chlorine Argon 22.99 24.31 3B 4B 5B 6B 7B 8B 1B 2B 26.98 28.09 30.97 32.07 35.45 39.95 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 4 K Ca Sc Ti V Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr Potassium Calcium Scandium Titanium Vanadium Chromium Manganese Iron Cobalt Nickel Copper Zinc Gallium Germanium Arsenic Selenium Bromine Krypton 39.10 40.08 44.96 47.87 50.94 52.00 54.94 55.85 58.93 58.69 63.55 65.39 69.72 72.61 74.92 78.96 79.90 83.80 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 5 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sn Sb Te I Xe Rubidium Strontium Yttrium Zirconium Niobium Molybdenum Technetium Ruthenium Rhodium Palladium Silver Cadmium Indium Tin Antimony Tellurium Iodine Xenon 85.47 87.62 88.91 91.22 92.91 95.94 (98) 101.07 102.91 106.42 107.87 112.41 114.82 118.71 121.76 127.60 126.90 131.29 55 56 57 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 6 Cs Ba La Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn Cesium Barium Lanthanum Hafnium Tantalum Tungsten Rhenium Osmium Iridium Platinum Gold Mercury Thallium Lead Bismuth Polonium Astatine Radon Iodine 132.91 137.33 138.91 178.49 180.95 183.84 186.21 190.23 192.22 195.08 196.97 200.59 204.38 207.2 208.98 (209) (210) (222) 87 88 89 104 105 106 107 108 109 7 Fr Ra Ac Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt Francium Radium Actinium Rutherfordium Dubnium Seaborgium Bohrium Hassium Meitnerium Cesium (223) (226) (227) (261) (262) (266) (264) (269) (268) * If this number is in parentheses, then 58 Ce Cerium 140.12 59 Pr Praseodymium 140.91 60 Nd Pm 61 62 Sm Neodymium Promethium Samarium 144.24 (145) 150.36 Uranium and Plutonium 63 Eu Europium 151.96 64 Gd Gadolinium 157.25 65 Tb Terbium 158.93 66 Dy Dysprosium 162.50 67 Ho Holmium 164.93 68 Er Erbium 167.26 69 Tm Thulium 168.93 70 Yb Ytterbium 173.04 71 Lu Lutetium 174.97 it refers to the atomic mass of the 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 most stable isotope. Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No Lr Thorium Protactinium Uranium Neptunium Plutonium Americium Curium Berkelium Californium Einsteinium Fermium Mendelevium Nobelium Lawrencium 232.04 231.04 238.03 (237) (244) (243) (247) (247) (251) (252) (257) (258) (259) (262) Copyright © 2008 California Department of Education
  • 4. 230 keV 126.5 ms 19.255 s 20.39 m 5730 y 6 +2+4-4 12.0107 0.033% 0+ (3/2-) ECp,ECp2",... EC 0+ EC 3/2- 0+ 98.90 1/2- 1.10 !- 0+ 2 2075° 3 B 4000° B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 Boron 1.4 MeV 770 ms 0.54 keV 20.20 ms 17.36 ms 5 +3 10.811 -8 6.9#10 % (3/2-) 2+ EC2" 2p" 3/2- 3+ 19.9 3/2- 80.1 !-3" 1+ !-n 3/2- 2 1287° 2 Be 2471° Be5 Be6 Be7 Be8 Be9 Be10 Be11 Be12 92 keV 53.29 d 6.8 eV 1.51E+6 y 13.81 s 23.6 ms Beryllium 9.012182 4 +2 0+ 3/2- 0+ 3/2- 0+ 1/2+ 0+ -9 2.38#10 % 2p EC 2" 100 !- !-" !- 2 180.5° 1 Li 1342° Li4 Li5 Li6 Li7 Li8 Li9 Li10 Li11 1.5 MeV 838 ms 178.3 ms 1.2 MeV 8.5 ms Lithium 3 +1 6.941 2- 3/2- 1+ 3/2- 2+ 3/2- 3/2- elements Different 1.86#10 -7% p 7.5 92.5 !-2" !-n n !-n,!-2n,... 2 -272.2° He -268.93° He3 He4 He5 He6 He7 He8 He9 He10 Helium -267.96° 0.60 MeV 806.7 ms 160 keV 119.0 ms 0.30 MeV 0.3 MeV 2 0 4.002602 8.9% 1/2+ 0.000137 0+ 99.999863 n 3/2- !- 0+ n (3/2)- !-n 0+ n (1/2-) n 0+ 1 -259.34° H -252.87° H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 Hydrogen 1 1.00794 +1-1 91.0% -240.18° 1/2+ 99.985 1+ 0.015 !- 12.33 y 1/2+ 2- 6 8 n1 !- 614.8 s 1/2+ 2 4 Different isotopes Ben Monreal, UCSB Physics 3/11 http://nndc.lbl.gov
  • 5. 230 keV 126.5 ms 19.255 s 20.39 m 5730 y 6 +2+4-4 12.0107 0.033% 0+ (3/2-) ECp,ECp2",... EC 0+ EC 3/2- 0+ 98.90 1/2- 1.10 !- 0+ 2 2075° 3 B 4000° B7 B8 B9 B10 B11 B12 B13 Boron 1.4 MeV 770 ms 0.54 keV 20.20 ms 17.36 ms 5 +3 10.811 -8 6.9#10 % (3/2-) 2+ EC2" 2p" 3/2- 3+ 19.9 3/2- 80.1 !-3" 1+ !-n 3/2- 2 1287° 2 Be 2471° Be5 Be6 Be7 Be8 Be9 Be10 Be11 Be12 92 keV 53.29 d 6.8 eV 1.51E+6 y 13.81 s 23.6 ms Beryllium 9.012182 4 +2 0+ 3/2- 0+ 3/2- 0+ 1/2+ 0+ -9 2.38#10 % 2p EC 2" 100 !- !-" !- 2 180.5° 1 Li 1342° Li4 Li5 Li6 Li7 Li8 Li9 Li10 Li11 1.5 MeV 838 ms 178.3 ms 1.2 MeV 8.5 ms Lithium 3 +1 6.941 2- 3/2- 1+ 3/2- 2+ 3/2- 3/2- elements Different 1.86#10 -7% p 7.5 92.5 !-2" !-n n !-n,!-2n,... 2 -272.2° He -268.93° He3 He4 He5 He6 He7 He8 He9 He10 Helium -267.96° 0.60 MeV 806.7 ms 160 keV 119.0 ms 0.30 MeV 0.3 MeV 2 0 4.002602 8.9% 1/2+ 0.000137 0+ 99.999863 n 3/2- !- 0+ n (3/2)- !-n 0+ n (1/2-) n 0+ 1 -259.34° H -252.87° H1 H2 H3 H4 H5 H6 Hydrogen 1 1.00794 +1-1 91.0% -240.18° 1/2+ 99.985 1+ 0.015 !- 12.33 y 1/2+ 2- 6 8 n1 !- 614.8 s 1/2+ 2 4 Different isotopes Ben Monreal, UCSB Physics 3/11 http://nndc.lbl.gov