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The use of programming tasks in interactive videos to
increase learning effectiveness at MOOCs
Michael Weiß
23. November 2023
1
Introduction
• Motivation
§ Emergence of videos
§ Importance of interactivity in videos
§ Bachelor Thesis: Game-based learning with Alexa
Ø iMooX course with programming overlays during learning videos
2
Research Question
Can interactive programming tasks during learning videos support
learning efficiency and success?
• How to develop interactive programming tasks during learning videos for an
interactive video platform?
• What conclusions can be drawn from user behaviour for the optimization of the
course and interactive elements?
3
Content
1. Interactive video course (MOOC)
2. Programming task overlays
3. Evaluation & Outcome of course results
4
Content
1. Interactive video course (MOOC)
2. Programming task overlays
3. Evaluation & Outcome of course results
5
1. Interactive video course (MOOC)
• iMooX Course – Python basics
§ Part 1: Programming & Basics
§ Part 2: Python Basics
§ Part 3: Input / Output of data & Control flow
§ Part 4: Lists & List functions
• Two test groups
§ Group 1: 22. March - 15. May -> watched with overlays
§ Group 2: 16. May - 14. August -> watched without overlays
• 577 learners
6
Course procedure
• Beginning of the course
§ Self-evaluation questionnaire
• For each part of the course
§ Self-assessment quiz before the part (5 MC-Questions)
§ Video
§ Group 1: With programming overlays
§ Group 2: Without programming overlays
§ Final quiz ( 5 MC-Questions)
• Exception: Part 1 – no programming overlays
7
Additional course material
• Installation instructions
• Cheat Sheet
• Additional homework
8
Figure: Cheat sheet
Figure: Installation Slides
Content
1. Interactive video course (MOOC)
2. Programming task overlays
3. Evaluation & Outcome of course results
9
2. Programming task overalys
• Limitation with iMooX -> use LIVE
• Communication between iMooX, LIVE
and Youtube
• LIVE
§ Django – Python Webframework
§ Interaction: Programming Task
10
Figure: High-level architecture of LIVE
Interaction: Programming tasks
• Functionalities
§ Planning, Creating and editing tasks
§ Display tasks during videos
§ Safe execution and evaluation of code answers
§ Teacher area to display results
§ Learner area to display results
§ Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers
11
Interaction: Programming tasks
• Functionalities
§ Planning, Creating and editing tasks
§ Display tasks during videos
§ Safe execution and evaluation of code answers
§ Teacher area to display results
§ Learner area to display results
§ Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers
12
Plan & Create a programming task
• Teacher area
• Choose timestamp for task display
• Insert description, answer, reference output
13
Interaction: Programming tasks
• Functionalities
§ Planning, Creating and editing tasks
§ Display tasks during videos
§ Safe execution and evaluation of code answers
§ Teacher area to display results
§ Learner area to display results
§ Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers
14
Display of tasks during videos
• Part 2:
§ multiplication and
variable assignment
• Part 3:
§ Simple division and
If-else statement
• Part 4:
§ List creation and
iteration
15
Interaction: Programming tasks
• Functionalities
§ Planning, Creating and editing tasks
§ Display tasks during videos
§ Safe execution and evaluation of code answers
§ Teacher area to display results
§ Learner area to display results
§ Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers
16
Safe execution and evaluation of code answers
• Restricted Python Package (malicious code)
§ Define a subset of the python language
§ E.g. block import of modules, allow only certain elements
§ Execution time limit of 2 seconds
§ Execute not trusted code inside a trusted environment
17
Interaction: Programming tasks
• Functionalities
§ Planning, Creating and editing tasks
§ Display tasks during videos
§ Safe execution and evaluation of code answers
§ Teacher area to display results
§ Learner area to display results
§ Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers
18
Teacher area
• Taskdisplay
• Answer list
§ Correction option
§ Teacher Note
19
Interaction: Programming tasks
• Functionalities
§ Planning, Creating and editing tasks
§ Display tasks during videos
§ Safe execution and evaluation of code answers
§ Answer overview & correction options for teachers
§ Answer overview for learners
§ Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers
20
Learner area
• Taskdisplay
• Answer list
21
Content
1. Interactive video course (MOOC)
2. Programming task overlays
3. Evaluation & Outcome of course results
22
3. Evaluation & Outcome
1. iMooX data
• Quiz results
2. LIVE data
• Programming task results
• User statistics
§ By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos)
23
3. Evaluation & Outcome
1. iMooX data
• Quiz results
2. LIVE data
• Programming task results
• User statistics
§ By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos)
24
iMooX Data – Quiz results
25
Part 1 – Theory: No overlays
Part 2 – Python basics
Part 3 – Input / Output Control flow
Part 4 – List / List functions
G1 – watched with overlays
G2 – watched without overlays
Quiz results – conclusion
• Group 1 performed better than Group 2 on final quizzes
ü Programming overlays could influence learning efficiency
§ Limitation: Smaller test group 2 limits expressiveness of results
• Both groups improved from the initial assessments to final quizzes
ü Success of the course
26
3. Evaluation & Outcome
1. iMooX data
§ Quiz results
2. LIVE data
§ Programming task results
§ User statistics
§ By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos)
27
3. Evaluation & Outcome
1. iMooX data
§ Quiz results
2. LIVE data
§ Programming task results
§ User statistics
§ By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos)
28
Programming task results
• Task 1
§ mixing of addition
and multiplication
• Task 2 & Task 3
§ Inaccuracy & failure to
understand the topic
• Conclusion
• Simple mathematical operations must not be considered as pre-existing
knowledge
• importance of working accurately
29
61 %
Correct %
34 %
45 %
3. Evaluation & Outcome
1. iMooX data
§ Quiz results
2. LIVE data
§ Programming task results
§ User statistics
§ By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos)
30
LIVE data
• User statistics during learning videos
§ Answer Delay
§ Attention Change
§ Drop ratio
31
LIVE data
• User statistics during learning videos
§ Answer Delay
§ Attention Change
§ Drop ratio
32
Answer Delay
• Difficulty levels of tasks
• Assumption
§ Task in Part 3 too complex
33
LIVE data
• User statistics during learning videos
§ Answer Delay
§ Attention Change
§ Drop ratio
34
Attention Change
• Attention value
• Assumptions
§ Placement of
interactions
35
LIVE data
• User statistics during learning videos
§ Answer Delay
§ Attention Change
§ Drop ratio
36
Drop ratio
• Sharp drops in
part 1 & 2
• Constant numbers in
part 3 & 4
• Assumptions
§ Lost interest
§ Get taste of course
§ Too complex
§ Improve videos
37
Conclusion
• Success of the course
• Programming tasks as a valuable addition
• Further research
§ Equal sized test group
§ Special characteristics of programming tasks
38
Thank you for your attention!
39

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The use of programming tasks in interactive videos to increase learning effectiveness at MOOCs

  • 1. SCIENCE PASSION TECHNOLOGY The use of programming tasks in interactive videos to increase learning effectiveness at MOOCs Michael Weiß 23. November 2023 1
  • 2. Introduction • Motivation § Emergence of videos § Importance of interactivity in videos § Bachelor Thesis: Game-based learning with Alexa Ø iMooX course with programming overlays during learning videos 2
  • 3. Research Question Can interactive programming tasks during learning videos support learning efficiency and success? • How to develop interactive programming tasks during learning videos for an interactive video platform? • What conclusions can be drawn from user behaviour for the optimization of the course and interactive elements? 3
  • 4. Content 1. Interactive video course (MOOC) 2. Programming task overlays 3. Evaluation & Outcome of course results 4
  • 5. Content 1. Interactive video course (MOOC) 2. Programming task overlays 3. Evaluation & Outcome of course results 5
  • 6. 1. Interactive video course (MOOC) • iMooX Course – Python basics § Part 1: Programming & Basics § Part 2: Python Basics § Part 3: Input / Output of data & Control flow § Part 4: Lists & List functions • Two test groups § Group 1: 22. March - 15. May -> watched with overlays § Group 2: 16. May - 14. August -> watched without overlays • 577 learners 6
  • 7. Course procedure • Beginning of the course § Self-evaluation questionnaire • For each part of the course § Self-assessment quiz before the part (5 MC-Questions) § Video § Group 1: With programming overlays § Group 2: Without programming overlays § Final quiz ( 5 MC-Questions) • Exception: Part 1 – no programming overlays 7
  • 8. Additional course material • Installation instructions • Cheat Sheet • Additional homework 8 Figure: Cheat sheet Figure: Installation Slides
  • 9. Content 1. Interactive video course (MOOC) 2. Programming task overlays 3. Evaluation & Outcome of course results 9
  • 10. 2. Programming task overalys • Limitation with iMooX -> use LIVE • Communication between iMooX, LIVE and Youtube • LIVE § Django – Python Webframework § Interaction: Programming Task 10 Figure: High-level architecture of LIVE
  • 11. Interaction: Programming tasks • Functionalities § Planning, Creating and editing tasks § Display tasks during videos § Safe execution and evaluation of code answers § Teacher area to display results § Learner area to display results § Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers 11
  • 12. Interaction: Programming tasks • Functionalities § Planning, Creating and editing tasks § Display tasks during videos § Safe execution and evaluation of code answers § Teacher area to display results § Learner area to display results § Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers 12
  • 13. Plan & Create a programming task • Teacher area • Choose timestamp for task display • Insert description, answer, reference output 13
  • 14. Interaction: Programming tasks • Functionalities § Planning, Creating and editing tasks § Display tasks during videos § Safe execution and evaluation of code answers § Teacher area to display results § Learner area to display results § Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers 14
  • 15. Display of tasks during videos • Part 2: § multiplication and variable assignment • Part 3: § Simple division and If-else statement • Part 4: § List creation and iteration 15
  • 16. Interaction: Programming tasks • Functionalities § Planning, Creating and editing tasks § Display tasks during videos § Safe execution and evaluation of code answers § Teacher area to display results § Learner area to display results § Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers 16
  • 17. Safe execution and evaluation of code answers • Restricted Python Package (malicious code) § Define a subset of the python language § E.g. block import of modules, allow only certain elements § Execution time limit of 2 seconds § Execute not trusted code inside a trusted environment 17
  • 18. Interaction: Programming tasks • Functionalities § Planning, Creating and editing tasks § Display tasks during videos § Safe execution and evaluation of code answers § Teacher area to display results § Learner area to display results § Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers 18
  • 19. Teacher area • Taskdisplay • Answer list § Correction option § Teacher Note 19
  • 20. Interaction: Programming tasks • Functionalities § Planning, Creating and editing tasks § Display tasks during videos § Safe execution and evaluation of code answers § Answer overview & correction options for teachers § Answer overview for learners § Download of programming tasks metadata, statistics and answers 20
  • 22. Content 1. Interactive video course (MOOC) 2. Programming task overlays 3. Evaluation & Outcome of course results 22
  • 23. 3. Evaluation & Outcome 1. iMooX data • Quiz results 2. LIVE data • Programming task results • User statistics § By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos) 23
  • 24. 3. Evaluation & Outcome 1. iMooX data • Quiz results 2. LIVE data • Programming task results • User statistics § By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos) 24
  • 25. iMooX Data – Quiz results 25 Part 1 – Theory: No overlays Part 2 – Python basics Part 3 – Input / Output Control flow Part 4 – List / List functions G1 – watched with overlays G2 – watched without overlays
  • 26. Quiz results – conclusion • Group 1 performed better than Group 2 on final quizzes ü Programming overlays could influence learning efficiency § Limitation: Smaller test group 2 limits expressiveness of results • Both groups improved from the initial assessments to final quizzes ü Success of the course 26
  • 27. 3. Evaluation & Outcome 1. iMooX data § Quiz results 2. LIVE data § Programming task results § User statistics § By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos) 27
  • 28. 3. Evaluation & Outcome 1. iMooX data § Quiz results 2. LIVE data § Programming task results § User statistics § By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos) 28
  • 29. Programming task results • Task 1 § mixing of addition and multiplication • Task 2 & Task 3 § Inaccuracy & failure to understand the topic • Conclusion • Simple mathematical operations must not be considered as pre-existing knowledge • importance of working accurately 29 61 % Correct % 34 % 45 %
  • 30. 3. Evaluation & Outcome 1. iMooX data § Quiz results 2. LIVE data § Programming task results § User statistics § By Daniel Dohr (Visualization of students’ behavior in interactive learning videos) 30
  • 31. LIVE data • User statistics during learning videos § Answer Delay § Attention Change § Drop ratio 31
  • 32. LIVE data • User statistics during learning videos § Answer Delay § Attention Change § Drop ratio 32
  • 33. Answer Delay • Difficulty levels of tasks • Assumption § Task in Part 3 too complex 33
  • 34. LIVE data • User statistics during learning videos § Answer Delay § Attention Change § Drop ratio 34
  • 35. Attention Change • Attention value • Assumptions § Placement of interactions 35
  • 36. LIVE data • User statistics during learning videos § Answer Delay § Attention Change § Drop ratio 36
  • 37. Drop ratio • Sharp drops in part 1 & 2 • Constant numbers in part 3 & 4 • Assumptions § Lost interest § Get taste of course § Too complex § Improve videos 37
  • 38. Conclusion • Success of the course • Programming tasks as a valuable addition • Further research § Equal sized test group § Special characteristics of programming tasks 38
  • 39. Thank you for your attention! 39