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Travel Agencies and Tour
Operators
Sumit Kumar Singh
Introduction
• Unlike any other business, travel business is also operated through
wholesalers and retailers.
• The concept of wholesaling and retailing the travel products for the
benefits of customers and producers in the tourism business.
• The primary service providers like hotels, resorts, ferry, cruise line
train, airlines, coach, car rental, even companies, etc rely largely on the
wholesalers and retailers to sell the products.
• The need for a wholesaler and retailer are essentially important in
increasing the sale of the tourism services and to reach out the
customers at all the localities.
• Here tour operators are largely called as wholesalers and travel agents
are basically called as retailers.
• Apart from this, airlines and cruise lines appoint the General Sales
Agents (GSA) to achieve the bumper sale in a particular season.
• The wholesaler is one which sells tour packages or hotel rooms to the
retailers directly.
• It fixes standard and special commission for retailers for the sale of
these services.
• The business of travel agency is no way different from any other
conventional business as far as the sale of travel products is concerned.
Travel agents and tour operators
Travel Agency
• Travel agency is a firm qualified to sell services pertaining to tours, cruises,
transportation, hotel accommodation, meals, transfer, sightseeing and other
elements to the general public.
• This business firm is set up for providing services and earning profits. The business
of travel agency uses some of the important management practices like division of
labour, hierarchical authority and responsibility.
• Travel agency plans, organizes, directs, controls, coordinates and sets all resources
together in such a manner that it can achieve objectives.
• When the functional areas of management are linked with organizational objectives,
travel agency makes profits after satisfying customers.
• For example, Thomas Cook or Cox and Kings have become leaders in travel agency
business worldwide for their continuous efforts in ensuring quality for customer
satisfaction and delight.
Types of Travel Agencies
• Travel agencies are broadly divided into wholesale and retail travel
agency for the distribution of sale of tourism services.
• In addition to this classification, travel agency can also be classified as
implant agency, conference organizer, meeting planners, trade fair
organizer, etc.
Wholesale Travel Agency
• The business of wholesaling in tourism industry is no way different
from the wholesaling in the commodity market.
• A wholesale travel agency assembles different components of services
to design tour packages for catering FIT and GIT customers.
• A wholesaler is one who initiates the process of forming organized
tours or sells the individual components directly or indirectly through
franchise or retail agents.
• For example, a wholesaler of Singapore airline or Taj Hotel or Sterling
Time Share Group is authorized to sell the airline tickets or hotel
rooms on behalf of the principal service providers.
• A wholesaler may be a consolidator or a manufacturer of tours or
General Sales Agent (GSA). It buys service components in bulk from
different suppliers and it designs package and sells or resells these
components together.
• If it is tour wholesaler, the process starts from the research
development followed by itinerary preparation. The most critical role
of a tour wholesaler is the pricing of package that positions the
product in the market.
Retail Travel Agency
• A retail travel agency is defined as “a business that performs the
following functions: quotes fares, rates, makes reservations, arranges
travel tickets and accommodation, arranges travel insurance, foreign
currency, documents and accepts payments”.
• A retail travel agency is one that sells directly to customers at several
small locations in cities or towns.
• Retailer gets commission from the gross sale of hotel rooms, airline,
train, bus and cruise tickets, insurance, foreign exchange, etc.
Commission is the primary source of its revenues.
• A two-way selling method, that a large travel agent practices, includes
commission and mark-up price.
Full Service Agency
• It is a type of travel agent that deals with all kinds of services. It may
be called as complete travel agents.
• Apart from being an accredited agent of IATA or any other principal
service providers, this full-service travel agent owns the transport fleets
and charter flights and cruises.
Commercial Agency
• It is a category of unconventional travel agency that deals with
business travel.
• It books convention centres and stalls in exhibition centre. It also
arranges venue for conducting small and large meetings.
Implant Agency
• It is a type of travel agent that is located in the premises of corporate
offices to make travel arrangements of employees.
• It is a registered travel agent appointed as per the agreements.
Group / Incentive agency
• It is an emerging form of travel agency business that a specialized
category of agent acts as intermediary to deal with bulk bookings for
employees and clients of corporate houses.
Online Travel Agency
• It resembles an offline travel agency in all its services. It operates on the
internet through a website connected to a global distribution system.
• The OTAs apply the operational mechanisms of e-commerce and
transact online with their customers.
• The OTAs offer information, bookings of hotels, cars, reservation of
seats in airlines, railways, ships and buses.
• They sell package tours; customize tours and take enquiries.
• Transaction of payment is also done online using online payment
modes such as credit/debit cards, internet banking, pay-pal etc.
• Some of the major OTAs in India are cleartrip, goibibo, travelocity,
travelguru, yatra.com. makemytrip.com etc.
Roles of Travel Agency
• The volume of business has increased so much and the areas of
business operation have also been expanded in the post globalization
period.
• With the operation of more scheduled airlines in domestic and
international sector, the scope of business of travel agency is more in
terms of receiving benefits and returns.
• Customer satisfaction and delight is given top priority. A high degree of
professional accuracy is needed to survive in the business. It is
otherwise difficult to stay in the business.
The difference between Tour Operators and
Travel Agents
• Tour operators are responsible for operating and providing your
vacation through the contracting, booking and packaging together of
the various components of your tour such as your hotel,
transportation, meals, guides, optional tours and sometimes flight.
• Travel Agents hold the role of selling and administering packages
from various tour operators to their personal clients based on what
they’re looking for and what package suits each client best.
• Most tour operators these days do deal directly with clients and sell
their own packages therefore removing the middle man, however many
people still prefer to use their local or family travel agent they have
relied on for years.
Travel Agents
• Generally, a travel agent gives advice to tourists about the climate,
distance, culture and do’s and do not’s to follow at the destinations or
cities.
• Presently, most package holidays are sold through travel agents.
• Travel agents make the booking tickets for air, rail, sea or road travel
and arrange hotel reservations or guest houses, hire taxis etc.
• Besides domestic air ticketing, travel agents make international flight
bookings and other bookings for special business tours or conferences.
Role of Travel Agent
• Most of the essential services are primarily provided by travel agents include
transport (road, rail, air and water), accommodation, passport, and visa procuring
facilities, foreign exchange and also guidance and information about the places of
travel.
• These are the following important roles and responsibilities of a travel agent
➢ It works as a retailer and sells package tours on behalf of wholesaler. The sale
of package tours involves the rate of commission fixed on the agreement.
➢ It ensures horizontal integration for the purpose of achieving bumper sale.
➢ It is an intermediary between tour operators and tourists in terms of selling
package tours in case of outbound tours and conducting sightseeing tours in case
of inbound tours.
➢ It follows tour itinerary and it does not have anything to do with itinerary.
➢ Travel agents also provide destinations transfer services to the clients as per the
tour itinerary.
➢ It acts as a local agent to confirm and reconfirm the services reserved by the tour
wholesalers.
➢ It sorts out problems as per the directions of tour wholesalers.
➢ It prefers to become the member of national bodies like TAAI and IATO.
➢ It negotiates the terms and conditions for commission with principal suppliers.
➢ It recruits trained manpower from time to time.
➢ It procures advanced technology for operation of business.
➢ It subscribes publications like TIM for travel documentations.
➢ It distributes the work in the office for optimization.
➢ It arranges the vehicle in a systematic manner.
➢ It collects feedback from suppliers and consumers
➢ It shares information and knowledge
Tour Operator
• Tour operator links between customers (tourists) and primary service
providers.
• This acts as a major destination promoter and this is also called as
wholesaler.
• It is a professional agent with the capacity of buying services in bulk and
distributing through the channel in methodical and organized manner.
• Importantly, tour packages are mostly promoted by tour operators through
travel agents.
• Tour operator is largely responsible for delivery of services as per the
contract in tour itinerary.
• It is sold in different price tag to customers directly or through the
middlemen (Travel Agent).
Travel agents and tour operators
Services Provided By The Tour Operates In The
Package Tours
➢ Airport and hotel transfer
➢ Arrangements for traditional reception at the arrival points
➢ Arrangements of luggage transfer in the airport and railway stations
➢ Arrangements of guided sightseeing tours
➢ Options and selection for worldwide destination
➢ Comprehensive itinerary planning
➢ Appropriate hotel selection & reservation
➢ Meeting, conference and meeting arrangements
➢ Exhibition and factory visits
➢ Theme parties, events & sightseeing
➢ Air tickets & travel documents like passport, VISA, health certificate and currency, insurance
and permits for entry into the restricted areas
➢ Foreign Exchange & Travel Insurance
➢ Experienced and professional tour
guides, escorts, interpreter and tour
managers
➢ Personalized services at destination
➢ Coordination with local tourist
organizations at destination
➢ Domestic and international air travel
➢ Rail bookings in India, Europe, America
& Japan
➢ Hotel reservation
➢ Car rental
➢ Travel documentation
➢ Airport facilitation
➢ Foreign exchange
➢ Overseas travel insurance
➢ Conference and seminar management
➢ Trade Fair/Exhibition visits
➢ Implant Operations- in-house travel
consultant equipped with CRS system and
satellite ticket printer
➢ Business/trade delegations
➢ Incentive travel in India and Worldwide
Types of Tour Operator
➢ Inbound Tour Operator
➢ Outbound Tour Operators
➢ Domestic Tour Operator
➢ Ground Handlers/Operators
➢ Special Interest Tour Operators
Inbound Tour Operator
• They handle inbound foreign tourists in the host country.
• They provide them various services on their arrival and departure
such as transfer, accommodation, transportation, sightseeing,
entertainment, currency, insurance services etc.
• Inbound tour operators make tour packages individually or in
collaboration with foreign tour operators.
Outbound Tour Operators
• They sell package tours highlighting the destinations in foreign
countries.
• These operators are specialized in designing and promoting multi-
national tours.
• Like inbound tour operator, outbound tour operator sells a package
tour to an individual or a group of people of a country to another
country or a number of countries for a temporary period.
• They arrange travel documents, transportation and hotels and
sightseeing, inbound tour operators/ground operators provide
accommodation, transportation, local sightseeing and other services.
Domestic Tour Operator
• Domestic tour operator is one which conducts tour within the
country.
• Domestic tour operators operate within the boundary of home
country and cater the diverse needs of individuals and group
travellers like inbound and outbound operators.
• They promote tour packages both through their own outlets and
other retail travel agents.
Ground Handlers/Operators
• Ground operator is otherwise known as reception operator or
destination management operator or handling agencies.
• These operators are generally expected to provide arrangements and
ground logistics at a particular destination.
• They do not deal with the principal suppliers such as hoteliers,
transport operators, car rentals, entertainment organizations and so
forth.
Special Interest Tour Operators
• This type of tour operator offers and promotes the special interest
package tours.
• They mostly do direct marketing for the packages or through the
retail agents.
• These are the wildlife and ecotourism tour operators and they design
wildlife and ecotourism packages for group in the niche market.
• This type of tour operator does not plan for mass market as buyers
are limited in number.
Roles and Characteristics Tour Operator
• ➢ It is a wholesaler as it assembles packages as per the trend of market
and capacity of distribution channel.
• ➢ It deals with customers directly as a principal agent or foreign travel
agent without off-loading tours to ground handling agents.
• ➢ Tour operator has liberty to amend the tour itinerary and program if
it warrants.
• ➢ It invests much of time and resources to chart out delightful and
value added tour itinerary for meeting the demand and expectation of
tourists.
• ➢ It gives much stress on selling the tour than the conducting the tour.
• ➢ Tour operators are mostly located in the mega cities or in the cities
with the international airlines services for the strategic advantage of
controlling the package tours.
• ➢ It mostly provides international transfer from hotel to airport and
vice-versa, if offices of tour operators are located.
• ➢ It deals with both the tourists and primary service providers as direct
intermediary.
• ➢ Tour operators design the tours in such a way that handling agents
may not get extra excursion tours directly from tourists.
• ➢ It accepts foreign currency for the tour package and gets
accreditation from the Reserve Bank of India money exchange
dealer.
• ➢ It gives ample importance to become the professional member of
national and international tourism, travel, and hospitality and aviation
associations.
• ➢ It is committed to work as a responsible partner in the tourism
industry to popularize destinations and explore new potential
destinations through their package tours.
Conclusion
• TCI, Thomas Cook, SOTC, Cox & Kings, Jet tours, etc are specialists
in ground operations for large movements of tourists and make all
arrangements to handle the tour with much care and attention.
• TCI conducts several and regular familiarization trips for cruise
companies and leisure trips for tourists on air charters and cruise liners.
• It is difficult to identify an individual operator with a single category of
operations. They act as retail agents, wholesalers, tour operators,
specialty channels and also as the GSA.
• Thus the scope of modern travel agency activities is difficult to limit
and confine to one unit of classification.
ThankYou!

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Travel agents and tour operators

  • 1. Travel Agencies and Tour Operators Sumit Kumar Singh
  • 2. Introduction • Unlike any other business, travel business is also operated through wholesalers and retailers. • The concept of wholesaling and retailing the travel products for the benefits of customers and producers in the tourism business. • The primary service providers like hotels, resorts, ferry, cruise line train, airlines, coach, car rental, even companies, etc rely largely on the wholesalers and retailers to sell the products. • The need for a wholesaler and retailer are essentially important in increasing the sale of the tourism services and to reach out the customers at all the localities.
  • 3. • Here tour operators are largely called as wholesalers and travel agents are basically called as retailers. • Apart from this, airlines and cruise lines appoint the General Sales Agents (GSA) to achieve the bumper sale in a particular season. • The wholesaler is one which sells tour packages or hotel rooms to the retailers directly. • It fixes standard and special commission for retailers for the sale of these services. • The business of travel agency is no way different from any other conventional business as far as the sale of travel products is concerned.
  • 5. Travel Agency • Travel agency is a firm qualified to sell services pertaining to tours, cruises, transportation, hotel accommodation, meals, transfer, sightseeing and other elements to the general public. • This business firm is set up for providing services and earning profits. The business of travel agency uses some of the important management practices like division of labour, hierarchical authority and responsibility. • Travel agency plans, organizes, directs, controls, coordinates and sets all resources together in such a manner that it can achieve objectives. • When the functional areas of management are linked with organizational objectives, travel agency makes profits after satisfying customers. • For example, Thomas Cook or Cox and Kings have become leaders in travel agency business worldwide for their continuous efforts in ensuring quality for customer satisfaction and delight.
  • 6. Types of Travel Agencies • Travel agencies are broadly divided into wholesale and retail travel agency for the distribution of sale of tourism services. • In addition to this classification, travel agency can also be classified as implant agency, conference organizer, meeting planners, trade fair organizer, etc.
  • 7. Wholesale Travel Agency • The business of wholesaling in tourism industry is no way different from the wholesaling in the commodity market. • A wholesale travel agency assembles different components of services to design tour packages for catering FIT and GIT customers. • A wholesaler is one who initiates the process of forming organized tours or sells the individual components directly or indirectly through franchise or retail agents.
  • 8. • For example, a wholesaler of Singapore airline or Taj Hotel or Sterling Time Share Group is authorized to sell the airline tickets or hotel rooms on behalf of the principal service providers. • A wholesaler may be a consolidator or a manufacturer of tours or General Sales Agent (GSA). It buys service components in bulk from different suppliers and it designs package and sells or resells these components together. • If it is tour wholesaler, the process starts from the research development followed by itinerary preparation. The most critical role of a tour wholesaler is the pricing of package that positions the product in the market.
  • 9. Retail Travel Agency • A retail travel agency is defined as “a business that performs the following functions: quotes fares, rates, makes reservations, arranges travel tickets and accommodation, arranges travel insurance, foreign currency, documents and accepts payments”. • A retail travel agency is one that sells directly to customers at several small locations in cities or towns. • Retailer gets commission from the gross sale of hotel rooms, airline, train, bus and cruise tickets, insurance, foreign exchange, etc. Commission is the primary source of its revenues. • A two-way selling method, that a large travel agent practices, includes commission and mark-up price.
  • 10. Full Service Agency • It is a type of travel agent that deals with all kinds of services. It may be called as complete travel agents. • Apart from being an accredited agent of IATA or any other principal service providers, this full-service travel agent owns the transport fleets and charter flights and cruises.
  • 11. Commercial Agency • It is a category of unconventional travel agency that deals with business travel. • It books convention centres and stalls in exhibition centre. It also arranges venue for conducting small and large meetings.
  • 12. Implant Agency • It is a type of travel agent that is located in the premises of corporate offices to make travel arrangements of employees. • It is a registered travel agent appointed as per the agreements.
  • 13. Group / Incentive agency • It is an emerging form of travel agency business that a specialized category of agent acts as intermediary to deal with bulk bookings for employees and clients of corporate houses.
  • 14. Online Travel Agency • It resembles an offline travel agency in all its services. It operates on the internet through a website connected to a global distribution system. • The OTAs apply the operational mechanisms of e-commerce and transact online with their customers. • The OTAs offer information, bookings of hotels, cars, reservation of seats in airlines, railways, ships and buses. • They sell package tours; customize tours and take enquiries. • Transaction of payment is also done online using online payment modes such as credit/debit cards, internet banking, pay-pal etc. • Some of the major OTAs in India are cleartrip, goibibo, travelocity, travelguru, yatra.com. makemytrip.com etc.
  • 15. Roles of Travel Agency • The volume of business has increased so much and the areas of business operation have also been expanded in the post globalization period. • With the operation of more scheduled airlines in domestic and international sector, the scope of business of travel agency is more in terms of receiving benefits and returns. • Customer satisfaction and delight is given top priority. A high degree of professional accuracy is needed to survive in the business. It is otherwise difficult to stay in the business.
  • 16. The difference between Tour Operators and Travel Agents • Tour operators are responsible for operating and providing your vacation through the contracting, booking and packaging together of the various components of your tour such as your hotel, transportation, meals, guides, optional tours and sometimes flight. • Travel Agents hold the role of selling and administering packages from various tour operators to their personal clients based on what they’re looking for and what package suits each client best. • Most tour operators these days do deal directly with clients and sell their own packages therefore removing the middle man, however many people still prefer to use their local or family travel agent they have relied on for years.
  • 17. Travel Agents • Generally, a travel agent gives advice to tourists about the climate, distance, culture and do’s and do not’s to follow at the destinations or cities. • Presently, most package holidays are sold through travel agents. • Travel agents make the booking tickets for air, rail, sea or road travel and arrange hotel reservations or guest houses, hire taxis etc. • Besides domestic air ticketing, travel agents make international flight bookings and other bookings for special business tours or conferences.
  • 18. Role of Travel Agent • Most of the essential services are primarily provided by travel agents include transport (road, rail, air and water), accommodation, passport, and visa procuring facilities, foreign exchange and also guidance and information about the places of travel. • These are the following important roles and responsibilities of a travel agent ➢ It works as a retailer and sells package tours on behalf of wholesaler. The sale of package tours involves the rate of commission fixed on the agreement. ➢ It ensures horizontal integration for the purpose of achieving bumper sale. ➢ It is an intermediary between tour operators and tourists in terms of selling package tours in case of outbound tours and conducting sightseeing tours in case of inbound tours. ➢ It follows tour itinerary and it does not have anything to do with itinerary. ➢ Travel agents also provide destinations transfer services to the clients as per the tour itinerary.
  • 19. ➢ It acts as a local agent to confirm and reconfirm the services reserved by the tour wholesalers. ➢ It sorts out problems as per the directions of tour wholesalers. ➢ It prefers to become the member of national bodies like TAAI and IATO. ➢ It negotiates the terms and conditions for commission with principal suppliers. ➢ It recruits trained manpower from time to time. ➢ It procures advanced technology for operation of business. ➢ It subscribes publications like TIM for travel documentations. ➢ It distributes the work in the office for optimization. ➢ It arranges the vehicle in a systematic manner. ➢ It collects feedback from suppliers and consumers ➢ It shares information and knowledge
  • 20. Tour Operator • Tour operator links between customers (tourists) and primary service providers. • This acts as a major destination promoter and this is also called as wholesaler. • It is a professional agent with the capacity of buying services in bulk and distributing through the channel in methodical and organized manner. • Importantly, tour packages are mostly promoted by tour operators through travel agents. • Tour operator is largely responsible for delivery of services as per the contract in tour itinerary. • It is sold in different price tag to customers directly or through the middlemen (Travel Agent).
  • 22. Services Provided By The Tour Operates In The Package Tours ➢ Airport and hotel transfer ➢ Arrangements for traditional reception at the arrival points ➢ Arrangements of luggage transfer in the airport and railway stations ➢ Arrangements of guided sightseeing tours ➢ Options and selection for worldwide destination ➢ Comprehensive itinerary planning ➢ Appropriate hotel selection & reservation ➢ Meeting, conference and meeting arrangements ➢ Exhibition and factory visits ➢ Theme parties, events & sightseeing ➢ Air tickets & travel documents like passport, VISA, health certificate and currency, insurance and permits for entry into the restricted areas
  • 23. ➢ Foreign Exchange & Travel Insurance ➢ Experienced and professional tour guides, escorts, interpreter and tour managers ➢ Personalized services at destination ➢ Coordination with local tourist organizations at destination ➢ Domestic and international air travel ➢ Rail bookings in India, Europe, America & Japan ➢ Hotel reservation ➢ Car rental ➢ Travel documentation ➢ Airport facilitation ➢ Foreign exchange ➢ Overseas travel insurance ➢ Conference and seminar management ➢ Trade Fair/Exhibition visits ➢ Implant Operations- in-house travel consultant equipped with CRS system and satellite ticket printer ➢ Business/trade delegations ➢ Incentive travel in India and Worldwide
  • 24. Types of Tour Operator ➢ Inbound Tour Operator ➢ Outbound Tour Operators ➢ Domestic Tour Operator ➢ Ground Handlers/Operators ➢ Special Interest Tour Operators
  • 25. Inbound Tour Operator • They handle inbound foreign tourists in the host country. • They provide them various services on their arrival and departure such as transfer, accommodation, transportation, sightseeing, entertainment, currency, insurance services etc. • Inbound tour operators make tour packages individually or in collaboration with foreign tour operators.
  • 26. Outbound Tour Operators • They sell package tours highlighting the destinations in foreign countries. • These operators are specialized in designing and promoting multi- national tours. • Like inbound tour operator, outbound tour operator sells a package tour to an individual or a group of people of a country to another country or a number of countries for a temporary period. • They arrange travel documents, transportation and hotels and sightseeing, inbound tour operators/ground operators provide accommodation, transportation, local sightseeing and other services.
  • 27. Domestic Tour Operator • Domestic tour operator is one which conducts tour within the country. • Domestic tour operators operate within the boundary of home country and cater the diverse needs of individuals and group travellers like inbound and outbound operators. • They promote tour packages both through their own outlets and other retail travel agents.
  • 28. Ground Handlers/Operators • Ground operator is otherwise known as reception operator or destination management operator or handling agencies. • These operators are generally expected to provide arrangements and ground logistics at a particular destination. • They do not deal with the principal suppliers such as hoteliers, transport operators, car rentals, entertainment organizations and so forth.
  • 29. Special Interest Tour Operators • This type of tour operator offers and promotes the special interest package tours. • They mostly do direct marketing for the packages or through the retail agents. • These are the wildlife and ecotourism tour operators and they design wildlife and ecotourism packages for group in the niche market. • This type of tour operator does not plan for mass market as buyers are limited in number.
  • 30. Roles and Characteristics Tour Operator • ➢ It is a wholesaler as it assembles packages as per the trend of market and capacity of distribution channel. • ➢ It deals with customers directly as a principal agent or foreign travel agent without off-loading tours to ground handling agents. • ➢ Tour operator has liberty to amend the tour itinerary and program if it warrants. • ➢ It invests much of time and resources to chart out delightful and value added tour itinerary for meeting the demand and expectation of tourists.
  • 31. • ➢ It gives much stress on selling the tour than the conducting the tour. • ➢ Tour operators are mostly located in the mega cities or in the cities with the international airlines services for the strategic advantage of controlling the package tours. • ➢ It mostly provides international transfer from hotel to airport and vice-versa, if offices of tour operators are located. • ➢ It deals with both the tourists and primary service providers as direct intermediary. • ➢ Tour operators design the tours in such a way that handling agents may not get extra excursion tours directly from tourists.
  • 32. • ➢ It accepts foreign currency for the tour package and gets accreditation from the Reserve Bank of India money exchange dealer. • ➢ It gives ample importance to become the professional member of national and international tourism, travel, and hospitality and aviation associations. • ➢ It is committed to work as a responsible partner in the tourism industry to popularize destinations and explore new potential destinations through their package tours.
  • 33. Conclusion • TCI, Thomas Cook, SOTC, Cox & Kings, Jet tours, etc are specialists in ground operations for large movements of tourists and make all arrangements to handle the tour with much care and attention. • TCI conducts several and regular familiarization trips for cruise companies and leisure trips for tourists on air charters and cruise liners. • It is difficult to identify an individual operator with a single category of operations. They act as retail agents, wholesalers, tour operators, specialty channels and also as the GSA. • Thus the scope of modern travel agency activities is difficult to limit and confine to one unit of classification.