SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 11
Download to read offline
See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233508048
Two Method Approach: A Case Conceptualization Model in the
Context of EMDR
Article  in  Journal of EMDR Practice and Research · February 2010
DOI: 10.1891/1933-3196.4.1.12
CITATIONS
29
READS
1,607
3 authors, including:
Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects:
cost effect View project
Treating Trauma In Psychosis View project
Ad de Jongh
University of Amsterdam
381 PUBLICATIONS   4,669 CITATIONS   
SEE PROFILE
Erik ten Broeke
86 PUBLICATIONS   656 CITATIONS   
SEE PROFILE
All content following this page was uploaded by Ad de Jongh on 26 May 2019.
The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
12 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010
© 2010 EMDR International Association DOI: 10.1891/1933-3196.4.1.12
W
ith the help of EMDR, vividness and emo-
tionality of unpleasant mental representa-
tions, which resulted from one or more
traumatic events, can be reduced (Bisson et al.,
2007; Günter & Bodner, 2008). This notion, that
these observations are by-products of a comprehen-
sive reprocessing, is the basis of Shapiro’s Adaptive
Information Processing (AIP) model (Shapiro, 1995,
2001, 2006), a framework that is considered to be
helpful to therapists when developing a problem for-
mulation in terms of a relationship between memo-
ries of significant events on one hand, clients’ current
symptoms on the other hand, and the use of EMDR
to resolve these memories (Solomon & Shapiro,
2008). An underlying principle of this model is that
negative events leave traces in the neural network of
an individual in such a way that these cause a variety
of symptoms, including dysfunctional beliefs about
oneself (e.g., “I am a bad person”) or the world (“I am
in danger”). The unprocessed and dysfunctionally
stored memory information is responsible for symp-
toms that may vary from the reliving of past experi-
ences to fears, depressive states, sleep problems, or
sexual dysfunction. The basic assumption of the AIP
model is that by accessing the dysfunctionally stored
memories and stimulating the innate processing sys-
tem, symptoms diminish (Shapiro, 2001, 2002, 2006;
Solomon & Shapiro, 2008).
Should a therapist, therefore, in the context of
their treatment choose to use EMDR to reduce this
disturbance, the therapy will focus on reshaping the
significant memories that underpin the symptoms
from which the client suffers. In practice, this means
that before commencing treatment, the therapist will
draw up a coherent theory or hypothesis regarding the
relationship between complaints and a (series of) tar-
get memory/memories to be treated with EMDR. By
formulating an explicit hypothesis regarding the rela-
tionship between memories and symptoms, the thera-
pist gives direction to the treatment. This concerns the
identification—and subsequent processing—of crucial
memories, or memories of so-called touchstone events.
This article outlines a comprehensive approach
aimed at identifying those memories that after having
been reprocessed will result in a significant reduction
of symptoms and, by extension, in an improvement
of general functioning and the quality of life of the
client. In other words, its purpose is to help therapists
Two Method Approach: A Case Conceptualization Model in the
Context of EMDR
Ad de Jongh
University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands
Erik ten Broeke
Steven Meijer
Visie, Deventer, The Netherlands
This article outlines a comprehensive model that helps to identify crucial target memories for EMDR treat-
ment. The “Two Method Approach” can be used for conceptualization and treatment implementation for a
broad spectrum of symptoms and problems, other than those related to PTSD per se. The model consists of
two types of case conceptualizations. The First Method deals with symptoms whereby memories of the eti-
ological and/or aggravating events can be meaningfully specified on a time line. It is primarily aimed at the
conceptualization and treatment of DSM-IV-TR Axis I disorders. The Second Method is used to identify mem-
ories that underlie patients’ so-called dysfunctional core beliefs. This method is primarily used to treat more
severe forms of pathology, such as severe social phobia, complex PTSD, and/or personality disorders. The two
methods of case conceptualization are explained step by step in detail and are illustrated by case examples.
Keywords: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing; EMDR; case conceptualization; model
Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 13
Two Method Approach
conceptualize a case in such a way as to “make it suit-
able” for treatment using EMDR’s basic protocol. The
“Two Method Approach” may be used for the con-
ceptualization and implementation of treatment for
a broad spectrum of symptoms and problems other
than those related to posttraumatic stress disorder
(PTSD) per se. In the Netherlands, over the past 5
years, a great deal of clinical experience with positive
outcomes has been gathered using this model and its
methods, and it has become the backbone and point
of departure of most EMDR treatments (Ten Broeke,
De Jongh, & Oppenheim, 2008).
Case Conceptualization in EMDR
As previously noted, EMDR treatment is based upon
the AIP precepts that the cause of dysfunction (e.g.,
affect, sensations, behaviors, beliefs) are the unpro-
cessed memories of etiological events. Therefore, after
a careful delineation of current dysfunctional behav-
iors, emotions, negative cognitions, and other specific
symptoms, the client is queried regarding each symp-
tom:Whatwastheoriginaloccurrenceormostdisturb-
ing primary event, modeling, lesson, and so forth that
represents the genesis of the dysfunction? What were
the circumstances—including interactional, social, or
family systems factors—at the time of the first event?
A useful question is, “When was the first time you can
remember feeling this way?” (Shapiro, 2001, p. 106).
In the literature on EMDR, an “affect scan”
(Shapiro, 1995) or a variant procedure that is called the
float-back technique (Browning, 1999) is also recom-
mended to identify relevant targets for EMDR treat-
ment. “This procedure may be used when the client is
unable to identify easily an earlier target for process-
ing” (Shapiro, 2001, p. 433). This technique is based on
the principles of the affect bridge or the somatic bridge,
which are also employed in hypnotherapy. It is a form
of free association starting from the present emotional
experiences of the client in which general instructions
are given to the client. The basic assumption is that
the client’s neural network itself will indicate, based
on affective affinities, what target memory or touch-
stone event is relevant. The client is requested to call to
mind a situation during which the symptoms or prob-
lems frequently occur (e.g., a current situation that
generated fear) and to identify a corresponding image,
an negative cognition (NC), and an emotion. Then,
the client is asked to go back to the time and place of
a past, relevant event during which he or she felt or
thought the same. This is formulated as follows:
Now, please bring up that picture of _____and
those negative words _____ (repeat client’s
disturbing image and negative cognition), notice
what feelings are coming up for you, where you
are feeling them in your body, and just let your
mind float back to an earlier time in your life—
don’t search for anything—just let your mind
float back and tell me the first scene that comes
to mind where you had similar: Thoughts
of _____ (repeat negative cognition), feelings of
_____ (repeat negative emotion), in your _____
(repeat places in body where client reported
feelings). (Shapiro, 2001, pp. 433–434)
The float-back technique utilizes the following step
by step procedure:
1. “When was the last time you felt this way?”
2. “Hold the image that comes to mind in your
thoughts and any thoughts which enter your mind
in connection with this.”
3. “Where do you feel this in your body?”
4. “Hold on to the image and the feelings and allow
your thoughts to transport you back to the first
time that you felt this way.”
When the client encounters a disturbing memory,
an image and NC/PC are subsequently identified.
Next, a regular EMDR procedure (basic protocol) is
performed.
Although clinical experience has demonstrated
that the float-back technique is valuable, it is a rela-
tively nonspecific method. Particularly because it is
not clear to which extent the memories found using
this method are actually important or meaningful
enough to be reprocessed.
In our opinion, the Two Method Approach to
be described hereafter is a valuable expansion of
the direct questioning traditionally used in EMDR
(Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006) and may be used in combi-
nation with other strategies including the float-back
technique. It has the advantage that it is a structured
procedure, which is more likely to generate eas-
ily testable hypotheses concerning the relationship
between events and clients’ symptoms, preventing
the therapist from randomly reprocessing targets
presented. To this end, the Two Method Approach
provides the therapist insight into what needs to be
done and why, and gives the therapist opportunities
to re-evaluate and modify the treatment plan, should
the treatment not deliver the desired results.
Basically, the two forms of questioning consist
of two types of case conceptualizations. The First
Method of the Two Method Approach deals with
symptoms of which memories of the etiological (and
aggravating) events can be meaningfully formu-
lated on a time line. It is primarily aimed toward the
14 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010
De Jongh, Ten Broeke, and Meijer
conceptualization and treatment of Axis I disorders,
including simple PTSD. This method is in fact an
elaboration of the standard EMDR protocol (Shapiro,
1995, 2001, 2006) and the phobia protocol (De Jongh &
Ten Broeke, 2007; De Jongh, Ten Broeke, & Renssen,
1999; Shapiro, 1995, 2001).
The Second Method of the approach, in contrast, is
used, among other things, to identify memories that
in some way form the groundwork under the client’s
so-called dysfunctional (core) beliefs. It will primarily
be used to treat complex forms of pathology such as
complex PTSD and/or personality disorders in which
core beliefs are believed to be central (Butler, Brown,
Beck, & Grisham, 2002). However, in certain cases,
this approach may also be preferable in the treatment
of Axis I disorders, such as depression and generalized
social anxiety disorders, especially when a disturbed
self-image plays a significant role (Shapiro, 2006).
These two methods of case conceptualization are out-
lined and explained step by step in detail below.
First Method: From Symptoms to Targets
The First Method begins with making an inventory
of the existing symptoms and presenting problems
(Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006). Examples include:
• “I can’t sleep, because I’m having terrible night-
mares about ….”
• “These days I cry when I see a child on television.”
• “I don’t have any energy anymore, I’m always
exhausted.”
• “I don’t dare fly in a plane.”
A client may of course have more than one type
of symptom (intrusive thoughts, sleep problems,
anxiety, panic attacks, avoidance behavior, depressed
moods, substance abuse, etc.), all of which may
require treatment. The severity of the disorder expe-
rienced by the client will, however, strongly depend
on the amount of—and relationships between—the
various symptoms and symptom clusters. Therefore,
the target memory, which is chosen to be treated
prior to others, is determined by the severity of the
symptoms or the disorder.
1. Make an inventory of the symptoms or complaints.
Prior to commencing treatment, it is important to
be aware that different symptoms may relate to
different events and therefore to different targets.
Of course, it is also possible that different symp-
toms belong to one single disorder, with a specific
etiological history.
2. Decide which symptom (cluster) should be treated
first.
Once the various symptom clusters have been
identified, treatment can focus on the symptom
or cluster that is causing the most trouble. That
is why the first step is making an inventory of the
different symptom clusters. “Looking at this list,
which of these complaints would have to disap-
pear from your life first before you could be feel-
ing good again?”
3. Identify the etiological and subsequent aggravat-
ing events.
The next step is to establish a relationship between
the symptoms and the so-called etiological experi-
ence responsible for the onset of the client’s symp-
toms and which fuel the complaints. Some clients
will indicate that they do not know exactly which
event started their problems. This does not need
to pose a problem since there are a variety of ways
into the memory network. The goal of EMDR is
to reprocess the stored memories of meaningful
events in order to influence the client’s complaints.
Because these stored memories by no means have
to correspond completely with what actually hap-
pened, the following question can be asked: “From
yourperspective,whendoyoufeelthatthesesymp-
toms started?” It is also possible to formulate the
question in a broader fashion in order to identify
various events that have contributed to the current
problems (aggravating events). “From your point
of view, which event or events is/are responsible
for the current complaints or might have worsened
them?” “Which events led to your symptoms?”
In connection with this, it is important to empha-
size that, in the context of a treatment with EMDR,
we are not interested in the client describing
the events factually, but rather narrating how the
actual event is stored into memory. Therefore, the
question should not be “What exactly happened?”
but rather “I would like to hear from you how you
remember this event/is stored in your mind.”
An important goal of the therapist is, therefore, to
identify those events after which the complaints
manifested themselves for the first time. It should
be noted, however, that it is also important not to
simply take the client’s answer for granted, but to
check whether or not he might have already had,
for example, this anxiety before the first event. In
doing so, the therapist should therefore try and
find a memory that even better explains the com-
plaints. To this end, the following question may
be posed: “Are you sure that you did not already
suffer from these symptoms before this event took
place, even only a little bit?”
Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 15
Two Method Approach
Treatment should be directed toward those memo-
ries identified as having a meaningful relationship
with the existing complaints, and also being emo-
tionally charged in the present; that is, not feeling
“neutral.” These events are subsequently arranged
in a time sequence.
4. Outline the course of the complaints in time.
Once an inventory of the meaningful memories
has been developed, the course of the complaints
should be outlined into a time sequence. This may
be done by making a graph of the severity and the
fluctuation of the complaints in time, in which
“time” is represented on the x-axis and the “sever-
ity” of symptoms on the y-axis (see Figure 1). In
order to select a meaningful and important target
memory, one must basically look for the “bend”
or “elbow” in the curve representing a particular
symptom in time.
5. In case of anxiety disorders and phobias, check for
other potentially relevant memories of events.
In all cases it is important to check for potential
of other memories that are crucial, but may not
become readily accessible when asking the ques-
tions described above (Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006).
However, in regard to the anxiety disorders, the
current authors have found it useful if the therapist
starts with conceptualizing clients’ anxiety-related
problems in terms of an “if–then” relationship (see
De Jongh & Ten Broeke, 2007). Here the “if” refers
to the stimulus that evokes emotional disturbance
(the conditioned stimulus or CS), while “then”
refers to the predicted outcome, the catastrophe
the client expects to happen (the unconditioned
stimulus or UCS). Using the conceptualization
of an if–then relationship, there are two addi-
tional search strategies that can be used to iden-
tify the memories of events that may have laid the
foundations for the presenting problems. In the
first step the stimulus is identified, for instance
by asking: “Which (aspect of this) object or situa-
tion is most directly responsible for your fear? (or:
“What would make you instantly scared?”). The
next step should focus on identifying core mem-
ories pertaining to the stimulus component (e.g.,
injection needle, dog). A typical question referring
to such memories is: “Which incident causes you
to become afraid of …?” This question may give
access to additional memories.
Another series of questions pertains to the feared
consequence. Typical catastrophe memories can
be found by identifying the client’s catastrophic
ideation: “What do you think will happen if you
are confronted with … [stimulus]?” The next step
is the identification of the memory: “When did
your fear of … [catastrophe; e.g., fainting, extreme
pain] begin (and when did it worsen?).” If other
memories appear, these may need to be added to
the time line or graph, but only if there is a “bend”
in the graph.
6. Determine which memories should be repro-
cessed and in which order.
There are various arguments to take into account
in considering which memories to reprocess first.
It should be emphasized that in almost every case
the memories that will be chosen first are the ones
that caused the onset of the symptoms (“etiologi-
cal experience”), and subsequently, the events that
worsened the symptoms.
7. Identify the target and apply the basic protocol.
It is now time to select the correct target image—
and NC from the most relevant memory (in terms
of its fueling effect on the existing symptoms):
“Howdoyourememberthattraumaticexperience,
beginning from the point when you feel it started
to where it feels like it really ends; that is, give an
outline of the whole event.” “What’s important is
how you remember the event, not what actually
happened.” Or simply: “What image represents
the event for you?”
Together with the client, the therapist selects the
target image that is to be reprocessed.
8. Together with the client, re-evaluate the current
symptoms and make an inventory of the remain-
ing targets (back to step 1).
In order to continue the treatment, in a subse-
quent session, the therapist will need to determine
to what extent the treatment has been successful
so far. Following this, the targets which will need
First panic attack Panic attack in elevator
Time
Severity
Fear of riding
elevators
FIGURE 1. Outline of course and severity of the com-
plaints in time as displayed by a graph representation.
16 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010
De Jongh, Ten Broeke, and Meijer
to be completed are those that have not yet been
completely desensitized (Subjective Units of Distress
[SUD] > 0) and those for which no PC has yet been
fully installed (Validity of Cognition [VoC] < 7).
Once all targets of the identified symptom clusters
havebeenadequately reprocessed,a new hierarchy
of these clusters will need to be made in consulta-
tion with the client, including current situations
that continue to be disturbing. Processing these
triggers is the second part of the three-pronged
protocol (Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006). On the basis
of this, and that founded on clear arguments,
the symptom cluster with the strongest (causal)
relation to the client’s quality of life will need to
be chosen for treatment. In effect, we are again
returning to step 1. After this, a time line or graph
is made after which the most meaningful events/
memories are categorized. These can be treated in
future sessions.
9. Preparing the client for the future.
Once the treatment reaches closure, it is often
recommended to install one or more future tem-
plates. This applies to all problems. By installing
the future templates, a blueprint of functional reac-
tions to future objects or situations is installed and
can be activated or become accessible when the
client is confronted with concrete stimuli of such
a situation. This may include incorporating new
skills, information, and knowledge to deal with
new situations, as well as those that were previ-
ously disturbing. In treating anxiety disorders, it
is recommended to make a list of situations that
are avoided or confronted with severe anxiety.
The avoidance of such situations is, after all, most
often the reason for commencing treatment.
In addition to the installation of a future template, a
video check is usually carried out with regard to the
future situation (Shapiro, 2001, 2006). The purpose
of this is to ascertain whether there are still ele-
ments or aspects present within these types of situ-
ations that might be able to prevent the client from
seeking out such situations and that therefore still
require directed reprocessing. In a video check, the
client is asked to close his eyes and imagine a future
experience from start to finish, in addition to intro-
ducing some difficult elements into the situation.
An Example
When Joan sees her therapist for the first time, she
presents herself as someone with many emotional
difficulties. But after history taking and further
assessment, Joan and her therapist decide that Joan’s
phobia of elevators needs attention first. This condi-
tion most significantly influences her present life and
work because Joan refuses to ride the elevator up to
her 12th floor office. In response to the question: “In
your experience, when do you feel that these com-
plaints started?” she answers that these problems
started 2 years ago. Joan experienced a panic attack
inside an elevator and from that moment she has
been avoiding elevator rides. The first 2 weeks after
this incident, she stayed at home sick as she did not
feel able to go to work.
The therapist asks: “Did you suffer from any of
these symptoms before this happened?” Joan indi-
cates that prior to the incident she had found it dif-
ficult to make use of elevators as she was afraid of
being trapped, although she still managed to do so.
The therapist also asks her a question pertaining to
this elevator-related fear: “When did this fear of being
trapped begin?” Joan realizes that this fear started
after she had had a panic attack 6 months earlier. She
was home preparing for an important work presenta-
tion when, suddenly, she felt an intense wave of fear.
The room started spinning, and she felt like she was
going to throw up and that she could not get away.
Her whole body was shaking, she could not catch her
breath, and her heart seemed to be pounding out of her
chest. After that she had visited a general practitioner,
but he could not find any somatic problem. When her
fear of having a panic attack increased, her doctor
prescribed her benzodiazepines. Yet, Joan had expe-
rienced several of these attacks since then. The thera-
pist asked Joan to draw a graph in order to outline the
course of the complaints over time (see Figure 1).
He also checked for other potential targets, but
could not find any additional ones. For example, he
inquired about what Joan would fear most when
trapped inside the elevator. She responded that she
would fear a panic attack so severe that she would
die. However, since the question “When did your
fear of dying start?” did not evoke any new memo-
ries the graph did not need modification. The thera-
pist selected the memory of Joan’s first panic attack as
the one that needed to be reprocessed first because he
postulated that this event had laid the groundwork of
her fear. Next, a standard EMDR basic protocol pro-
cedure was carried out.
Second Method: From Core Beliefs to
Targets
Thus far, we have described how to understand
the clients’ symptoms by drawing a time line that
Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 17
Two Method Approach
contains the relevant experiences that contribute to
these symptoms. However, in certain cases, the First
Method may appear to be too cumbersome or even
impracticable. Too many events might end up on the
time line, and it is not always clear how or which to
choose. This may be the case when the wealth of
events has led to the development of a dominant or
abstract meaning that increasingly became part of
the so-called “dysfunctional” or “core beliefs” of the
person (Beck, 1976). In this case, the client’s symp-
tom pattern is driven by a range of memories that in
turn contribute to a particular (negative) belief about
how the world works and who he or she is (i.e., his
or her self-image). This configuration generates affec-
tive and behavioral responses, which in turn contrib-
ute to new interactional experiences that appear to
confirm the cognitive bias and increase the burden of
the memory network as they are themselves stored
in memory. In these cases, core beliefs are viewed as
a primary symptom that can act as a means to orga-
nize the secondary complaints (e.g., problems at work
and personal relationships) and can be directly used
to access the etiological and exacerbating memories
that need to be processed (Shapiro, 2001, 2006).
Particularly, when we are trying to change a per-
son’s core beliefs it is reasonable to assume that these
came into being under the influence of etiological
and subsequent learning experiences. Because many
different kinds of events have contributed to the core
belief and generate behavioral and affective responses
that are consistent with the dominant belief, rather
than asking about relevant memories, it is more effi-
cient to use the belief to identify the memories to be
processed. In other words, if the therapist’s hypoth-
esis is that the problems are largely consistent with
certain predominant dysfunctional beliefs that help
define the psychopathology, the therapist may be bet-
ter off choosing the so-called Second Method.
The Second Method involves the following:
1. Choosing the dysfunctional belief that is consis-
tent with the client’s problems
2. Identifying experiences that have led to the for-
mation of and perpetuation of this belief and
(therefore)—so to speak “prove” that the belief is
true
3. “Discredit” this “evidence” with EMDR.
Similar to when one “Googles” something, when
applying the Second Method, the therapist is not
ordering relevant events chronologically, but is
instead selecting memories on the basis of relevance
in terms of the credibility of the respective belief.
Following the analogy with Google, the relevant
dysfunctional belief is the keyword used to find the
relevant experiences and the client’s learning history
is the World Wide Web. Next, the most important
pieces of “evidence” in support of the beliefs are dis-
mantled, one by one.
So-Called Evidence in the Second Method
In the terminology of the Second Method of EMDR,
reference is made to “evidence.” We are obviously not
talking about actual evidence, but rather, evidence
which the client perceives as valid. Precisely because
we are dealing with past experiences, from which
the client falsely derives the conclusion that these
still prove today that he is, for example, worthless,
EMDR makes it possible to re-evaluate the present
meaning of those experiences. It should be noted that,
conceptually, what we are talking about are experi-
ences which are current evidence for the “truth” of
the relevant belief. The therapist therefore does not
ask: “When did you have the feeling that you were
worthless?” But rather: “Which experiences from the
past do you feel prove to you even now that you are
worthless?” or: “What have you experienced in your
life that still proves to you that you are worthless?”
Rigid dysfunctional beliefs usually indicate that
there are more than a few relevant events or expe-
riences. In fact, there will usually be an extensive
range of experiences and events, in general begin-
ning in the client’s childhood and running through
their entire life. If the damaging experiences were
of an extreme nature—and took place in the client’s
childhood—one may often assume that there will be
more than “only” one dysfunctional core belief. This
is especially the case in complex PTSD or personality
disorders.
In any event, the therapist must help the client
to make a useful selection from all of the memories
that contribute to the credibility of the dysfunctional,
problematic beliefs. Experience shows that an initial
choice of five of the most relevant experiences is usu-
ally enough material to start off with. The criterion
with regard to selection is the (strength of the) evi-
dence for the relevant belief: “From all of the experi-
ences you feel prove to you that you are worthless,
select five that provide the strongest evidence at this
moment.”
This question can be posed directly to the client
during a therapy session, but one must keep in mind
that carrying out such a “Google search” on the spot
will be quite a task, both emotionally and cogni-
tively, for the client. If the client is unable to do this,
18 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010
De Jongh, Ten Broeke, and Meijer
or becomes too overwhelmed, then more work needs
to be done in the preparatory phase, for example, sta-
bilization. If the client is deemed to be extremely sta-
ble and able to access disturbing memories with no
problems, then it may be permissible to have them do
this for homework. More concretely, the client can be
asked to select five experiences, write a short essay
about them, and email it to the therapist prior to the
next session.
TheabovementionedSecondMethodstrategywas
developed in order to expand the traditional types of
questions used to arrive at relevant memories that
may then be treated using EMDR. Nevertheless, this
method is not exclusively limited to (working with)
EMDR and can be used for interventions of different
types as well. For obvious reasons, we shall not go
into these interventions further here. We will, how-
ever, describe below, step by step, how the Second
Method works for EMDR.
1. Identify the most relevant belief.
Identify and formulate the most relevant dysfunc-
tional belief. On the basis of the case conceptuali-
zation, decide to treat a particular belief. Pay close
attention to the relationship between the actual
problems and the way the relevant beliefs reflect
them.
2. Identify the “evidence.”
Identify a number (3–5) of memories of actual sit-
uations (events) from the person’s life in various
contexts that for the client currently still “proves”
that the dysfunctional belief is “true.” If it is a core
belief, preferably begin with a situation as early as
possible in their youth. For example, by asking:
“What caused you to (start) believing/believe
that you were (a) ... [core belief]?”
“What ‘taught’ you that you were (a) ... [core
belief]?”
“Which early situation currently ‘proves’ so to
speak, that you are (a) ... [core belief]?”
“Think of a more recent situation that makes it
clear to you that you are (a) ... [core belief]?”
3. Homework (essays).
If appropriate, ask the client to do the selection of
experiences as homework and write a short essay
about each specific experience.
4. Identify the strongest “evidence.”
Together with the client, first select (the memory
of) the situation (event) that for the client is the
strongest “proof” that he/she ... is (a) … (core
belief).
5. Identify the “target image” (that proves strongest
that …)
“Which image currently proves (the strongest)
that ... (fill in: core belief) … is correct?”
6. Start basic protocol with the strongest “piece of
evidence.”
The selection of the NC takes place in accordance
with the rules of the basic protocol. If one is work-
ing on a core belief (“I am ...”), then it is important
to remember that the NC may not necessarily have
the same formulation. After all, the negative cogni-
tion within EMDR is connected to the target image
and is credible as soon as the image is brought up.
The core belief is a general statement about oneself
as a person, and may not be directly connected
with a specific target image. For instance, it is pos-
sible that in a case that client’s dysfunctional core
belief is “I am a loser,” the NC of one of the target
memories providing crucial evidence for this belief
is “I am powerless.” Hence, although the NC will
often be found to be in the same domain as the
core belief (in most cases pertaining to any form
of negative self-esteem), this should never simply
be taken for granted.
An Example
The Second Method is illustrated by the case of a
person with a negative self-image who is suffering
from a depression.
Frank seeks treatment for recurrent depressive
episodes. In the past, he received cognitive-behav-
ioral therapy (CBT) and medication, combined or
not. Although Frank did recover from his depressions
each time, “in the back of his mind” remained a feel-
ing of darkness, and—in his own words—an inferior-
ity complex. Frank feels that this inferiority complex
is the cause of his recurrent depressions, not in the
least because his depressions always seem to be trig-
gered by experiencing failures. Both at work and at
home, Frank proves to be very sensitive to criticism
and he himself is his biggest and most devastating
critic. At the time of seeking treatment, things are
actually going rather well for him, that is why follow-
ing the advice of his former therapist, he is requesting
(additional) treatment with EMDR. During the first
meeting, it becomes clear that Frank has believed
for quite a long time now that he is a failure, this in
spite of many objective successes, particularly in his
work. The people around him are frequently telling
him “you have everything a man could wish for”
that invariably results in Frank thinking “if only they
knew.” As Frank presently does not fulfill criteria of
Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 19
Two Method Approach
a depression, the therapist confers with on Frank the
possibility of using EMDR to work on his chronically
negative self-image in general and his fixed belief that
he is a failure in particular. It is decided to use the
Second Method to search for relevant experiences in
his past.
The therapist identified Frank’s core belief (“I am a
failure”). After asking “Which past situation ‘proves’
so to speak, still now, that you are a failure?” the ther-
apist assessed the following memories that made it
clear for Frank, on an emotional level, that he is a
failure:
1. Humiliated frequently by his father in his youth
2. Bullied extensively at school
3. Missing a penalty shot in the finals of a very impor-
tant soccer game
4. Fired at work
5. Severe family fights in which he was heavily
criticized
The therapist began to arrange the different pieces
of “evidence” in terms of their order of importance.
This appeared to be premature, however. The humil-
iations by his father and being teased at school would
seem to, at least quantitatively, belong to another
order than the penalty shot, the family fight, and
being fired. Consistent with the AIP model regarding
etiological childhood events, Frank indicates that his
father’s behavior is what most likely had the stron-
gest impact on his self-image. His father never once
complimented him and on various occasions publicly
humiliated Frank after he had failed to carry out a
task to his father’s satisfaction. Frank was asked to
write a short essay about the three most humiliating
experiences with his father. This supplied enough
material to make a start with EMDR treatment. In
the course of the planned EMDR sessions, Frank was
also asked to write essays about the bullying and the
other “pieces of evidence.” Frank wrote the following
essay:
I am 11 years old—during a weekend with my
family; I am given the task of collecting wood
for a big campfire. The entire afternoon, I am
doing my best to find sufficient wood, a good
place for the campfire, and to stack the wood in
such a way that the fire will burn well. When
it is finally time to light the fire, my father
roughly shoves me aside and tries to light it
himself. This doesn’t work, and, in front of the
whole family, he begins shouting how I didn’t
stack the wood right, after which he tears the
Symptoms (e.g.,
reliving events,
anxiety, avoidance)
Dysfunctional core
beliefs
(e.g.,“I am
worthless”)
When did these symptoms
start?
Which situations/experiences
“prove”that you are a…?
Target memory/memories
EMDR protocol
Resource
development and
installation (RDI)
Cognitive
interweave (CI)
Assessment
Which problems are you
experiencing in the present?
FIGURE 2. Integration of the Two Method Model within the EMDR procedure and its various components.
20 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010
De Jongh, Ten Broeke, and Meijer
whole thing down and makes a new pile and—
with some difficulty—finally manages to light
it after all. The rest of the evening, he makes
belittling remarks about me as his “failure of
a son,” which repeatedly makes the other chil-
dren laugh. No one dares to correct my father,
not even when he wonders out loud if I’m even
his real son, because he can’t imagine having
such a fool for a son.
Starting from here, the EMDR basic protocol was
carried out.
Conclusion
The purpose of the current questioning suggestions
is to provide a tool (or “model”) that can be used
to help with case conceptualizations that are aimed
at treating clients with EMDR. The EMDR train-
ings in the United States emphasize a broad range of
case conceptualizations, particularly the use of neg-
ative beliefs as the search engine. The Two Method
Approach may be a useful addition, making it possi-
ble to formulate hypotheses regarding which targets
are essential; that is, those which, when repro-
cessed, will lead to an alleviation of complaints.
It also can easily be used in combination with tech-
niques such as the affect scan and the float-back
technique as integral parts of the EMDR approach
(see Figure 2).
When should one choose to use the First Method,
and when should one opt for the Second Method? The
two methods are both specific protocols for EMDR
treatment. In fact, these are just two ways of arriving
at (often the same) targets, albeit coming from a dif-
ferent approach. Yet, one method may be more suit-
able for some clients than for others. For people who
have experienced a single traumatic experience and
for many people with Axis I disorders of the DSM,
the First Method will allow the relevant target mem-
ories to be found more quickly. On the other hand,
for those who have experienced multiple traumatic
events in their youth and who as a result of this suffer
from low self-esteem, the Second Method can better
enable the therapist to find the crucial target memo-
ries. In such cases, it would not be possible to get all of
the events to fit into a time line. For example, on the
one hand, there will simply be too many of them, and
on the other, it will prove difficult, or even impos-
sible, for the client to (chronologically) organize the
memories. For these clients, it is often an impossible
task to determine the causes and events that have led
to the worsening of the complaints. As can be seen
in Table 1, there are also other differences that might
determine which method to choose.
TABLE 1. First Method Versus Second Method
To Consider First Method Second Method
Type of problems and
pathology
Simple trauma and other Axis I
disorders in which stored memories
directly influence the discrete
symptoms (anxiety and avoidance
reactions, stress disorders, intrusive
thoughts, mourning, sleep problems)
Complex PTSD, personality disorders, and
Axis I disorders characterized by self-
image problems (e.g., a depression or
seriously debilitating generalized social
anxiety or phobia)
Origin Primarily problems that started in
adulthood
Primarily, but not exclusively, problems that
started in (early) youth
Posited number of
memories that require
reprocessing
Relatively few Many
Method of target selection Targets can be selected using the time
line method
Targets can almost not be put on a time
line due to unclear origin, fragmentation
of memories, or, rather, a profusion of
traumatic events and bad memories. A
Google-like approach using the negative
cognitions to target selection is better
suited
Cognitive domains (NCs) Especially control, danger, guilt, and
vulnerability
Particularly personal responsibility
manifesting as self-esteem issues
Key question “When did the complaints begin or
worsen?”
“Which experiences ‘prove’ so to speak, still
now, that you are a ...?”
Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 21
Two Method Approach
ItseemsobviousthattheFirstMethodhasthemost
empirical support of the two methods. The dozens of
randomized effect studies in the area of PTSD sup-
port the proposition that EMDR based on the First
Method results in a swift reduction of complaints.
Although there is as yet no empirical support that
shows that the Second Method leads to a reduction
of the influence of dysfunctional beliefs on the symp-
toms of the client, clinical practice seems promising.
The search strategies and the application of EMDR
to the identified experiences can, in many cases, be
utilized without problems in a more general treat-
ment regime. However, it is not to be expected that
the use of EMDR for reprocessing will in all cases be
sufficient to reach a satisfactory result. There should
always be an overall treatment plan containing the
eight phases, comprehensive goals, and the addition
of other types of interventions, if needed, to supply
the education and experiences needed for adequate
preparation and templates.
Experience gained from the application of EMDR
over the past years has shown that it is possible to
extendtreatmentpossibilitiestoabroadvarietyofpsy-
chological symptoms. Unfortunately, in many coun-
tries, EMDR is still mainly advertised as a treatment
method for trauma only. Yet, if it could be shown that
EMDR is not exclusively a trauma therapy, but that
it must be seen as an alternative treatment for many
more conditions, then EMDR would be more read-
ily accepted in mainstream psychotherapy approach
on par with CBT. To do so however, it is necessary
to expand the understanding of therapists during
(and/or modify the content of) the EMDR trainings
and support extensive research on the wide range of
pathologies other than PTSD.
References
Beck, A. (1976). Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders.
New York: International Universities Press.
Bisson, J. I., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards,
D., & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological treatments for
chronic post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic
review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry,
190, 97–104.
Browning, C. (1999). Floatback and float forward:
Techniques for linking past, present and future.
EMDRIA Newsletter, 4(3), 12, 34.
Butler, A. C., Brown, G. K., Beck, A. T., & Grisham, J.
R. (2002). Assessment of dysfunctional beliefs in bor-
derline personality disorder. Behaviour Research and
Therapy, 40, 1231–1240.
De Jongh, A., & Ten Broeke, E. (2007). Treatment of spe-
cific phobias with EMDR: Conceptualization and strat-
egies for the selection of appropriate memories. Journal
of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 46–57.
De Jongh, A., Ten Broeke, E., & Renssen, M. R. (1999).
Treatment of specific phobias with eye movement
desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Protocol,
empirical status, and conceptual issues. Journal of
Anxiety Disorders, 13, 69–85.
Günter, R. W., & Bodner, G. E. (2008). How eye move-
ments affect unpleasant memories: Support for a work-
ing memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy,
46, 913–931.
Shapiro, F. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and repro-
cessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures. New
York: Guilford Press.
Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and repro-
cessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures (2nd
ed.). New York: Guilford Press.
Shapiro, F. (2002). Paradigms, processing, and personality
development. In F. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR as an integra-
tive psychotherapy approach: Experts of diverse orientations
explore the paradigm prism (pp. 3–26). Washington, DC:
American Psychological Association.
Shapiro, F. (2006). EMDR and new notes on adaptive infor-
mation processing: Case formulation principles, scripts
and worksheets. Camden, CT: EMDR Humanitarian
Assistance Programs. Available from http://www.
emdrhap.org
Solomon,R.M.,&Shapiro,F.(2008).EMDRandtheadaptive
information processing model: Potential mechanisms of
change. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 315–325.
Ten Broeke, E., De Jongh, A., & Oppenheim, H. (2008).
Praktijkboek EMDR: Casusconceptualisatie en specifieke
patiëntengroepen [Practice book EMDR: Case concep-
tualization and specific patients groups]. Amsterdam:
Harcourt.
Acknowledgment. The authors are highly thankful to Dr.
Francine Shapiro for her thoughtful comments and valu-
able suggestions.
Correspondence regarding this article should be directed
to Ad De Jongh, Department of Behavioral Sciences,
Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Louwesweg
1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: a.de.
jongh@acta.nl
View publication statsView publication stats

More Related Content

What's hot

Emdr Presentation
Emdr PresentationEmdr Presentation
Emdr PresentationJayFellers
 
TREATING ADULT PTSD – Exposure Therapy and Holistic Presentation
TREATING ADULT PTSD – Exposure Therapy and Holistic PresentationTREATING ADULT PTSD – Exposure Therapy and Holistic Presentation
TREATING ADULT PTSD – Exposure Therapy and Holistic PresentationKatherine French-Ewing (LION)
 
Mode Deactivation Therapy A Brief Review.
Mode Deactivation Therapy A Brief Review.Mode Deactivation Therapy A Brief Review.
Mode Deactivation Therapy A Brief Review.Corliss Crawford-Bayles
 
EMDR & Mindfulness: Interventions for Trauma, Anxiety, Panic, and Mood
EMDR & Mindfulness: Interventions for Trauma, Anxiety, Panic, and Mood EMDR & Mindfulness: Interventions for Trauma, Anxiety, Panic, and Mood
EMDR & Mindfulness: Interventions for Trauma, Anxiety, Panic, and Mood Jamie Marich
 
Is IPT time limited psychodynamic psychotherapy? (Markovitz et al, 1998)
Is IPT time limited psychodynamic psychotherapy? (Markovitz et al, 1998)Is IPT time limited psychodynamic psychotherapy? (Markovitz et al, 1998)
Is IPT time limited psychodynamic psychotherapy? (Markovitz et al, 1998)Sharon
 
ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF SOMATIC EXPERIENCING FOR REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF ANXIE...
ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF SOMATIC EXPERIENCING FOR REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF ANXIE...ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF SOMATIC EXPERIENCING FOR REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF ANXIE...
ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF SOMATIC EXPERIENCING FOR REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF ANXIE...Michael Changaris
 
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Maire Riis: Emdr and children
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Maire Riis: Emdr and childrenRiskilaste konverents 2012: Maire Riis: Emdr and children
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Maire Riis: Emdr and childrenSotsiaalministeerium
 
Somatic Experiencing - Savera Noriega (TouchStudio) op CoachCafé Gent
Somatic Experiencing - Savera Noriega (TouchStudio) op CoachCafé GentSomatic Experiencing - Savera Noriega (TouchStudio) op CoachCafé Gent
Somatic Experiencing - Savera Noriega (TouchStudio) op CoachCafé GentYourCoach BVBA
 
Therapy With The Traumatized
Therapy With The TraumatizedTherapy With The Traumatized
Therapy With The Traumatizedchradgls
 
Spirituality And Resilience In Trauma Victims
Spirituality And  Resilience In  Trauma  VictimsSpirituality And  Resilience In  Trauma  Victims
Spirituality And Resilience In Trauma VictimsMasa Nakata
 
Interpersonal Psychotherapy. A Guide To The Basics. (Stuart, 2006)
Interpersonal Psychotherapy. A Guide To The Basics. (Stuart, 2006)Interpersonal Psychotherapy. A Guide To The Basics. (Stuart, 2006)
Interpersonal Psychotherapy. A Guide To The Basics. (Stuart, 2006)Sharon
 
Emdr basics
Emdr basicsEmdr basics
Emdr basicsdawnp15
 
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Tonje Holt: Treating traumatized children
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Tonje Holt: Treating traumatized childrenRiskilaste konverents 2012: Tonje Holt: Treating traumatized children
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Tonje Holt: Treating traumatized childrenSotsiaalministeerium
 
Preventing Cf And Promoting Cs Apa 2011
Preventing Cf And Promoting Cs Apa 2011Preventing Cf And Promoting Cs Apa 2011
Preventing Cf And Promoting Cs Apa 2011EleanorPardess
 

What's hot (19)

Lecture 8 accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (adep)
Lecture 8 accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (adep)Lecture 8 accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (adep)
Lecture 8 accelerated experiential dynamic psychotherapy (adep)
 
Emdr Presentation
Emdr PresentationEmdr Presentation
Emdr Presentation
 
TREATING ADULT PTSD – Exposure Therapy and Holistic Presentation
TREATING ADULT PTSD – Exposure Therapy and Holistic PresentationTREATING ADULT PTSD – Exposure Therapy and Holistic Presentation
TREATING ADULT PTSD – Exposure Therapy and Holistic Presentation
 
Mode Deactivation Therapy A Brief Review.
Mode Deactivation Therapy A Brief Review.Mode Deactivation Therapy A Brief Review.
Mode Deactivation Therapy A Brief Review.
 
EMDR & Mindfulness: Interventions for Trauma, Anxiety, Panic, and Mood
EMDR & Mindfulness: Interventions for Trauma, Anxiety, Panic, and Mood EMDR & Mindfulness: Interventions for Trauma, Anxiety, Panic, and Mood
EMDR & Mindfulness: Interventions for Trauma, Anxiety, Panic, and Mood
 
Is IPT time limited psychodynamic psychotherapy? (Markovitz et al, 1998)
Is IPT time limited psychodynamic psychotherapy? (Markovitz et al, 1998)Is IPT time limited psychodynamic psychotherapy? (Markovitz et al, 1998)
Is IPT time limited psychodynamic psychotherapy? (Markovitz et al, 1998)
 
ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF SOMATIC EXPERIENCING FOR REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF ANXIE...
ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF SOMATIC EXPERIENCING FOR REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF ANXIE...ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF SOMATIC EXPERIENCING FOR REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF ANXIE...
ASSESSING THE EFFICACY OF SOMATIC EXPERIENCING FOR REDUCING SYMPTOMS OF ANXIE...
 
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Maire Riis: Emdr and children
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Maire Riis: Emdr and childrenRiskilaste konverents 2012: Maire Riis: Emdr and children
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Maire Riis: Emdr and children
 
Somatic Experiencing - Savera Noriega (TouchStudio) op CoachCafé Gent
Somatic Experiencing - Savera Noriega (TouchStudio) op CoachCafé GentSomatic Experiencing - Savera Noriega (TouchStudio) op CoachCafé Gent
Somatic Experiencing - Savera Noriega (TouchStudio) op CoachCafé Gent
 
How is PTSD Diagnosed?
How is PTSD Diagnosed?How is PTSD Diagnosed?
How is PTSD Diagnosed?
 
Therapy With The Traumatized
Therapy With The TraumatizedTherapy With The Traumatized
Therapy With The Traumatized
 
Psychodynamic Formulation Revised
Psychodynamic Formulation RevisedPsychodynamic Formulation Revised
Psychodynamic Formulation Revised
 
Spirituality And Resilience In Trauma Victims
Spirituality And  Resilience In  Trauma  VictimsSpirituality And  Resilience In  Trauma  Victims
Spirituality And Resilience In Trauma Victims
 
Interpersonal Psychotherapy. A Guide To The Basics. (Stuart, 2006)
Interpersonal Psychotherapy. A Guide To The Basics. (Stuart, 2006)Interpersonal Psychotherapy. A Guide To The Basics. (Stuart, 2006)
Interpersonal Psychotherapy. A Guide To The Basics. (Stuart, 2006)
 
Emdr basics
Emdr basicsEmdr basics
Emdr basics
 
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Tonje Holt: Treating traumatized children
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Tonje Holt: Treating traumatized childrenRiskilaste konverents 2012: Tonje Holt: Treating traumatized children
Riskilaste konverents 2012: Tonje Holt: Treating traumatized children
 
Investigation of Horticultural Therapy as a Complementary Treatment for Post ...
Investigation of Horticultural Therapy as a Complementary Treatment for Post ...Investigation of Horticultural Therapy as a Complementary Treatment for Post ...
Investigation of Horticultural Therapy as a Complementary Treatment for Post ...
 
What is Anxiety Disorders?
What is Anxiety Disorders?What is Anxiety Disorders?
What is Anxiety Disorders?
 
Preventing Cf And Promoting Cs Apa 2011
Preventing Cf And Promoting Cs Apa 2011Preventing Cf And Promoting Cs Apa 2011
Preventing Cf And Promoting Cs Apa 2011
 

Similar to Two method approach: A case conceptualization Model in the context of EMDR Jongh

Self-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease Barbara Romero1,.docx
Self-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease Barbara Romero1,.docxSelf-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease Barbara Romero1,.docx
Self-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease Barbara Romero1,.docxtcarolyn
 
Kreim Ally Research Paper
Kreim Ally Research PaperKreim Ally Research Paper
Kreim Ally Research PaperAlly Kreim
 
Full Epub The Comprehensive Resource Model Effective therapeutic techniques f...
Full Epub The Comprehensive Resource Model Effective therapeutic techniques f...Full Epub The Comprehensive Resource Model Effective therapeutic techniques f...
Full Epub The Comprehensive Resource Model Effective therapeutic techniques f...tettstederterteter
 
Psy360 emdr therapy 2011
Psy360 emdr therapy 2011Psy360 emdr therapy 2011
Psy360 emdr therapy 2011jocasill
 
EMDR Powerpoint Presentation
EMDR Powerpoint PresentationEMDR Powerpoint Presentation
EMDR Powerpoint Presentationmccmarc
 

Similar to Two method approach: A case conceptualization Model in the context of EMDR Jongh (14)

EMI Introduction
EMI IntroductionEMI Introduction
EMI Introduction
 
Self-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease Barbara Romero1,.docx
Self-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease Barbara Romero1,.docxSelf-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease Barbara Romero1,.docx
Self-maintenance therapy in Alzheimer’s disease Barbara Romero1,.docx
 
Kreim Ally Research Paper
Kreim Ally Research PaperKreim Ally Research Paper
Kreim Ally Research Paper
 
Full Epub The Comprehensive Resource Model Effective therapeutic techniques f...
Full Epub The Comprehensive Resource Model Effective therapeutic techniques f...Full Epub The Comprehensive Resource Model Effective therapeutic techniques f...
Full Epub The Comprehensive Resource Model Effective therapeutic techniques f...
 
Cognitive Biases Essay
Cognitive Biases EssayCognitive Biases Essay
Cognitive Biases Essay
 
Chapter 9 powerpoint
Chapter 9 powerpointChapter 9 powerpoint
Chapter 9 powerpoint
 
Psy360 emdr therapy 2011
Psy360 emdr therapy 2011Psy360 emdr therapy 2011
Psy360 emdr therapy 2011
 
EMDRreferal2016
EMDRreferal2016EMDRreferal2016
EMDRreferal2016
 
Emd rreferal2016
Emd rreferal2016Emd rreferal2016
Emd rreferal2016
 
Atr overview1
Atr overview1Atr overview1
Atr overview1
 
EMDR Powerpoint Presentation
EMDR Powerpoint PresentationEMDR Powerpoint Presentation
EMDR Powerpoint Presentation
 
Common Theories.pptx
Common Theories.pptxCommon Theories.pptx
Common Theories.pptx
 
Introduction To Work Psychology
Introduction To Work PsychologyIntroduction To Work Psychology
Introduction To Work Psychology
 
Emdr final
Emdr finalEmdr final
Emdr final
 

More from Espaço da Mente

Ebook - Trauma Complexo - EMDR Abordagem Progressiva
Ebook - Trauma Complexo - EMDR Abordagem ProgressivaEbook - Trauma Complexo - EMDR Abordagem Progressiva
Ebook - Trauma Complexo - EMDR Abordagem ProgressivaEspaço da Mente
 
Conceitualização de Casos Complexos
Conceitualização de Casos ComplexosConceitualização de Casos Complexos
Conceitualização de Casos ComplexosEspaço da Mente
 
Protocolo Casal com Modelo Testemunha Compassiva - Dra Tina Zampieri
Protocolo Casal com Modelo Testemunha Compassiva - Dra Tina ZampieriProtocolo Casal com Modelo Testemunha Compassiva - Dra Tina Zampieri
Protocolo Casal com Modelo Testemunha Compassiva - Dra Tina ZampieriEspaço da Mente
 
Protocolo Estimulação Conjugada - Ficha de Trabalho - Dra Tina Zampieri
Protocolo Estimulação Conjugada - Ficha de Trabalho - Dra Tina ZampieriProtocolo Estimulação Conjugada - Ficha de Trabalho - Dra Tina Zampieri
Protocolo Estimulação Conjugada - Ficha de Trabalho - Dra Tina ZampieriEspaço da Mente
 
Caixa de areia - Slides curso Caixa de Areia e EMDR
Caixa de areia  - Slides curso Caixa de Areia e EMDRCaixa de areia  - Slides curso Caixa de Areia e EMDR
Caixa de areia - Slides curso Caixa de Areia e EMDREspaço da Mente
 
DES - Dissociative Expériences Scale
DES - Dissociative Expériences ScaleDES - Dissociative Expériences Scale
DES - Dissociative Expériences ScaleEspaço da Mente
 
Ebook Caixa de Areia por Lucimara
Ebook Caixa de Areia por LucimaraEbook Caixa de Areia por Lucimara
Ebook Caixa de Areia por LucimaraEspaço da Mente
 
Regulacao emocional - Material de Apoio
Regulacao emocional - Material de ApoioRegulacao emocional - Material de Apoio
Regulacao emocional - Material de ApoioEspaço da Mente
 
A comunicação no universo digital
A comunicação no universo digitalA comunicação no universo digital
A comunicação no universo digitalEspaço da Mente
 
Ebook EMDR via Web - ANDRÉ MONTEIRO PhD
Ebook EMDR via Web - ANDRÉ MONTEIRO PhDEbook EMDR via Web - ANDRÉ MONTEIRO PhD
Ebook EMDR via Web - ANDRÉ MONTEIRO PhDEspaço da Mente
 
O poder das crenças - Material de apoio
O poder das crenças - Material de apoioO poder das crenças - Material de apoio
O poder das crenças - Material de apoioEspaço da Mente
 
Material de Apoyo - Transtornos de la Alimentación - Modulo II
Material de Apoyo - Transtornos de la Alimentación - Modulo IIMaterial de Apoyo - Transtornos de la Alimentación - Modulo II
Material de Apoyo - Transtornos de la Alimentación - Modulo IIEspaço da Mente
 
Plano de Tratamento e Conceitualização de Casos - Ebook
Plano de Tratamento e Conceitualização de Casos - Ebook Plano de Tratamento e Conceitualização de Casos - Ebook
Plano de Tratamento e Conceitualização de Casos - Ebook Espaço da Mente
 
Questionário ACE - Adverse Childhood Experiences - Formação EMDR
Questionário ACE - Adverse Childhood Experiences - Formação EMDRQuestionário ACE - Adverse Childhood Experiences - Formação EMDR
Questionário ACE - Adverse Childhood Experiences - Formação EMDREspaço da Mente
 
Fluxograma da ficha de trabalho - Formação em EMDR
Fluxograma da ficha de trabalho - Formação em EMDRFluxograma da ficha de trabalho - Formação em EMDR
Fluxograma da ficha de trabalho - Formação em EMDREspaço da Mente
 
Ficha de trabalho e avaliação de reprocessamento - Formação em EMDR
Ficha de trabalho e avaliação de reprocessamento - Formação em EMDRFicha de trabalho e avaliação de reprocessamento - Formação em EMDR
Ficha de trabalho e avaliação de reprocessamento - Formação em EMDREspaço da Mente
 
Protocolo EMD - Etapas do Procedimento
Protocolo EMD - Etapas do ProcedimentoProtocolo EMD - Etapas do Procedimento
Protocolo EMD - Etapas do ProcedimentoEspaço da Mente
 
Circulo Ikigai por Renata Mayumi Onogi - Curso Online Ikigai
Circulo Ikigai por Renata Mayumi Onogi - Curso Online IkigaiCirculo Ikigai por Renata Mayumi Onogi - Curso Online Ikigai
Circulo Ikigai por Renata Mayumi Onogi - Curso Online IkigaiEspaço da Mente
 

More from Espaço da Mente (20)

Ebook - Trauma Complexo - EMDR Abordagem Progressiva
Ebook - Trauma Complexo - EMDR Abordagem ProgressivaEbook - Trauma Complexo - EMDR Abordagem Progressiva
Ebook - Trauma Complexo - EMDR Abordagem Progressiva
 
Conceitualização de Casos Complexos
Conceitualização de Casos ComplexosConceitualização de Casos Complexos
Conceitualização de Casos Complexos
 
Protocolo Casal com Modelo Testemunha Compassiva - Dra Tina Zampieri
Protocolo Casal com Modelo Testemunha Compassiva - Dra Tina ZampieriProtocolo Casal com Modelo Testemunha Compassiva - Dra Tina Zampieri
Protocolo Casal com Modelo Testemunha Compassiva - Dra Tina Zampieri
 
Protocolo Estimulação Conjugada - Ficha de Trabalho - Dra Tina Zampieri
Protocolo Estimulação Conjugada - Ficha de Trabalho - Dra Tina ZampieriProtocolo Estimulação Conjugada - Ficha de Trabalho - Dra Tina Zampieri
Protocolo Estimulação Conjugada - Ficha de Trabalho - Dra Tina Zampieri
 
Caixa de areia - Slides curso Caixa de Areia e EMDR
Caixa de areia  - Slides curso Caixa de Areia e EMDRCaixa de areia  - Slides curso Caixa de Areia e EMDR
Caixa de areia - Slides curso Caixa de Areia e EMDR
 
DES - Dissociative Expériences Scale
DES - Dissociative Expériences ScaleDES - Dissociative Expériences Scale
DES - Dissociative Expériences Scale
 
Ebook Caixa de Areia por Lucimara
Ebook Caixa de Areia por LucimaraEbook Caixa de Areia por Lucimara
Ebook Caixa de Areia por Lucimara
 
Regulacao emocional - Material de Apoio
Regulacao emocional - Material de ApoioRegulacao emocional - Material de Apoio
Regulacao emocional - Material de Apoio
 
Ebook Via WEB
Ebook Via WEBEbook Via WEB
Ebook Via WEB
 
A comunicação no universo digital
A comunicação no universo digitalA comunicação no universo digital
A comunicação no universo digital
 
Ebook EMDR via Web - ANDRÉ MONTEIRO PhD
Ebook EMDR via Web - ANDRÉ MONTEIRO PhDEbook EMDR via Web - ANDRÉ MONTEIRO PhD
Ebook EMDR via Web - ANDRÉ MONTEIRO PhD
 
O poder das crenças - Material de apoio
O poder das crenças - Material de apoioO poder das crenças - Material de apoio
O poder das crenças - Material de apoio
 
Ebook Estados de Ego
Ebook Estados de EgoEbook Estados de Ego
Ebook Estados de Ego
 
Material de Apoyo - Transtornos de la Alimentación - Modulo II
Material de Apoyo - Transtornos de la Alimentación - Modulo IIMaterial de Apoyo - Transtornos de la Alimentación - Modulo II
Material de Apoyo - Transtornos de la Alimentación - Modulo II
 
Plano de Tratamento e Conceitualização de Casos - Ebook
Plano de Tratamento e Conceitualização de Casos - Ebook Plano de Tratamento e Conceitualização de Casos - Ebook
Plano de Tratamento e Conceitualização de Casos - Ebook
 
Questionário ACE - Adverse Childhood Experiences - Formação EMDR
Questionário ACE - Adverse Childhood Experiences - Formação EMDRQuestionário ACE - Adverse Childhood Experiences - Formação EMDR
Questionário ACE - Adverse Childhood Experiences - Formação EMDR
 
Fluxograma da ficha de trabalho - Formação em EMDR
Fluxograma da ficha de trabalho - Formação em EMDRFluxograma da ficha de trabalho - Formação em EMDR
Fluxograma da ficha de trabalho - Formação em EMDR
 
Ficha de trabalho e avaliação de reprocessamento - Formação em EMDR
Ficha de trabalho e avaliação de reprocessamento - Formação em EMDRFicha de trabalho e avaliação de reprocessamento - Formação em EMDR
Ficha de trabalho e avaliação de reprocessamento - Formação em EMDR
 
Protocolo EMD - Etapas do Procedimento
Protocolo EMD - Etapas do ProcedimentoProtocolo EMD - Etapas do Procedimento
Protocolo EMD - Etapas do Procedimento
 
Circulo Ikigai por Renata Mayumi Onogi - Curso Online Ikigai
Circulo Ikigai por Renata Mayumi Onogi - Curso Online IkigaiCirculo Ikigai por Renata Mayumi Onogi - Curso Online Ikigai
Circulo Ikigai por Renata Mayumi Onogi - Curso Online Ikigai
 

Recently uploaded

4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptxmary850239
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressMaria Paula Aroca
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxMadhavi Dharankar
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesVijayaLaxmi84
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Celine George
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxryandux83rd
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6Vanessa Camilleri
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineCeline George
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Association for Project Management
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfChristalin Nelson
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsArubSultan
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxAnupam32727
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...DhatriParmar
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceDr Vijay Vishwakarma
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfPrerana Jadhav
 

Recently uploaded (20)

4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
4.9.24 School Desegregation in Boston.pptx
 
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian CongressThe Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
The Emergence of Legislative Behavior in the Colombian Congress
 
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
CHUYÊN ĐỀ ÔN THEO CÂU CHO HỌC SINH LỚP 12 ĐỂ ĐẠT ĐIỂM 5+ THI TỐT NGHIỆP THPT ...
 
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
BÀI TẬP BỔ TRỢ TIẾNG ANH 8 - I-LEARN SMART WORLD - CẢ NĂM - CÓ FILE NGHE (BẢN...
 
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptxObjectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
Objectives n learning outcoms - MD 20240404.pptx
 
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
Introduction to Research ,Need for research, Need for design of Experiments, ...
 
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their usesSulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
Sulphonamides, mechanisms and their uses
 
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
Tree View Decoration Attribute in the Odoo 17
 
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
Mattingly "AI & Prompt Design" - Introduction to Machine Learning"
 
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptxEmployablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
Employablity presentation and Future Career Plan.pptx
 
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdfDiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
DiskStorage_BasicFileStructuresandHashing.pdf
 
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
ICS 2208 Lecture Slide Notes for Topic 6
 
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command LineHow to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
How to Uninstall a Module in Odoo 17 Using Command Line
 
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
Team Lead Succeed – Helping you and your team achieve high-performance teamwo...
 
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdfDBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
DBMSArchitecture_QueryProcessingandOptimization.pdf
 
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristicsShark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
Shark introduction Morphology and its behaviour characteristics
 
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptxCLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
CLASSIFICATION OF ANTI - CANCER DRUGS.pptx
 
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
Blowin' in the Wind of Caste_ Bob Dylan's Song as a Catalyst for Social Justi...
 
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional IntelligenceUnit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
Unit :1 Basics of Professional Intelligence
 
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdfNarcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
Narcotic and Non Narcotic Analgesic..pdf
 

Two method approach: A case conceptualization Model in the context of EMDR Jongh

  • 1. See discussions, stats, and author profiles for this publication at: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/233508048 Two Method Approach: A Case Conceptualization Model in the Context of EMDR Article  in  Journal of EMDR Practice and Research · February 2010 DOI: 10.1891/1933-3196.4.1.12 CITATIONS 29 READS 1,607 3 authors, including: Some of the authors of this publication are also working on these related projects: cost effect View project Treating Trauma In Psychosis View project Ad de Jongh University of Amsterdam 381 PUBLICATIONS   4,669 CITATIONS    SEE PROFILE Erik ten Broeke 86 PUBLICATIONS   656 CITATIONS    SEE PROFILE All content following this page was uploaded by Ad de Jongh on 26 May 2019. The user has requested enhancement of the downloaded file.
  • 2. 12 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 © 2010 EMDR International Association DOI: 10.1891/1933-3196.4.1.12 W ith the help of EMDR, vividness and emo- tionality of unpleasant mental representa- tions, which resulted from one or more traumatic events, can be reduced (Bisson et al., 2007; Günter & Bodner, 2008). This notion, that these observations are by-products of a comprehen- sive reprocessing, is the basis of Shapiro’s Adaptive Information Processing (AIP) model (Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006), a framework that is considered to be helpful to therapists when developing a problem for- mulation in terms of a relationship between memo- ries of significant events on one hand, clients’ current symptoms on the other hand, and the use of EMDR to resolve these memories (Solomon & Shapiro, 2008). An underlying principle of this model is that negative events leave traces in the neural network of an individual in such a way that these cause a variety of symptoms, including dysfunctional beliefs about oneself (e.g., “I am a bad person”) or the world (“I am in danger”). The unprocessed and dysfunctionally stored memory information is responsible for symp- toms that may vary from the reliving of past experi- ences to fears, depressive states, sleep problems, or sexual dysfunction. The basic assumption of the AIP model is that by accessing the dysfunctionally stored memories and stimulating the innate processing sys- tem, symptoms diminish (Shapiro, 2001, 2002, 2006; Solomon & Shapiro, 2008). Should a therapist, therefore, in the context of their treatment choose to use EMDR to reduce this disturbance, the therapy will focus on reshaping the significant memories that underpin the symptoms from which the client suffers. In practice, this means that before commencing treatment, the therapist will draw up a coherent theory or hypothesis regarding the relationship between complaints and a (series of) tar- get memory/memories to be treated with EMDR. By formulating an explicit hypothesis regarding the rela- tionship between memories and symptoms, the thera- pist gives direction to the treatment. This concerns the identification—and subsequent processing—of crucial memories, or memories of so-called touchstone events. This article outlines a comprehensive approach aimed at identifying those memories that after having been reprocessed will result in a significant reduction of symptoms and, by extension, in an improvement of general functioning and the quality of life of the client. In other words, its purpose is to help therapists Two Method Approach: A Case Conceptualization Model in the Context of EMDR Ad de Jongh University of Amsterdam and Vrije Universiteit, Amsterdam, The Netherlands Erik ten Broeke Steven Meijer Visie, Deventer, The Netherlands This article outlines a comprehensive model that helps to identify crucial target memories for EMDR treat- ment. The “Two Method Approach” can be used for conceptualization and treatment implementation for a broad spectrum of symptoms and problems, other than those related to PTSD per se. The model consists of two types of case conceptualizations. The First Method deals with symptoms whereby memories of the eti- ological and/or aggravating events can be meaningfully specified on a time line. It is primarily aimed at the conceptualization and treatment of DSM-IV-TR Axis I disorders. The Second Method is used to identify mem- ories that underlie patients’ so-called dysfunctional core beliefs. This method is primarily used to treat more severe forms of pathology, such as severe social phobia, complex PTSD, and/or personality disorders. The two methods of case conceptualization are explained step by step in detail and are illustrated by case examples. Keywords: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing; EMDR; case conceptualization; model
  • 3. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 13 Two Method Approach conceptualize a case in such a way as to “make it suit- able” for treatment using EMDR’s basic protocol. The “Two Method Approach” may be used for the con- ceptualization and implementation of treatment for a broad spectrum of symptoms and problems other than those related to posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) per se. In the Netherlands, over the past 5 years, a great deal of clinical experience with positive outcomes has been gathered using this model and its methods, and it has become the backbone and point of departure of most EMDR treatments (Ten Broeke, De Jongh, & Oppenheim, 2008). Case Conceptualization in EMDR As previously noted, EMDR treatment is based upon the AIP precepts that the cause of dysfunction (e.g., affect, sensations, behaviors, beliefs) are the unpro- cessed memories of etiological events. Therefore, after a careful delineation of current dysfunctional behav- iors, emotions, negative cognitions, and other specific symptoms, the client is queried regarding each symp- tom:Whatwastheoriginaloccurrenceormostdisturb- ing primary event, modeling, lesson, and so forth that represents the genesis of the dysfunction? What were the circumstances—including interactional, social, or family systems factors—at the time of the first event? A useful question is, “When was the first time you can remember feeling this way?” (Shapiro, 2001, p. 106). In the literature on EMDR, an “affect scan” (Shapiro, 1995) or a variant procedure that is called the float-back technique (Browning, 1999) is also recom- mended to identify relevant targets for EMDR treat- ment. “This procedure may be used when the client is unable to identify easily an earlier target for process- ing” (Shapiro, 2001, p. 433). This technique is based on the principles of the affect bridge or the somatic bridge, which are also employed in hypnotherapy. It is a form of free association starting from the present emotional experiences of the client in which general instructions are given to the client. The basic assumption is that the client’s neural network itself will indicate, based on affective affinities, what target memory or touch- stone event is relevant. The client is requested to call to mind a situation during which the symptoms or prob- lems frequently occur (e.g., a current situation that generated fear) and to identify a corresponding image, an negative cognition (NC), and an emotion. Then, the client is asked to go back to the time and place of a past, relevant event during which he or she felt or thought the same. This is formulated as follows: Now, please bring up that picture of _____and those negative words _____ (repeat client’s disturbing image and negative cognition), notice what feelings are coming up for you, where you are feeling them in your body, and just let your mind float back to an earlier time in your life— don’t search for anything—just let your mind float back and tell me the first scene that comes to mind where you had similar: Thoughts of _____ (repeat negative cognition), feelings of _____ (repeat negative emotion), in your _____ (repeat places in body where client reported feelings). (Shapiro, 2001, pp. 433–434) The float-back technique utilizes the following step by step procedure: 1. “When was the last time you felt this way?” 2. “Hold the image that comes to mind in your thoughts and any thoughts which enter your mind in connection with this.” 3. “Where do you feel this in your body?” 4. “Hold on to the image and the feelings and allow your thoughts to transport you back to the first time that you felt this way.” When the client encounters a disturbing memory, an image and NC/PC are subsequently identified. Next, a regular EMDR procedure (basic protocol) is performed. Although clinical experience has demonstrated that the float-back technique is valuable, it is a rela- tively nonspecific method. Particularly because it is not clear to which extent the memories found using this method are actually important or meaningful enough to be reprocessed. In our opinion, the Two Method Approach to be described hereafter is a valuable expansion of the direct questioning traditionally used in EMDR (Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006) and may be used in combi- nation with other strategies including the float-back technique. It has the advantage that it is a structured procedure, which is more likely to generate eas- ily testable hypotheses concerning the relationship between events and clients’ symptoms, preventing the therapist from randomly reprocessing targets presented. To this end, the Two Method Approach provides the therapist insight into what needs to be done and why, and gives the therapist opportunities to re-evaluate and modify the treatment plan, should the treatment not deliver the desired results. Basically, the two forms of questioning consist of two types of case conceptualizations. The First Method of the Two Method Approach deals with symptoms of which memories of the etiological (and aggravating) events can be meaningfully formu- lated on a time line. It is primarily aimed toward the
  • 4. 14 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 De Jongh, Ten Broeke, and Meijer conceptualization and treatment of Axis I disorders, including simple PTSD. This method is in fact an elaboration of the standard EMDR protocol (Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006) and the phobia protocol (De Jongh & Ten Broeke, 2007; De Jongh, Ten Broeke, & Renssen, 1999; Shapiro, 1995, 2001). The Second Method of the approach, in contrast, is used, among other things, to identify memories that in some way form the groundwork under the client’s so-called dysfunctional (core) beliefs. It will primarily be used to treat complex forms of pathology such as complex PTSD and/or personality disorders in which core beliefs are believed to be central (Butler, Brown, Beck, & Grisham, 2002). However, in certain cases, this approach may also be preferable in the treatment of Axis I disorders, such as depression and generalized social anxiety disorders, especially when a disturbed self-image plays a significant role (Shapiro, 2006). These two methods of case conceptualization are out- lined and explained step by step in detail below. First Method: From Symptoms to Targets The First Method begins with making an inventory of the existing symptoms and presenting problems (Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006). Examples include: • “I can’t sleep, because I’m having terrible night- mares about ….” • “These days I cry when I see a child on television.” • “I don’t have any energy anymore, I’m always exhausted.” • “I don’t dare fly in a plane.” A client may of course have more than one type of symptom (intrusive thoughts, sleep problems, anxiety, panic attacks, avoidance behavior, depressed moods, substance abuse, etc.), all of which may require treatment. The severity of the disorder expe- rienced by the client will, however, strongly depend on the amount of—and relationships between—the various symptoms and symptom clusters. Therefore, the target memory, which is chosen to be treated prior to others, is determined by the severity of the symptoms or the disorder. 1. Make an inventory of the symptoms or complaints. Prior to commencing treatment, it is important to be aware that different symptoms may relate to different events and therefore to different targets. Of course, it is also possible that different symp- toms belong to one single disorder, with a specific etiological history. 2. Decide which symptom (cluster) should be treated first. Once the various symptom clusters have been identified, treatment can focus on the symptom or cluster that is causing the most trouble. That is why the first step is making an inventory of the different symptom clusters. “Looking at this list, which of these complaints would have to disap- pear from your life first before you could be feel- ing good again?” 3. Identify the etiological and subsequent aggravat- ing events. The next step is to establish a relationship between the symptoms and the so-called etiological experi- ence responsible for the onset of the client’s symp- toms and which fuel the complaints. Some clients will indicate that they do not know exactly which event started their problems. This does not need to pose a problem since there are a variety of ways into the memory network. The goal of EMDR is to reprocess the stored memories of meaningful events in order to influence the client’s complaints. Because these stored memories by no means have to correspond completely with what actually hap- pened, the following question can be asked: “From yourperspective,whendoyoufeelthatthesesymp- toms started?” It is also possible to formulate the question in a broader fashion in order to identify various events that have contributed to the current problems (aggravating events). “From your point of view, which event or events is/are responsible for the current complaints or might have worsened them?” “Which events led to your symptoms?” In connection with this, it is important to empha- size that, in the context of a treatment with EMDR, we are not interested in the client describing the events factually, but rather narrating how the actual event is stored into memory. Therefore, the question should not be “What exactly happened?” but rather “I would like to hear from you how you remember this event/is stored in your mind.” An important goal of the therapist is, therefore, to identify those events after which the complaints manifested themselves for the first time. It should be noted, however, that it is also important not to simply take the client’s answer for granted, but to check whether or not he might have already had, for example, this anxiety before the first event. In doing so, the therapist should therefore try and find a memory that even better explains the com- plaints. To this end, the following question may be posed: “Are you sure that you did not already suffer from these symptoms before this event took place, even only a little bit?”
  • 5. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 15 Two Method Approach Treatment should be directed toward those memo- ries identified as having a meaningful relationship with the existing complaints, and also being emo- tionally charged in the present; that is, not feeling “neutral.” These events are subsequently arranged in a time sequence. 4. Outline the course of the complaints in time. Once an inventory of the meaningful memories has been developed, the course of the complaints should be outlined into a time sequence. This may be done by making a graph of the severity and the fluctuation of the complaints in time, in which “time” is represented on the x-axis and the “sever- ity” of symptoms on the y-axis (see Figure 1). In order to select a meaningful and important target memory, one must basically look for the “bend” or “elbow” in the curve representing a particular symptom in time. 5. In case of anxiety disorders and phobias, check for other potentially relevant memories of events. In all cases it is important to check for potential of other memories that are crucial, but may not become readily accessible when asking the ques- tions described above (Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006). However, in regard to the anxiety disorders, the current authors have found it useful if the therapist starts with conceptualizing clients’ anxiety-related problems in terms of an “if–then” relationship (see De Jongh & Ten Broeke, 2007). Here the “if” refers to the stimulus that evokes emotional disturbance (the conditioned stimulus or CS), while “then” refers to the predicted outcome, the catastrophe the client expects to happen (the unconditioned stimulus or UCS). Using the conceptualization of an if–then relationship, there are two addi- tional search strategies that can be used to iden- tify the memories of events that may have laid the foundations for the presenting problems. In the first step the stimulus is identified, for instance by asking: “Which (aspect of this) object or situa- tion is most directly responsible for your fear? (or: “What would make you instantly scared?”). The next step should focus on identifying core mem- ories pertaining to the stimulus component (e.g., injection needle, dog). A typical question referring to such memories is: “Which incident causes you to become afraid of …?” This question may give access to additional memories. Another series of questions pertains to the feared consequence. Typical catastrophe memories can be found by identifying the client’s catastrophic ideation: “What do you think will happen if you are confronted with … [stimulus]?” The next step is the identification of the memory: “When did your fear of … [catastrophe; e.g., fainting, extreme pain] begin (and when did it worsen?).” If other memories appear, these may need to be added to the time line or graph, but only if there is a “bend” in the graph. 6. Determine which memories should be repro- cessed and in which order. There are various arguments to take into account in considering which memories to reprocess first. It should be emphasized that in almost every case the memories that will be chosen first are the ones that caused the onset of the symptoms (“etiologi- cal experience”), and subsequently, the events that worsened the symptoms. 7. Identify the target and apply the basic protocol. It is now time to select the correct target image— and NC from the most relevant memory (in terms of its fueling effect on the existing symptoms): “Howdoyourememberthattraumaticexperience, beginning from the point when you feel it started to where it feels like it really ends; that is, give an outline of the whole event.” “What’s important is how you remember the event, not what actually happened.” Or simply: “What image represents the event for you?” Together with the client, the therapist selects the target image that is to be reprocessed. 8. Together with the client, re-evaluate the current symptoms and make an inventory of the remain- ing targets (back to step 1). In order to continue the treatment, in a subse- quent session, the therapist will need to determine to what extent the treatment has been successful so far. Following this, the targets which will need First panic attack Panic attack in elevator Time Severity Fear of riding elevators FIGURE 1. Outline of course and severity of the com- plaints in time as displayed by a graph representation.
  • 6. 16 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 De Jongh, Ten Broeke, and Meijer to be completed are those that have not yet been completely desensitized (Subjective Units of Distress [SUD] > 0) and those for which no PC has yet been fully installed (Validity of Cognition [VoC] < 7). Once all targets of the identified symptom clusters havebeenadequately reprocessed,a new hierarchy of these clusters will need to be made in consulta- tion with the client, including current situations that continue to be disturbing. Processing these triggers is the second part of the three-pronged protocol (Shapiro, 1995, 2001, 2006). On the basis of this, and that founded on clear arguments, the symptom cluster with the strongest (causal) relation to the client’s quality of life will need to be chosen for treatment. In effect, we are again returning to step 1. After this, a time line or graph is made after which the most meaningful events/ memories are categorized. These can be treated in future sessions. 9. Preparing the client for the future. Once the treatment reaches closure, it is often recommended to install one or more future tem- plates. This applies to all problems. By installing the future templates, a blueprint of functional reac- tions to future objects or situations is installed and can be activated or become accessible when the client is confronted with concrete stimuli of such a situation. This may include incorporating new skills, information, and knowledge to deal with new situations, as well as those that were previ- ously disturbing. In treating anxiety disorders, it is recommended to make a list of situations that are avoided or confronted with severe anxiety. The avoidance of such situations is, after all, most often the reason for commencing treatment. In addition to the installation of a future template, a video check is usually carried out with regard to the future situation (Shapiro, 2001, 2006). The purpose of this is to ascertain whether there are still ele- ments or aspects present within these types of situ- ations that might be able to prevent the client from seeking out such situations and that therefore still require directed reprocessing. In a video check, the client is asked to close his eyes and imagine a future experience from start to finish, in addition to intro- ducing some difficult elements into the situation. An Example When Joan sees her therapist for the first time, she presents herself as someone with many emotional difficulties. But after history taking and further assessment, Joan and her therapist decide that Joan’s phobia of elevators needs attention first. This condi- tion most significantly influences her present life and work because Joan refuses to ride the elevator up to her 12th floor office. In response to the question: “In your experience, when do you feel that these com- plaints started?” she answers that these problems started 2 years ago. Joan experienced a panic attack inside an elevator and from that moment she has been avoiding elevator rides. The first 2 weeks after this incident, she stayed at home sick as she did not feel able to go to work. The therapist asks: “Did you suffer from any of these symptoms before this happened?” Joan indi- cates that prior to the incident she had found it dif- ficult to make use of elevators as she was afraid of being trapped, although she still managed to do so. The therapist also asks her a question pertaining to this elevator-related fear: “When did this fear of being trapped begin?” Joan realizes that this fear started after she had had a panic attack 6 months earlier. She was home preparing for an important work presenta- tion when, suddenly, she felt an intense wave of fear. The room started spinning, and she felt like she was going to throw up and that she could not get away. Her whole body was shaking, she could not catch her breath, and her heart seemed to be pounding out of her chest. After that she had visited a general practitioner, but he could not find any somatic problem. When her fear of having a panic attack increased, her doctor prescribed her benzodiazepines. Yet, Joan had expe- rienced several of these attacks since then. The thera- pist asked Joan to draw a graph in order to outline the course of the complaints over time (see Figure 1). He also checked for other potential targets, but could not find any additional ones. For example, he inquired about what Joan would fear most when trapped inside the elevator. She responded that she would fear a panic attack so severe that she would die. However, since the question “When did your fear of dying start?” did not evoke any new memo- ries the graph did not need modification. The thera- pist selected the memory of Joan’s first panic attack as the one that needed to be reprocessed first because he postulated that this event had laid the groundwork of her fear. Next, a standard EMDR basic protocol pro- cedure was carried out. Second Method: From Core Beliefs to Targets Thus far, we have described how to understand the clients’ symptoms by drawing a time line that
  • 7. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 17 Two Method Approach contains the relevant experiences that contribute to these symptoms. However, in certain cases, the First Method may appear to be too cumbersome or even impracticable. Too many events might end up on the time line, and it is not always clear how or which to choose. This may be the case when the wealth of events has led to the development of a dominant or abstract meaning that increasingly became part of the so-called “dysfunctional” or “core beliefs” of the person (Beck, 1976). In this case, the client’s symp- tom pattern is driven by a range of memories that in turn contribute to a particular (negative) belief about how the world works and who he or she is (i.e., his or her self-image). This configuration generates affec- tive and behavioral responses, which in turn contrib- ute to new interactional experiences that appear to confirm the cognitive bias and increase the burden of the memory network as they are themselves stored in memory. In these cases, core beliefs are viewed as a primary symptom that can act as a means to orga- nize the secondary complaints (e.g., problems at work and personal relationships) and can be directly used to access the etiological and exacerbating memories that need to be processed (Shapiro, 2001, 2006). Particularly, when we are trying to change a per- son’s core beliefs it is reasonable to assume that these came into being under the influence of etiological and subsequent learning experiences. Because many different kinds of events have contributed to the core belief and generate behavioral and affective responses that are consistent with the dominant belief, rather than asking about relevant memories, it is more effi- cient to use the belief to identify the memories to be processed. In other words, if the therapist’s hypoth- esis is that the problems are largely consistent with certain predominant dysfunctional beliefs that help define the psychopathology, the therapist may be bet- ter off choosing the so-called Second Method. The Second Method involves the following: 1. Choosing the dysfunctional belief that is consis- tent with the client’s problems 2. Identifying experiences that have led to the for- mation of and perpetuation of this belief and (therefore)—so to speak “prove” that the belief is true 3. “Discredit” this “evidence” with EMDR. Similar to when one “Googles” something, when applying the Second Method, the therapist is not ordering relevant events chronologically, but is instead selecting memories on the basis of relevance in terms of the credibility of the respective belief. Following the analogy with Google, the relevant dysfunctional belief is the keyword used to find the relevant experiences and the client’s learning history is the World Wide Web. Next, the most important pieces of “evidence” in support of the beliefs are dis- mantled, one by one. So-Called Evidence in the Second Method In the terminology of the Second Method of EMDR, reference is made to “evidence.” We are obviously not talking about actual evidence, but rather, evidence which the client perceives as valid. Precisely because we are dealing with past experiences, from which the client falsely derives the conclusion that these still prove today that he is, for example, worthless, EMDR makes it possible to re-evaluate the present meaning of those experiences. It should be noted that, conceptually, what we are talking about are experi- ences which are current evidence for the “truth” of the relevant belief. The therapist therefore does not ask: “When did you have the feeling that you were worthless?” But rather: “Which experiences from the past do you feel prove to you even now that you are worthless?” or: “What have you experienced in your life that still proves to you that you are worthless?” Rigid dysfunctional beliefs usually indicate that there are more than a few relevant events or expe- riences. In fact, there will usually be an extensive range of experiences and events, in general begin- ning in the client’s childhood and running through their entire life. If the damaging experiences were of an extreme nature—and took place in the client’s childhood—one may often assume that there will be more than “only” one dysfunctional core belief. This is especially the case in complex PTSD or personality disorders. In any event, the therapist must help the client to make a useful selection from all of the memories that contribute to the credibility of the dysfunctional, problematic beliefs. Experience shows that an initial choice of five of the most relevant experiences is usu- ally enough material to start off with. The criterion with regard to selection is the (strength of the) evi- dence for the relevant belief: “From all of the experi- ences you feel prove to you that you are worthless, select five that provide the strongest evidence at this moment.” This question can be posed directly to the client during a therapy session, but one must keep in mind that carrying out such a “Google search” on the spot will be quite a task, both emotionally and cogni- tively, for the client. If the client is unable to do this,
  • 8. 18 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 De Jongh, Ten Broeke, and Meijer or becomes too overwhelmed, then more work needs to be done in the preparatory phase, for example, sta- bilization. If the client is deemed to be extremely sta- ble and able to access disturbing memories with no problems, then it may be permissible to have them do this for homework. More concretely, the client can be asked to select five experiences, write a short essay about them, and email it to the therapist prior to the next session. TheabovementionedSecondMethodstrategywas developed in order to expand the traditional types of questions used to arrive at relevant memories that may then be treated using EMDR. Nevertheless, this method is not exclusively limited to (working with) EMDR and can be used for interventions of different types as well. For obvious reasons, we shall not go into these interventions further here. We will, how- ever, describe below, step by step, how the Second Method works for EMDR. 1. Identify the most relevant belief. Identify and formulate the most relevant dysfunc- tional belief. On the basis of the case conceptuali- zation, decide to treat a particular belief. Pay close attention to the relationship between the actual problems and the way the relevant beliefs reflect them. 2. Identify the “evidence.” Identify a number (3–5) of memories of actual sit- uations (events) from the person’s life in various contexts that for the client currently still “proves” that the dysfunctional belief is “true.” If it is a core belief, preferably begin with a situation as early as possible in their youth. For example, by asking: “What caused you to (start) believing/believe that you were (a) ... [core belief]?” “What ‘taught’ you that you were (a) ... [core belief]?” “Which early situation currently ‘proves’ so to speak, that you are (a) ... [core belief]?” “Think of a more recent situation that makes it clear to you that you are (a) ... [core belief]?” 3. Homework (essays). If appropriate, ask the client to do the selection of experiences as homework and write a short essay about each specific experience. 4. Identify the strongest “evidence.” Together with the client, first select (the memory of) the situation (event) that for the client is the strongest “proof” that he/she ... is (a) … (core belief). 5. Identify the “target image” (that proves strongest that …) “Which image currently proves (the strongest) that ... (fill in: core belief) … is correct?” 6. Start basic protocol with the strongest “piece of evidence.” The selection of the NC takes place in accordance with the rules of the basic protocol. If one is work- ing on a core belief (“I am ...”), then it is important to remember that the NC may not necessarily have the same formulation. After all, the negative cogni- tion within EMDR is connected to the target image and is credible as soon as the image is brought up. The core belief is a general statement about oneself as a person, and may not be directly connected with a specific target image. For instance, it is pos- sible that in a case that client’s dysfunctional core belief is “I am a loser,” the NC of one of the target memories providing crucial evidence for this belief is “I am powerless.” Hence, although the NC will often be found to be in the same domain as the core belief (in most cases pertaining to any form of negative self-esteem), this should never simply be taken for granted. An Example The Second Method is illustrated by the case of a person with a negative self-image who is suffering from a depression. Frank seeks treatment for recurrent depressive episodes. In the past, he received cognitive-behav- ioral therapy (CBT) and medication, combined or not. Although Frank did recover from his depressions each time, “in the back of his mind” remained a feel- ing of darkness, and—in his own words—an inferior- ity complex. Frank feels that this inferiority complex is the cause of his recurrent depressions, not in the least because his depressions always seem to be trig- gered by experiencing failures. Both at work and at home, Frank proves to be very sensitive to criticism and he himself is his biggest and most devastating critic. At the time of seeking treatment, things are actually going rather well for him, that is why follow- ing the advice of his former therapist, he is requesting (additional) treatment with EMDR. During the first meeting, it becomes clear that Frank has believed for quite a long time now that he is a failure, this in spite of many objective successes, particularly in his work. The people around him are frequently telling him “you have everything a man could wish for” that invariably results in Frank thinking “if only they knew.” As Frank presently does not fulfill criteria of
  • 9. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 19 Two Method Approach a depression, the therapist confers with on Frank the possibility of using EMDR to work on his chronically negative self-image in general and his fixed belief that he is a failure in particular. It is decided to use the Second Method to search for relevant experiences in his past. The therapist identified Frank’s core belief (“I am a failure”). After asking “Which past situation ‘proves’ so to speak, still now, that you are a failure?” the ther- apist assessed the following memories that made it clear for Frank, on an emotional level, that he is a failure: 1. Humiliated frequently by his father in his youth 2. Bullied extensively at school 3. Missing a penalty shot in the finals of a very impor- tant soccer game 4. Fired at work 5. Severe family fights in which he was heavily criticized The therapist began to arrange the different pieces of “evidence” in terms of their order of importance. This appeared to be premature, however. The humil- iations by his father and being teased at school would seem to, at least quantitatively, belong to another order than the penalty shot, the family fight, and being fired. Consistent with the AIP model regarding etiological childhood events, Frank indicates that his father’s behavior is what most likely had the stron- gest impact on his self-image. His father never once complimented him and on various occasions publicly humiliated Frank after he had failed to carry out a task to his father’s satisfaction. Frank was asked to write a short essay about the three most humiliating experiences with his father. This supplied enough material to make a start with EMDR treatment. In the course of the planned EMDR sessions, Frank was also asked to write essays about the bullying and the other “pieces of evidence.” Frank wrote the following essay: I am 11 years old—during a weekend with my family; I am given the task of collecting wood for a big campfire. The entire afternoon, I am doing my best to find sufficient wood, a good place for the campfire, and to stack the wood in such a way that the fire will burn well. When it is finally time to light the fire, my father roughly shoves me aside and tries to light it himself. This doesn’t work, and, in front of the whole family, he begins shouting how I didn’t stack the wood right, after which he tears the Symptoms (e.g., reliving events, anxiety, avoidance) Dysfunctional core beliefs (e.g.,“I am worthless”) When did these symptoms start? Which situations/experiences “prove”that you are a…? Target memory/memories EMDR protocol Resource development and installation (RDI) Cognitive interweave (CI) Assessment Which problems are you experiencing in the present? FIGURE 2. Integration of the Two Method Model within the EMDR procedure and its various components.
  • 10. 20 Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 De Jongh, Ten Broeke, and Meijer whole thing down and makes a new pile and— with some difficulty—finally manages to light it after all. The rest of the evening, he makes belittling remarks about me as his “failure of a son,” which repeatedly makes the other chil- dren laugh. No one dares to correct my father, not even when he wonders out loud if I’m even his real son, because he can’t imagine having such a fool for a son. Starting from here, the EMDR basic protocol was carried out. Conclusion The purpose of the current questioning suggestions is to provide a tool (or “model”) that can be used to help with case conceptualizations that are aimed at treating clients with EMDR. The EMDR train- ings in the United States emphasize a broad range of case conceptualizations, particularly the use of neg- ative beliefs as the search engine. The Two Method Approach may be a useful addition, making it possi- ble to formulate hypotheses regarding which targets are essential; that is, those which, when repro- cessed, will lead to an alleviation of complaints. It also can easily be used in combination with tech- niques such as the affect scan and the float-back technique as integral parts of the EMDR approach (see Figure 2). When should one choose to use the First Method, and when should one opt for the Second Method? The two methods are both specific protocols for EMDR treatment. In fact, these are just two ways of arriving at (often the same) targets, albeit coming from a dif- ferent approach. Yet, one method may be more suit- able for some clients than for others. For people who have experienced a single traumatic experience and for many people with Axis I disorders of the DSM, the First Method will allow the relevant target mem- ories to be found more quickly. On the other hand, for those who have experienced multiple traumatic events in their youth and who as a result of this suffer from low self-esteem, the Second Method can better enable the therapist to find the crucial target memo- ries. In such cases, it would not be possible to get all of the events to fit into a time line. For example, on the one hand, there will simply be too many of them, and on the other, it will prove difficult, or even impos- sible, for the client to (chronologically) organize the memories. For these clients, it is often an impossible task to determine the causes and events that have led to the worsening of the complaints. As can be seen in Table 1, there are also other differences that might determine which method to choose. TABLE 1. First Method Versus Second Method To Consider First Method Second Method Type of problems and pathology Simple trauma and other Axis I disorders in which stored memories directly influence the discrete symptoms (anxiety and avoidance reactions, stress disorders, intrusive thoughts, mourning, sleep problems) Complex PTSD, personality disorders, and Axis I disorders characterized by self- image problems (e.g., a depression or seriously debilitating generalized social anxiety or phobia) Origin Primarily problems that started in adulthood Primarily, but not exclusively, problems that started in (early) youth Posited number of memories that require reprocessing Relatively few Many Method of target selection Targets can be selected using the time line method Targets can almost not be put on a time line due to unclear origin, fragmentation of memories, or, rather, a profusion of traumatic events and bad memories. A Google-like approach using the negative cognitions to target selection is better suited Cognitive domains (NCs) Especially control, danger, guilt, and vulnerability Particularly personal responsibility manifesting as self-esteem issues Key question “When did the complaints begin or worsen?” “Which experiences ‘prove’ so to speak, still now, that you are a ...?”
  • 11. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, Volume 4, Number 1, 2010 21 Two Method Approach ItseemsobviousthattheFirstMethodhasthemost empirical support of the two methods. The dozens of randomized effect studies in the area of PTSD sup- port the proposition that EMDR based on the First Method results in a swift reduction of complaints. Although there is as yet no empirical support that shows that the Second Method leads to a reduction of the influence of dysfunctional beliefs on the symp- toms of the client, clinical practice seems promising. The search strategies and the application of EMDR to the identified experiences can, in many cases, be utilized without problems in a more general treat- ment regime. However, it is not to be expected that the use of EMDR for reprocessing will in all cases be sufficient to reach a satisfactory result. There should always be an overall treatment plan containing the eight phases, comprehensive goals, and the addition of other types of interventions, if needed, to supply the education and experiences needed for adequate preparation and templates. Experience gained from the application of EMDR over the past years has shown that it is possible to extendtreatmentpossibilitiestoabroadvarietyofpsy- chological symptoms. Unfortunately, in many coun- tries, EMDR is still mainly advertised as a treatment method for trauma only. Yet, if it could be shown that EMDR is not exclusively a trauma therapy, but that it must be seen as an alternative treatment for many more conditions, then EMDR would be more read- ily accepted in mainstream psychotherapy approach on par with CBT. To do so however, it is necessary to expand the understanding of therapists during (and/or modify the content of) the EMDR trainings and support extensive research on the wide range of pathologies other than PTSD. References Beck, A. (1976). Cognitive therapy and emotional disorders. New York: International Universities Press. Bisson, J. I., Ehlers, A., Matthews, R., Pilling, S., Richards, D., & Turner, S. (2007). Psychological treatments for chronic post-traumatic stress disorder: Systematic review and meta-analysis. British Journal of Psychiatry, 190, 97–104. Browning, C. (1999). Floatback and float forward: Techniques for linking past, present and future. EMDRIA Newsletter, 4(3), 12, 34. Butler, A. C., Brown, G. K., Beck, A. T., & Grisham, J. R. (2002). Assessment of dysfunctional beliefs in bor- derline personality disorder. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 40, 1231–1240. De Jongh, A., & Ten Broeke, E. (2007). Treatment of spe- cific phobias with EMDR: Conceptualization and strat- egies for the selection of appropriate memories. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 1, 46–57. De Jongh, A., Ten Broeke, E., & Renssen, M. R. (1999). Treatment of specific phobias with eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR): Protocol, empirical status, and conceptual issues. Journal of Anxiety Disorders, 13, 69–85. Günter, R. W., & Bodner, G. E. (2008). How eye move- ments affect unpleasant memories: Support for a work- ing memory account. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 913–931. Shapiro, F. (1995). Eye movement desensitization and repro- cessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures. New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, F. (2001). Eye movement desensitization and repro- cessing: Basic principles, protocols, and procedures (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford Press. Shapiro, F. (2002). Paradigms, processing, and personality development. In F. Shapiro (Ed.), EMDR as an integra- tive psychotherapy approach: Experts of diverse orientations explore the paradigm prism (pp. 3–26). Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Shapiro, F. (2006). EMDR and new notes on adaptive infor- mation processing: Case formulation principles, scripts and worksheets. Camden, CT: EMDR Humanitarian Assistance Programs. Available from http://www. emdrhap.org Solomon,R.M.,&Shapiro,F.(2008).EMDRandtheadaptive information processing model: Potential mechanisms of change. Journal of EMDR Practice and Research, 2, 315–325. Ten Broeke, E., De Jongh, A., & Oppenheim, H. (2008). Praktijkboek EMDR: Casusconceptualisatie en specifieke patiëntengroepen [Practice book EMDR: Case concep- tualization and specific patients groups]. Amsterdam: Harcourt. Acknowledgment. The authors are highly thankful to Dr. Francine Shapiro for her thoughtful comments and valu- able suggestions. Correspondence regarding this article should be directed to Ad De Jongh, Department of Behavioral Sciences, Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam, Louwesweg 1, 1066 EA Amsterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: a.de. jongh@acta.nl View publication statsView publication stats