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EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040
PANAMA UNIVERSITY
FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND
ACCOUNTING
VICE-RECTOR OF RESEARCH AND POSTGRADUATE
MASTER IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME INDUSTRY
RESEARCH TASK
THE STRATEGIC MARITIME AND PORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF PANAMA 2040
TEACHER
ILEANA MOLO
STUDENT
CARLOS CAMPOS
2025 -2026
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EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040
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EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040
Content
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................6
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ................................................................................................7
A sleeping giant awakens: The Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040
.............................................................................................................................................7
What are the problems facing the Panamanian maritime port sector? ............................7
How does the Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 intend to
resolve these problems? ...................................................................................................7
What are the potential benefits of this plan? ...................................................................8
Is this plan an impossible dream? .....................................................................................8
BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................9
JUSTIFICATION ......................................................................................................................10
GENERAL OBJECTIVES ...........................................................................................................12
SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................13
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .................................................................................................13
Competitiveness refers to ............................................................................................... 13
Innovation refers to ........................................................................................................14
Logistics refers to ............................................................................................................14
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE ..........................................................................................15
COSTA RICA ...........................................................................................................................16
Success story .....................................................................................................................16
Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Moín? .................17
Answer: ..........................................................................................................................17
Failure case: .......................................................................................................................18
Question: What factors have caused the failure of the Caldera port? ................................ 19
Answer: ..........................................................................................................................19
Guatemala ............................................................................................................................20
Success story .....................................................................................................................20
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Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Santo Tomás de
Castilla? .............................................................................................................................21
Answer: ..........................................................................................................................21
Failure case: .......................................................................................................................22
Question : What factors have caused the failure of the port of Quetzal? ..........................23
Answer: ..........................................................................................................................23
Honduras .............................................................................................................................. 24
Success story: ....................................................................................................................24
Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Cortés? ............24
Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Cortés
are: .................................................................................................................................24
Failure case: .......................................................................................................................26
El Salvador ............................................................................................................................27
Success story: ....................................................................................................................27
Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of La Unión? ........28
Failure case: .......................................................................................................................29
Question : What factors have caused the failure of the port of Acajutla? .......................29
Nicaragua .............................................................................................................................31
Success story: ....................................................................................................................31
Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth? .............32
Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth
are: .................................................................................................................................32
Failure case: .......................................................................................................................33
Question : What factors have caused the failure of the Bluefields port? ...........................34
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE ..........................................................................................35
5 NORTH AMERICAN PORTS .................................................................................................35
United States .....................................................................................................................35
Success story: .................................................................................................................35
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EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040
Tips and advice: ..............................................................................................................36
Failure case: .......................................................................................................................36
Tips and advice: ..............................................................................................................37
SWOT ....................................................................................................................................50
STRENGTHS ..........................................................................................................................50
OPPORTUNITIES ...................................................................................................................50
WEAKNESSES ........................................................................................................................51
THREATS ............................................................................................................................... 51
CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................52
BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................54
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EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040
INTRODUCTION
Do you imagine Panama as the giant of the seas, riding the waves of commerce
with the grace of a dolphin and the strength of a shark?
Sounds ambitious, right? Well, that is the dream pursued by the Strategic Maritime and Port
Development Plan of Panama 2040, a roadmap to turn the country into a world-class
logistics hub.
Forget about congested ports and outdated infrastructure . This visionary plan is committed
to modernizing and expanding existing ports, building new terminals at strategic points and
optimizing auxiliary maritime activities.
In other words, Panama is preparing to sail into a future where commerce flows with the
elegance of an aquatic ballet. A future where the Panama Canal remains the king of mambo,
but now accompanied by a court of efficient ports that attract ships from all over the world.
Can you imagine the benefits? More jobs, greater productivity, a boost to the national
economy... Panama will become a star in the maritime firmament!
And not only that, this plan is also committed to sustainability. It is about protecting the
marine environment while developing the port sector. Because in Panama, growth and
conservation go hand in hand.
In short, the Strategic Maritime and Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 is an exciting
adventure that invites us to ride the waves of the future with optimism and determination. A
journey that will turn us into a maritime power and transform the country's economy.
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PROBLEM STATEMENT
A sleeping giant wakes up: The Strategic Maritime Port Development
Plan of Panama 2040
Can you imagine Panama becoming a giant of the seas, riding the waves of commerce with
the grace of a dolphin and the strength of a shark?
That is the dream pursued by the Panama 2040 Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan, a
roadmap to turn the country into a world-class logistics hub .
However, before Panama can sail into this bright future, the sleeping giant must be
awakened .
What are the problems facing the Panamanian maritime port sector?
 Poor infrastructure: Many ports are congested and need modernization.
 Lack of planning: There is no comprehensive vision for the development of the sector.
 Concentration in the interoceanic region: Port development has focused on the
Panama Canal, neglecting the rest of the country.
 Lack of investment: Billions of dollars are needed to modernize ports and build new
infrastructure.
How does the Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 intend to resolve
these problems?
 Modernize and expand existing ports.
 Build new terminals at strategic points.
 Optimize auxiliary maritime activities.
 Diversify concentration in the interoceanic region.
 Attract public and private investment.
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What are the potential benefits of this plan?
 Higher productivity.
 More jobs.
 Boost to the national economy.
 Positioning of Panama as a world-class logistics hub.
Is this plan an impossible dream?
No, it is not. The Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 is an ambitious,
but realistic plan. With the right investment, the right planning and the joint work of all
sectors involved, Panama can turn this dream into reality.
Are you getting on the boat?
It is time to wake up the sleeping giant and turn Panama into a leader in global maritime
trade.
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BACKGROUND
Can you imagine a country where ports are like the veins that transport the blood of the
economy?
 A country where the sea is the engine of innovation, competitiveness and social
inclusion.
 A country that is a world leader in the management of high-value merchandise and
logistics services.
That country is Panama, and that is the dream that was reflected in the strategic plan for
maritime port development of the Republic of Panama. Vision 2040.
This plan is the result of joint work between:
THE MARITIME AUTHORITY OF
PANAMA (AMP)
THE CAF-DEVELOPMENT BANK OF
LATIN AMERICA
THE SPANISH CONSULTANT
MCVALNERA,
which for 9 months collected the opinions, needs and expectations of the different actors in
the maritime port sector, both national and international, public and private.
The plan is based on four fundamental pillars:
1. The AMP as the managing, efficient, facilitating and responsible body of the
sector;
2. The development of a modern, safe and sustainable port infrastructure;
3. The diversification of economic, industrial and logistical activities linked to
the sea;
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4. And the improvement of social well-being and respect for the environment of
coastal communities.
With this plan, Panama aims to achieve maritime port excellence , taking advantage of:
1. Its strategic geographical position,
2. Its interoceanic canal
3. And its human potential.
This is an ambitious but realistic plan that seeks to turn Panama into:
1. A world-class logistics hub ,
2. Leader in freight traffic and
3. The provision of value-added logistics services .
This plan is a unique opportunity for Panama to project itself into the future with an
integrative, innovative and sustainable vision of the maritime port sector . A sector that is
much more than ports, it is the heart of the Panamanian nation.
JUSTIFICATION
Why does Panama need a strategic maritime port development plan?
The answer is simple:
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 Because Panama is a maritime country par excellence , and its future depends on how
it takes advantage of its resources and opportunities in the field of the sea.
Panama has a privileged geographical position , which allows it to connect the Atlantic and
Pacific oceans through its canal, and be a meeting point for the world's main trade routes.
Panama has a historical maritime vocation , which has allowed it to develop:
1. Competitive port industry ,
2. A renowned merchant fleet and
3. A wide range of auxiliary maritime services .
Panama has an ambitious maritime vision, which drives it to seek excellence and leadership
in the sector, and to become a world-class logistics hub.
But Panama also has important maritime challenges , which require strategic planning and
coordinated action. Panama has to adapt to the technological, economic and social changes
that affect the maritime port sector, and that require greater efficiency, quality and
sustainability .
1. Panama has to diversify its maritime port activity , and not depend not only
container transit , but also boost other market segments, such as bulk transportation,
cruise tourism, fishing, the naval industry and value-added logistics .
2. Panama has to integrate its maritime port development with national development ,
and not only benefit to the coastal areas , but also to the interior of the country ,
generating employment, wealth and social well-being.
For all this, Panama needs a strategic plan for maritime port development , which allows it
to take advantage of its strengths, overcome its weaknesses, exploit its opportunities and
confront its threats.
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1. A plan that is the result of participatory , consensual and transparent work,
involving all actors in the sector , both public and private , both national and
international .
2. A plan that is flexible, dynamic and adaptable , that is updated periodically and
that is constantly evaluated .
3. A plan that is a roadmap, a guide, a tool for Panama to achieve its 2040 vision:
to be a first-class maritime country , with a maritime port system of excellence
, quality infrastructure and services, and a logistics hub of world class.
GENERAL OBJECTIVES
 Consolidate Panama as a world-class logistics hub, leader in freight traffic and the
provision of value-added logistics services , taking advantage of its strategic
geographical position , its interoceanic canal and its human potential .
 Integrate maritime port development with national development, generating
employment, wealth and social well-being for the entire country, respecting the
environment and maritime culture.
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SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES
 Strengthen the role of the AMP as the managing body of the maritime port sector,
providing it with financial autonomy, regulatory capacity, transparency and efficiency
.
 Optimize the management of the AMP's port assets , guaranteeing their safety,
quality and profitability , as well as adaptation to the needs of the market and users.
 Promote the productive, industrial and logistical development of Panama, diversifying
the port offer, encouraging private investment, promoting innovation and
digitalization, and creating synergies with other economic sectors.
 Improve social well-being and respect for the environment, contributing to the
reduction of poverty, inequality and exclusion , promoting the formation and training
of human capital, and applying environmental and social sustainability criteria in all
maritime-port activities. .
THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK
The theoretical framework of this plan is based on the concepts of competitiveness,
innovation and logistics , which are the thematic axes of the IV Hemispheric Conference
where the document was presented. These concepts are fundamental to understand the
context, challenges and opportunities of the maritime port sector in Panama and the
region .
Competitiveness refers to
The ability of a country or region to offer products and services that satisfy the needs and
expectations of customers , both internal and external , and that are differentiated from
those of the competition , both in quality and price . Competitiveness implies a continuous
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improvement in productivity, efficiency and quality , as well as adaptation to changes in the
market and environment . Competitiveness is measured by indicators such as:
1. economic growth,
2. foreign trade,
3. The human development index,
4. The ease of doing business index, among others.
Innovation refers to
The ability to generate and apply new ideas, knowledge and technologies that add value to
products and services, and that allow solving problems or satisfying needs in a creative and
original way . Innovation implies a proactive , curious and open attitude to learning , as well
as a collaboration between the different actors in the innovation system, such as academia,
business, government and society . Innovation is measured by indicators such as spending
on research and development, the number of patents, the global innovation index, among
others.
Logistics refers to
Set of activities and processes that allow the efficient and effective flow of goods and
services from origin to destination , as well as:
1. information management,
2. The inventory,
3. Transport,
4. The storage,
5. The distribution
6. And customer service.
Logistics involves coordination and integration of the different links in the value chain, as
well as optimization of resources and minimization of costs and risks . Logistics is measured
by indicators such as:
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1. The logistics performance index,
2. The time and cost of port operations,
3. The maritime connectivity index, among others.
These concepts are related to each other and feed each other , forming a virtuous circle that
drives the maritime port development of Panama .
Competitiveness requires Innovation requires Logistics requires
of innovation to generate
competitive advantages and
differentiate ourselves from
the competition.
of logistics to materialize
ideas and take them to the
market.
of competitiveness to offer
quality and attractive
services to customers.
Thus, Panama's strategic maritime port development plan is based on a theoretical
framework that seeks to enhance the competitiveness, innovation and logistics of the
sector, with a vision of the future and a comprehensive perspective.
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE
The strategic maritime port development plan of Panama 2040 is a document that presents
a vision of the future for the sector, with the aim of turning Panama into a world-class
logistics hub, a leader in freight traffic and the provision of logistics services. of added value,
integrating port development with national development, social well-being and respect for
the environment.
But how does this plan compare with the reality of other Central American countries?
What factors have favored or hindered maritime port development in the region? What
lessons can be drawn from cases of success and failure? Below, we present an analysis of
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five Central American countries, with their respective cases of success and failure, and the
questions and answers that will help us understand them better.
COSTA RICA
Case of success
The port of Moín, located on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, is the country's main port
and the second most important in Central America , after Colón in Panama. The port of
Moín has undergone a notable transformation in recent years, thanks to the concession
granted in 2011 to the Dutch company APM Terminals , which invested more than a billion
dollars 😲in the construction of a state-of-the-art container terminal, with capacity to serve
ships of up to 13,000 TEU (unit equivalent to a 20-foot container), making it the most
modern and efficient port in the region. The new container terminal came into operation in
2019 , and since then it has:
1. Increased cargo movement,
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2. Reduced waiting times,
3. Improved security and quality of service,
4. And generated economic and social benefits for the country.
Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of
Moín?
Answer:
Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Moín are:
1. The strategic vision of the government of Costa Rica, which recognized the importance
of modernizing the port to improve the country's competitiveness and facilitate
foreign trade, especially with Europe and Asia.
2. The participation of the private sector, which provided the investment, technology and
experience necessary to build and operate the container terminal, under a concession
model that guarantees the profitability and sustainability of the project.
3. The support of the port community, which was involved in the planning, design and
execution process of the terminal, and who benefited from the training, job creation
and local development that the work brought with it.
4. Compliance with environmental and social standards, which ensured that the
container terminal integrated with the natural environment and respected the rights
of workers and communities affected by the project.
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Failure case:
The port of Caldera , located on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is the country's second port
and the main departure point for agricultural exports , especially coffee, pineapple and
bananas . The port of Caldera has suffered progressive deterioration in recent years, due to:
1. The lack of investment,
2. The obsolescence of infrastructure and equipment,
3. operational inefficiency,
4. The congestion,
5. Delays,
6. High costs and low quality of service.
The port of Caldera was concessioned in 2006 to the Colombian company Sociedad
Portuaria de Caldera (SPC) , which undertook to make improvements to the port , but
which:
1. Has not met expectations
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2. Nor with contractual obligations.
The government of Costa Rica has attempted to renegotiate the concession , but has not
reached a satisfactory agreement with the company , which has generated a legal conflict
and a situation of uncertainty for the future of the port.
Question: What factors have caused the failure of the Caldera port?
Answer:
Some of the factors that have caused the failure of the Caldera port are:
1. The lack of strategic planning by the government of Costa Rica, which did not clearly
define the objectives, conditions and control mechanisms of the concession, which
generated ambiguities, gaps and contradictions in the contract.
2. The lack of commitment from the private sector, which did not invest enough in the
port, nor met the expansion, modernization and efficiency goals that had been agreed
upon, and which hid behind legal and technical arguments to justify its non-
compliance.
3. The lack of coordination of the port community, which did not achieve effective
articulation between the different actors involved in the port, such as exporters,
transporters, operators, unions and authorities, and which was affected by labor
conflicts, the protests and blockades that occurred in the port.
4. The lack of respect for environmental and social standards, which caused damage to
the marine and coastal ecosystem, and violated the rights of workers and communities
near the port.
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GUATEMALA
Case of success
The port of Santo Tomás de Castilla , located on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala , is the
country's main port and the third most important in Central America , after those of Colón
and Balboa in Panama. The port of Santo Tomás de Castilla has achieved notable growth in
recent years, thanks to:
1. The investment,
2. The modernization and
3. The diversification of its services.
The port has expanded its capacity for handling ships , has incorporated cutting-edge
technology , has improved its safety and efficiency, and has expanded its offer of logistics
services, such as storage, transshipment, assembly and labeling of goods. The port has
increased its participation in Guatemala's foreign trade , and has attracted new clients and
operators, both regional and international.
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Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of
Santo Tomás de Castilla?
Answer:
Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Santo Tomás de
Castilla are:
1. The strategic vision of the Santo Tomás de Castilla National Port Company
(EMPORNAC), which has managed the port with criteria of competitiveness, quality
and sustainability, seeking to satisfy the needs of the market and users.
2. The participation of the private sector, which has invested in the port, both in
infrastructure and equipment, under a public-private alliance model that guarantees
the profitability and transparency of the project.
3. The support of the port community, which has collaborated in the planning, execution
and evaluation process of the improvements in the port, and which has benefited from
the training, job creation and local development that the project has brought with it.
4. Compliance with environmental and social standards, which have ensured that the
port is integrated with the natural environment and respects the rights of workers and
communities affected by the project.
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Failure case:
The port of Quetzal , located on the Pacific coast of Guatemala, is the second port in the
country and the fourth most important in Central America , after those of Colón, Balboa and
Santo Tomás de Castilla. The port of Quetzal has suffered serious deterioration in recent
years, due to:
1. The corruption,
2. The non-compliance and
3. The cancellation of the concession granted in 2012 to the Spanish
company Terminal de Containers Quetzal (TCQ), which undertook to
build and operate a state-of-the-art container terminal, with the
capacity to handle ships of up to 14,000 teu.
The concession was annulled in 2016 , after it was discovered that there had been bribery
and fraud in the award process, which generated a political and judicial scandal involving
senior officials of the previous government. The port of Quetzal has been left in a situation of
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uncertainty and paralysis, without being able to advance in the modernization and
competitiveness that the sector requires.
Question : What factors have caused the failure of the port of Quetzal?
Answer:
Some of the factors that have caused the failure of the port of Quetzal are:
1. The lack of strategic planning by the Guatemalan government, which did not clearly
define the objectives, conditions and control mechanisms of the concession, which
generated ambiguities, gaps and contradictions in the contract.
2. The lack of commitment of the private sector, which did not invest enough in the port,
nor met the expansion, modernization and efficiency goals that had been agreed
upon, and which was involved in acts of corruption and fraud that affected the
credibility and legality of the project.
3. The lack of coordination of the port community, which did not achieve effective
coordination between the different actors involved in the port, such as exporters,
importers, operators, unions and authorities, and which was affected by labor
conflicts, the protests and blockades that occurred in the port.
4. The lack of respect for environmental and social standards, which caused damage to
the marine and coastal ecosystem, and violated the rights of workers and communities
near the port.
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HONDURAS
Case of success:
The port of Cortés, located on the Atlantic coast of Honduras, is the country's main port and
the fifth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de
Castilla and Quetzal. The port of Cortés has achieved notable progress in recent years, thanks
to the implementation of a port management system based on the landlord model, which
separates the administration, regulation and operation functions of the port, and that allows
the participation of operators. private companies under a clear and transparent legal and
regulatory framework. The port of Cortés has improved its infrastructure, equipment,
security and efficiency, and has expanded its offer of logistics services, such as storage,
transshipment, assembly and labeling of goods. The port of Cortés has increased its cargo
movement, reduced operating costs and times, and generated economic and social benefits
for the country.
Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Cortés?
Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Cortés are:
 The strategic vision of the Commission for the Promotion of Public-Private Partnership
(COALIANZA), which promoted the modernization of the port by granting the port
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operation to the Philippine company International Container Terminal Services, Inc.
(ICTSI), which invested more of 600 million dollars in the project.
 The participation of the private sector, which provided the investment, technology and
experience necessary to operate the port, under a concession model that guarantees
the profitability and sustainability of the project, and that establishes coordination and
supervision mechanisms with the port authority.
 The support of the port community, which was involved in the planning, design and
execution process of the modernization of the port, and who benefited from the
training, job creation and local development that the project brought with it.
 Compliance with environmental and social standards, which ensured that the port was
integrated with the natural environment and respected the rights of workers and
communities affected by the project.
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Failure case:
The port of San Lorenzo, located on the Pacific coast of Honduras, is the second port in the
country and the ninth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo
Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal, Cortés, Limón-Moín, Acajutla and Corinth. The port of San
Lorenzo has suffered stagnation in recent years, due to lack of investment, obsolescence of
infrastructure and equipment, operational inefficiency, congestion, delays, high costs and low
quality of service. The port of San Lorenzo was concessioned in 2007 to the Honduran
company Operadora Portuaria Centroamericana (OPC), which committed to making
improvements to the port, but has not met expectations or contractual obligations. The
Honduran government has attempted to renegotiate the concession, but has not reached a
satisfactory agreement with the company, which has generated a legal conflict and a
situation of uncertainty for the future of the port.
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THE SAVIOR
Case of success:
The port of Acajutla, located on the Pacific coast of El Salvador, is the main port in the
country and the sixth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo
Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal and Cortés. The port of Acajutla has achieved notable progress in
recent years, thanks to the implementation of a port management system based on the
public company model, which strengthens the role of the Autonomous Port Executive
Commission (CEPA), as administrator, regulator and port operator, and that allows the
participation of private operators under a clear and transparent legal and regulatory
framework. The port of Acajutla has improved its infrastructure, equipment, safety and
efficiency, and has expanded its offer of logistics services, such as storage, transshipment,
assembly and labeling of goods. The port of Acajutla has increased its cargo movement,
reduced operating costs and times, and generated economic and social benefits for the
country.
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Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of La Unión?
Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of La Unión
are:
 The strategic vision of the government of El Salvador, which promoted the
construction of the port as part of a national development plan, which seeks to
improve connectivity, competitiveness and regional integration of the country.
 The international cooperation of the government of Japan, which provided the
financing, technology and technical assistance necessary for the execution of the
project, under a donation and concessional loan scheme, which guarantees its viability
and sustainability.
 The support of the port community, which participated in the planning, design and
operation process of the port, and who benefited from the training, job creation and
local development that the project brought with it.
 Compliance with environmental and social standards, which ensured that the port was
integrated with the natural environment and respected the rights of workers and
communities affected by the project.
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Failure case:
The port of Acajutla, located on the Pacific coast of El Salvador, is the oldest and most
traditional port in the country, and the sixth most important in Central America, after those
of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal and La Unión. The port of Acajutla has
suffered stagnation and decline in recent years, due to lack of investment, obsolescence of
infrastructure and equipment, operational inefficiency, congestion, delays, high costs and low
quality of the service. The port of Acajutla has not been able to adapt to the demands of the
market and users, nor compete with the other ports in the region, especially with that of La
Unión, which has taken away cargo and customers. The port of Acajutla has been left in a
situation of backwardness and disadvantage, without being able to advance in the
modernization and competitiveness that the sector requires.
Question : What factors have caused the failure of the port of Acajutla?
Answer : Some of the factors that have caused the failure of the port of Acajutla are:
 The lack of strategic planning by the government of El Salvador, which did not clearly
define the role and future of the port, nor allocate sufficient resources for its
maintenance and improvement, which generated a progressive deterioration of
facilities and services.
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 The lack of participation of the private sector, which did not invest in the port, nor was
it involved in its management and operation, under a concession model or public-
private alliance, which could provide efficiency and transparency to the project.
 The lack of coordination of the port community, which did not achieve effective
coordination between the different actors involved in the port, such as exporters,
importers, operators, unions and authorities, and which was affected by labor
conflicts, the protests and blockades that occurred in the port.
 The lack of respect for environmental and social standards, which caused damage to
the marine and coastal ecosystem, and violated the rights of workers and communities
near the port.
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NICARAGUA
Case of success:
The port of Corinto, located on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, is the country's main port and
the ninth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de
Castilla, Quetzal, La Unión, Acajutla, Cortés and San Lawrence. The port of Corinth has
achieved significant progress in recent years, thanks to investment, modernization and
diversification of its services. The port has expanded its capacity for handling ships, has
incorporated cutting-edge technology, has improved its safety and efficiency, and has
expanded its offer of logistics services, such as storage, transshipment, assembly and labeling
of goods. The port of Corinto has increased its participation in the foreign trade of Nicaragua
and the region, and has attracted new clients and operators, both regional and international.
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Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of
Corinth?
Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth
are:
Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth are
 The strategic vision of the National Port Company (EPN), which has managed the port
with criteria of competitiveness, quality and sustainability, seeking to satisfy the needs
of the market and users.
 The participation of the private sector, which has invested in the port, both in
infrastructure and equipment, under a public-private alliance model that guarantees
the profitability and transparency of the project.
 The support of the port community, which has collaborated in the planning, execution
and evaluation process of the improvements in the port, and which has benefited from
the training, job creation and local development that the project has brought with it.
 Compliance with environmental and social standards, which have ensured that the
port is integrated with the natural environment and respects the rights of workers and
communities affected by the project.
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Failure case:
The port of Bluefields, located on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua , is the second port in the
country and the tenth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo
Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal, La Unión, Acajutla, Cortés, San Lorenzo and Corinth. The port of
Bluefields has suffered a setback and abandonment in recent years , due to lack of
investment, obsolescence of infrastructure and equipment, operational inefficiency,
insecurity, delays, high costs and low quality of the service. The port of Bluefields has not
been able to adapt to the demands of the market and users, nor compete with the other
ports in the region, especially with that of Santo Tomás de Castilla , which has taken away
cargo and customers. The port of Bluefields has been left in a situation of backwardness and
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disadvantage , without being able to advance in the modernization and competitiveness that
the sector requires.
Question : What factors have caused the failure of the Bluefields port?
Answer : Some of the factors that have caused the failure of the Bluefields port are:
 The lack of strategic planning by the Nicaraguan government, which did not clearly
define the role and future of the port, nor allocate sufficient resources for its
maintenance and improvement, which generated a progressive deterioration of
facilities and services.
 The lack of participation of the private sector, which did not invest in the port, nor was
it involved in its management and operation, under a concession model or public-
private alliance, which could provide efficiency and transparency to the project.
 The lack of coordination of the port community, which did not achieve effective
coordination between the different actors involved in the port, such as exporters,
importers, operators, unions and authorities, and which was affected by labor
conflicts, the protests and blockades that occurred in the port.
 The lack of respect for environmental and social standards, which caused damage to
the marine and coastal ecosystem, and violated the rights of workers and communities
near the port.
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CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE
5 NORTH AMERICAN PORTS
USA
Case of success:
The Port of Long Beach, California , is one of the most successful ports in the United States,
and the second largest in the country. This port has managed to increase its capacity and
efficiency, thanks to investment in infrastructure, technology and innovation. For example,
the port has implemented a maritime traffic management system, which allows optimizing
the use of docks, cranes and tugboats. It has also developed an environmental sustainability
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program, which reduces emissions, noise and energy consumption. In addition, the port has
strengthened its port security, with prevention and response measures against possible
threats.
Tips and advice:
Panama can learn from this success story, and apply some of the good practices that the port
of Long Beach has adopted. For example, Panama can invest in infrastructure and technology
to improve the capacity and efficiency of its ports. You can also implement environmental
sustainability programs to reduce the impact of maritime activity on the environment. And
you can also strengthen your port security, to prevent and respond to possible attacks.
Failure case:
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The Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, is one of the oldest and most important ports in the
United States, but also one of the most vulnerable. This port has suffered the consequences
of several natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes, which have damaged
its infrastructure and operations. For example, Hurricane Katrina in 2005 caused the
destruction of more than 80% of port facilities and paralyzed trade for several months. In
addition, the port has faced congestion, competition and financing problems, which have
affected its profitability and competitiveness.
Tips and advice:
Panama can learn from this case of failure, and avoid some of the bad practices that the port
of New Orleans has committed. For example, Panama can better prepare for natural
disasters, and have contingency and recovery plans for its ports. It can also improve port
traffic management, and seek alliances and agreements with other countries and regions.
And you can also look for alternative sources of financing, and diversify your port income.
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CANADA
Case of success :
The port of Prince Rupert, British Columbia, is one of Canada's most successful ports, and the
closest to Asia. This port has managed to position itself as an attractive and competitive
option for transpacific trade, thanks to its geographical location, its infrastructure and its
service. For example, the port has a state-of-the-art container terminal, which offers high
productivity and low congestion. It also has a direct rail connection to the central United
States, which reduces transportation time and cost. In addition, the port has efficient and
transparent port management, which facilitates the flow of information and documentation.
Suggestions and advice :
Panama can learn from this success story, and replicate some of the good practices that the
port of Prince Rupert has implemented. For example, Panama can take advantage of its
geographic location and offer a fast and efficient connection between the Atlantic and Pacific
oceans. You can also improve your infrastructure and service, to increase productivity and
customer satisfaction. And you can also improve your port management, to streamline
processes and communication.
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Failure case :
The Port of Churchill in Manitoba is one of Canada's oldest and most isolated ports, and the
country's only Arctic port. This port has suffered the consequences of economic dependence,
lack of diversification and lack of support. For example, the port depends almost exclusively
on grain transportation, which is a volatile and seasonal market. It also has a limited and
uncompetitive offer, which does not attract other types of cargo or customers. Additionally,
the port has lost support from the government and operators, who have cut funding and
service.
Suggestions and advice :
Panama can learn from this case of failure, and prevent some of the bad practices that the
port of Churchill has suffered. For example, Panama can diversify its economy, and not
depend only on the Canal, but also on other sectors. You can also diversify your offer, and
offer more and better services to ships that pass through your ports. And it can also seek the
support of the government and operators, to guarantee the financing and service of its ports.
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MEXICO
Case of success :
The port of Lázaro Cárdenas, in Michoacán, is one of the most successful ports in Mexico,
and the largest in the Mexican Pacific. This port has managed to increase its capacity and
competitiveness, thanks to investment in infrastructure, technology and security. For
example, the port has an automated container terminal, which offers high speed and low
pollution. It also has a surveillance and control system, which guarantees the security and
transparency of port operations. Additionally, the port has a special economic zone, which
offers tax and regulatory incentives to companies that set up shop in the area.
Suggestions and advice :
Panama can learn from this success story, and adopt some of the good practices that the
port of Lázaro Cárdenas has developed. For example, Panama can invest in infrastructure and
technology to increase the capacity and competitiveness of its ports. You can also invest in
security and transparency, to guarantee the trust and legality of the port operation. And it
can also create special economic zones, to attract investment and business to its ports.
Failure case :
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The port of Veracruz, in Veracruz, is one of the oldest and most important ports in Mexico,
and the main port in the Gulf of Mexico. This port has suffered the consequences of lack of
planning, lack of coordination and lack of sustainability. For example, the port has an
obsolete and saturated infrastructure, which limits the capacity and efficiency of the ports. It
also has a lack of articulation with other modes of transport, which makes mobility and port
connectivity difficult. Furthermore, the port has a negative environmental and social impact,
which affects the quality of life and development of local communities.
Suggestions and advice :
Panama can learn from this case of failure, and correct some of the bad practices that the
port of Veracruz has committed. For example, Panama can plan port development , and have
a long-term vision of its objectives and actions. It can also coordinate port development, and
have articulation with other modes of transport and with other actors. And it can also carry
out sustainable port development, and take into account the environmental and social
impact of its ports.
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Success story: Chile and the port of Valparaíso
Chile is a country that has managed to consolidate itself as an export power of agricultural,
mining, forestry and fishing products, thanks to its privileged geographical location and its
commercial openness. Its port system has been key to facilitating foreign trade and
connecting the country with the main markets in the world. Within this system, the port of
Valparaíso stands out as one of the most important and competitive in the region, due to its
capacity, efficiency, security and connectivity.
The port of Valparaíso has been able to adapt to the changes and challenges of international
maritime transport, through modern, innovative and participatory management. The port
has been concessioned to private operators since 1999, which has allowed greater
investment, modernization and diversification of port services. The port has two specialized
terminals, one for containers and the other for general cargo and vehicles, which operate 24
hours a day, 365 days a year. The port also has an integrated logistics platform, which
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facilitates the flow of information, documentation and coordination between the different
actors in the logistics chain.
The port of Valparaíso has managed to position itself as a world-class logistics hub, a leader
in freight traffic and the provision of value-added logistics services. The port has been
recognized for its quality, productivity, competitiveness and sustainability, both nationally
and internationally. The port has contributed to the economic, social and environmental
development of the city of Valparaíso and the region, generating employment, income,
culture and tourism.
Suggestions and advice from the success story
 Maintain a long-term strategic vision, which considers the trends and opportunities of
global maritime trade, and which is aligned with the sustainable development
objectives of the country and the region.
 Promote efficient, transparent and participatory port management, involving the
public, private and social sectors, and seeking continuous improvement of processes,
innovation and customer satisfaction.
 Promote sustainable port investment, which allows for the expansion and
modernization of port infrastructure, equipment and technology, and which respects
the environment and the cultural heritage of the city.
 Strengthen port connectivity, both maritime and land, to facilitate access to and exit of
goods, and reduce transportation costs and times.
 Develop an integrated logistics platform that optimizes the flow of information,
documentation and coordination between the different actors in the logistics chain,
and that offers value-added logistics services to port users.
 Strengthen the port's role as a world-class logistics hub, which attracts and retains the
main shipping lines and the most demanding shippers, and which offers competitive
and differentiating advantages in the market.
 Contribute to the economic, social and environmental development of the city and the
region, generating employment, income, culture and tourism, and maintaining a
harmonious and collaborative relationship with the community.
Failure case: Venezuela and the port of La Guaira
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Venezuela is a country that has suffered a profound economic, political and social crisis in
recent years, which has seriously affected its foreign trade and its port system. Its port
system has been a victim of lack of investment, planning, management and maintenance,
resulting in a loss of capacity, efficiency, security and connectivity. Within this system, the
port of La Guaira has been especially affected, as it is the main port in the country and the
closest to the capital, Caracas.
The port of La Guaira has been the object of centralized, bureaucratic and corrupt state
management, which has neglected the needs and demands of international maritime
transport. The port has been subjected to a process of nationalization and militarization,
which has scared away private operators and potential clients. The port lacks adequate
infrastructure, equipment and technology that allows it to handle cargo quickly and safely.
The port also suffers from a lack of connectivity, both maritime and land, which makes access
to and exit of goods difficult, and increases transportation costs and times.
The port of La Guaira has lost its position as a strategic port for the foreign trade of
Venezuela and the region. The port has seen its cargo movement, productivity,
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competitiveness and profitability decrease drastically. The port has generated a negative
impact on the economic, social and environmental development of the city of La Guaira and
the region, causing unemployment, poverty, pollution and violence.
Suggestions and advice in case of failure
 Recover a long-term strategic vision that recognizes the importance and potential of
maritime trade for the development of the country and the region, and is based on the
principles of sustainable development.
 Implement effective, decentralized and transparent port management, which
delegates port operations to competent and reliable private operators, and which
seeks quality, innovation and customer satisfaction.
 Carry out an urgent port investment, which allows the rehabilitation and
modernization of port infrastructure, equipment and technology, and which considers
the environment and the well-being of the city.
 Improve port connectivity, both maritime and land, to facilitate access to and exit of
goods, and reduce transportation costs and times.
 Create an integrated logistics platform that improves the flow of information,
documentation and coordination between the different actors in the logistics chain,
and that offers value-added logistics services to port users
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SUCCESS STORY: PORT OF CALLAO, PERU
The port of Callao in Peru is a true success story that deserves to be celebrated! With its
strategic approach and vision of the future, Callao has become an internationally renowned
port. What is your secret? Well, here are the keys to its success:
1. Modern infrastructure: The port of Callao wisely invested in state-of-the-art port
infrastructure. Its terminals have cutting-edge equipment and efficient logistics
systems, which has allowed a constant flow of goods and a significant reduction in
waiting times.
2. Development of logistics zones: To complement its port activity, Callao has developed
strategic logistics zones in its surroundings. These areas offer value-added services
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such as warehousing, packaging and distribution, which has attracted investment and
generated substantial economic growth.
3. International alliances: The port of Callao has established strategic alliances with key
international players in the maritime sector. These associations have strengthened its
position in the global market, facilitating the acquisition of new trade routes and
improving connectivity with other important ports.
Tips and suggestions for the success story:
 Maintain focus on the modernization and constant improvement of port
infrastructure.
 It encourages the development of complementary logistics zones to boost economic
activity around the port.
 Seek strategic international alliances to strengthen the port's position in the global
market.
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CASE OF FAILURE: PORT OF GUAYAQUIL, ECUADOR
Failure case: Port of Guayaquil, Ecuador
Oh, the Port of Guayaquil in Ecuador, a case of failure that teaches us valuable lessons!
Despite its privileged geographical location and its potential to become a major maritime
centre, the port has faced significant difficulties and challenges.
Here are some of the reasons behind this failure:
1. Lack of investment in infrastructure: Over the years, the Port of Guayaquil has
suffered from a lack of investment in adequate port infrastructure. The lack of
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modernization and upgrading has led to capacity issues, operational inefficiencies and
delays in processing goods.
2. Bureaucracy and corruption: Excessive bureaucracy and corruption have plagued port
management. These problems have generated delays and obstacles in customs
processes, which has discouraged investors and negatively affected the port's
competitiveness.
3. Poor strategic planning: The lack of comprehensive strategic planning has been
another determining factor in the port's failure. The absence of a long-term vision and
the lack of coordination between the actors involved have made it difficult to develop
an effective strategy for the growth and improvement of the port.
Tips and suggestions in case of failure:
 Prioritizes investment in modern and updated port infrastructure to improve
operational capacity and efficiency.
 Promotes transparency and combats corruption through rigorous management and
appropriate controls.
 Establishes comprehensive strategic planning that involves all relevant actors and
focuses on the long-term development of the port.
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SWOT
STRENGTHS OPPORTUNITIES
Panama has a privileged geographical
position, which allows it to connect the
Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and facilitate
international trade between the continents
of America, Europe and Asia.
Panama has the opportunity to take
advantage of the growth of global trade and
the demand for logistics services, which is
expected to increase in the coming years,
due to globalization, digitalization and
technological innovation.
Panama has the Panama Canal, a unique
engineering work in the world, which gives
it a competitive advantage and a source of
income for the country.
Panama has the opportunity to diversify its
port offer, developing new infrastructure
and services in strategic areas of the
country, such as Vacamonte, which is
located near the Canal and the Panama
Pacific, and which could become a hub of
logistics and industrial development.
Panama has a diversified port system, which
includes state, concessioned and private
ports, which offer loading and unloading,
storage, transshipment, assembly, labeling
and other value-added logistics services.
Panama has the opportunity to integrate its
port development with national
development, seeking to generate
economic, social and environmental
benefits for the country, and contribute to
the fulfillment of the UN Sustainable
Development Goals (SDGs).
Panama has favorable legislation for the
development of the maritime port sector,
which includes tax, customs and labor
incentives, as well as a regulatory
framework that promotes competitiveness,
quality and sustainability.
Panama has the opportunity to strengthen
its regional integration, participating in
initiatives such as the Puebla-Panama Plan,
the Free Trade Agreement with the United
States (CAFTA) and brotherhood agreements
with other ports in the world, which allow it
to expand its markets and its Strategic
Alliances.
Panama has a recognized and respected
maritime authority, which is the Panama
Maritime Authority (AMP), which is
responsible for the management, control
Panama has the opportunity to enhance its
image and reputation as a world-class
logistics hub, a leader in freight traffic and
the provision of value-added logistics
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and promotion of the maritime port sector,
and which has the support of international
organizations such as the CAF and the OMA.
services, and as an attractive and safe
tourist destination, offering a variety of
attractions. natural, cultural and historical.
WEAKNESSES THREATS
Panama has an excessive dependence on
the Panama Canal, which represents 40% of
its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and
which makes it vulnerable to changes in the
market, competition, politics and climate.
Panama faces the threat of competition
from other ports in the region, which offer
lower rates, more specialized services, more
modern infrastructure and more efficient
management, which can attract customers
and operators who currently use
Panamanian ports.
Panama has a concentration of port activity
in the interoceanic region, which covers the
axes between the province of Colón and
Panama, and which generates problems of
congestion, pollution, insecurity and social
inequality.
Panama faces the threat of the opening of
new maritime routes, which may reduce
demand for the Panama Canal and
associated ports, such as the expansion of
the Suez Canal, the development of the
Guatemalan Interoceanic Corridor, the
Nicaragua Canal project and the melting of
the Arctic.
Panama has a deficient port infrastructure,
which presents limitations in depth, space,
equipment, technology and security, which
affect the efficiency, quality and
competitiveness of port services.
Panama faces the threat of natural risks,
which can affect the operation and safety of
the Panama Canal and ports, such as
earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts, floods
and climate change.
Panama has ineffective port management,
which is characterized by lack of financial
autonomy, lack of control over port land,
lack of coordination between sector actors,
lack of transparency and corruption.
Panama faces the threat of social risks,
which can generate conflicts and violence in
the maritime port sector, such as labor
problems, social protests, drug trafficking,
terrorism and piracy.
Panama has insufficient port training, which
is reflected in the lack of qualified technical
personnel, the lack of continuous training
Panama faces the threat of health risks,
which can cause crises and emergencies in
the maritime port sector, such as
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programs, the lack of innovation and the
drain of talent.
pandemics, tropical diseases, pollution and
the mollusk plague.
CONCLUSION
Well, I have already told you everything I think about the Strategic Plan for Maritime and
Port Development of Panama 2040, the coolest, coolest and most ardent plan that has been
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made in history. Now I am going to tell you my final conclusion, which is what I want you to
take away from everything I have told you.
My conclusion is that the plan is an innovative and necessary project , which seeks to
position Panama as a world- class logistics hub and a key sector for national economic
development. I believe that the plan has an ambitious and visionary , but also realistic and
feasible , vision of what Panama's maritime-port system should be like in the year 2040. I
believe that the plan recognizes the current weaknesses and challenges of the sector , but
also identifies the strengths and opportunities of the country . I believe that the plan
proposes concrete and coherent actions to achieve these objectives, and that it is aligned
with other plans and with the changes expected in the sector. I believe that the plan has very
great potential benefits for Panama and for the world, but also some challenges and risks
that must be evaluated and managed appropriately.
But I also believe that the plan is not perfect , nor is it the only possible solution, nor is it the
guarantee of success . I think the plan has some limitations and weaknesses, such as:
1. The lack of information ,
2. The lack of participation ,
3. The lack of consensus ,
4. The lack of flexibility and
5. Lack of follow-up .
I think the plan has some assumptions and risks , such as:
1. The availability of resources,
2. The political will,
3. Institutional coordination,
4. The regional competition and
5. Technological adaptation.
I think the plan has some negative and unwanted effects , such as:
1. The environmental impact,
2. The social impact,
3. The economic impact,
4. The political impact and
5. The cultural impact.
Therefore, I believe that the plan is not a static thing , but a dynamic thing, which must be
constantly reviewed, updated, improved and adapted . I believe that the plan is not
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something for a few, but something for everyone, which must be known, discussed,
supported and executed by all the actors involved. I believe that the plan is not an easy
thing, but a difficult thing , which requires:
1. A lot of work,
2. A lot of commitment,
3. a lot of effort and
4. A lot of sacrifice.
In summary, I believe that the plan is a unique and historic opportunity for Panama , but
also an enormous and complex responsibility. I believe that the plan is a challenge worth
taking on , but also a risk that must be managed . I think the plan is a dream that we can
make come true , but also a reality that can turn into a nightmare.
And what do you think? Do you like the plan? Do you dare to participate? You dare to
dream? I hope so, because Panama needs you, and the world awaits you. 😊
BIBLIOGRAPHY
Strategic Plans | Maritime Authority of Panama. https://www.amp.gob.pa/iniciativas/planes-
estrategicos/.
PANAMA BEGINS THE STRATEGIC MARITIME AND PORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN....
https://www.amp.gob.pa/noticias/panama-da-inicio-al-plan-estrategico-de-desarrollo-
maritimo-y-portuario -of-the-republic-of-panama-vision-2040/.
CAM Panama: AMP presented Strategic Plan for Maritime Development and....
https://bing.com/search?q=Plan+Estrat%c3%a9gico+de+Desarrollo+Mar%c3%adtimo+y+Por
tuario+de +Panama%c3%a1+2040.
THE AMP PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF THE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN....
https://www.amp.gob.pa/noticias/la-amp-presenta-los-resultados-del-plan-estrategico-de-
desarrollo-maritimo- port-of-the-republic-of-panama-vision-2040/.
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They present the Strategic Plan for Maritime Port Development of the ....
https://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/economia/presentan-plan-estrategico-de-desarrollo-
maritimo-portuario-de-la-republica-de-panama .

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THE STRATEGIC MARITIME AND PORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF PANAMA 2040

  • 1. 1 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 PANAMA UNIVERSITY FACULTY OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION AND ACCOUNTING VICE-RECTOR OF RESEARCH AND POSTGRADUATE MASTER IN BUSINESS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME INDUSTRY RESEARCH TASK THE STRATEGIC MARITIME AND PORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN OF PANAMA 2040 TEACHER ILEANA MOLO STUDENT CARLOS CAMPOS 2025 -2026
  • 2. 2 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040
  • 3. 3 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Content INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................................................6 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM ................................................................................................7 A sleeping giant awakens: The Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 .............................................................................................................................................7 What are the problems facing the Panamanian maritime port sector? ............................7 How does the Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 intend to resolve these problems? ...................................................................................................7 What are the potential benefits of this plan? ...................................................................8 Is this plan an impossible dream? .....................................................................................8 BACKGROUND ........................................................................................................................9 JUSTIFICATION ......................................................................................................................10 GENERAL OBJECTIVES ...........................................................................................................12 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES ............................................................................................................13 THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK .................................................................................................13 Competitiveness refers to ............................................................................................... 13 Innovation refers to ........................................................................................................14 Logistics refers to ............................................................................................................14 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE ..........................................................................................15 COSTA RICA ...........................................................................................................................16 Success story .....................................................................................................................16 Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Moín? .................17 Answer: ..........................................................................................................................17 Failure case: .......................................................................................................................18 Question: What factors have caused the failure of the Caldera port? ................................ 19 Answer: ..........................................................................................................................19 Guatemala ............................................................................................................................20 Success story .....................................................................................................................20
  • 4. 4 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Santo Tomás de Castilla? .............................................................................................................................21 Answer: ..........................................................................................................................21 Failure case: .......................................................................................................................22 Question : What factors have caused the failure of the port of Quetzal? ..........................23 Answer: ..........................................................................................................................23 Honduras .............................................................................................................................. 24 Success story: ....................................................................................................................24 Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Cortés? ............24 Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Cortés are: .................................................................................................................................24 Failure case: .......................................................................................................................26 El Salvador ............................................................................................................................27 Success story: ....................................................................................................................27 Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of La Unión? ........28 Failure case: .......................................................................................................................29 Question : What factors have caused the failure of the port of Acajutla? .......................29 Nicaragua .............................................................................................................................31 Success story: ....................................................................................................................31 Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth? .............32 Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth are: .................................................................................................................................32 Failure case: .......................................................................................................................33 Question : What factors have caused the failure of the Bluefields port? ...........................34 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE ..........................................................................................35 5 NORTH AMERICAN PORTS .................................................................................................35 United States .....................................................................................................................35 Success story: .................................................................................................................35
  • 5. 5 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Tips and advice: ..............................................................................................................36 Failure case: .......................................................................................................................36 Tips and advice: ..............................................................................................................37 SWOT ....................................................................................................................................50 STRENGTHS ..........................................................................................................................50 OPPORTUNITIES ...................................................................................................................50 WEAKNESSES ........................................................................................................................51 THREATS ............................................................................................................................... 51 CONCLUSION ........................................................................................................................52 BIBLIOGRAPHY ......................................................................................................................54
  • 6. 6 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 INTRODUCTION Do you imagine Panama as the giant of the seas, riding the waves of commerce with the grace of a dolphin and the strength of a shark? Sounds ambitious, right? Well, that is the dream pursued by the Strategic Maritime and Port Development Plan of Panama 2040, a roadmap to turn the country into a world-class logistics hub. Forget about congested ports and outdated infrastructure . This visionary plan is committed to modernizing and expanding existing ports, building new terminals at strategic points and optimizing auxiliary maritime activities. In other words, Panama is preparing to sail into a future where commerce flows with the elegance of an aquatic ballet. A future where the Panama Canal remains the king of mambo, but now accompanied by a court of efficient ports that attract ships from all over the world. Can you imagine the benefits? More jobs, greater productivity, a boost to the national economy... Panama will become a star in the maritime firmament! And not only that, this plan is also committed to sustainability. It is about protecting the marine environment while developing the port sector. Because in Panama, growth and conservation go hand in hand. In short, the Strategic Maritime and Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 is an exciting adventure that invites us to ride the waves of the future with optimism and determination. A journey that will turn us into a maritime power and transform the country's economy.
  • 7. 7 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 PROBLEM STATEMENT A sleeping giant wakes up: The Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 Can you imagine Panama becoming a giant of the seas, riding the waves of commerce with the grace of a dolphin and the strength of a shark? That is the dream pursued by the Panama 2040 Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan, a roadmap to turn the country into a world-class logistics hub . However, before Panama can sail into this bright future, the sleeping giant must be awakened . What are the problems facing the Panamanian maritime port sector?  Poor infrastructure: Many ports are congested and need modernization.  Lack of planning: There is no comprehensive vision for the development of the sector.  Concentration in the interoceanic region: Port development has focused on the Panama Canal, neglecting the rest of the country.  Lack of investment: Billions of dollars are needed to modernize ports and build new infrastructure. How does the Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 intend to resolve these problems?  Modernize and expand existing ports.  Build new terminals at strategic points.  Optimize auxiliary maritime activities.  Diversify concentration in the interoceanic region.  Attract public and private investment.
  • 8. 8 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 What are the potential benefits of this plan?  Higher productivity.  More jobs.  Boost to the national economy.  Positioning of Panama as a world-class logistics hub. Is this plan an impossible dream? No, it is not. The Strategic Maritime Port Development Plan of Panama 2040 is an ambitious, but realistic plan. With the right investment, the right planning and the joint work of all sectors involved, Panama can turn this dream into reality. Are you getting on the boat? It is time to wake up the sleeping giant and turn Panama into a leader in global maritime trade.
  • 9. 9 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 BACKGROUND Can you imagine a country where ports are like the veins that transport the blood of the economy?  A country where the sea is the engine of innovation, competitiveness and social inclusion.  A country that is a world leader in the management of high-value merchandise and logistics services. That country is Panama, and that is the dream that was reflected in the strategic plan for maritime port development of the Republic of Panama. Vision 2040. This plan is the result of joint work between: THE MARITIME AUTHORITY OF PANAMA (AMP) THE CAF-DEVELOPMENT BANK OF LATIN AMERICA THE SPANISH CONSULTANT MCVALNERA, which for 9 months collected the opinions, needs and expectations of the different actors in the maritime port sector, both national and international, public and private. The plan is based on four fundamental pillars: 1. The AMP as the managing, efficient, facilitating and responsible body of the sector; 2. The development of a modern, safe and sustainable port infrastructure; 3. The diversification of economic, industrial and logistical activities linked to the sea;
  • 10. 10 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 4. And the improvement of social well-being and respect for the environment of coastal communities. With this plan, Panama aims to achieve maritime port excellence , taking advantage of: 1. Its strategic geographical position, 2. Its interoceanic canal 3. And its human potential. This is an ambitious but realistic plan that seeks to turn Panama into: 1. A world-class logistics hub , 2. Leader in freight traffic and 3. The provision of value-added logistics services . This plan is a unique opportunity for Panama to project itself into the future with an integrative, innovative and sustainable vision of the maritime port sector . A sector that is much more than ports, it is the heart of the Panamanian nation. JUSTIFICATION Why does Panama need a strategic maritime port development plan? The answer is simple:
  • 11. 11 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040  Because Panama is a maritime country par excellence , and its future depends on how it takes advantage of its resources and opportunities in the field of the sea. Panama has a privileged geographical position , which allows it to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans through its canal, and be a meeting point for the world's main trade routes. Panama has a historical maritime vocation , which has allowed it to develop: 1. Competitive port industry , 2. A renowned merchant fleet and 3. A wide range of auxiliary maritime services . Panama has an ambitious maritime vision, which drives it to seek excellence and leadership in the sector, and to become a world-class logistics hub. But Panama also has important maritime challenges , which require strategic planning and coordinated action. Panama has to adapt to the technological, economic and social changes that affect the maritime port sector, and that require greater efficiency, quality and sustainability . 1. Panama has to diversify its maritime port activity , and not depend not only container transit , but also boost other market segments, such as bulk transportation, cruise tourism, fishing, the naval industry and value-added logistics . 2. Panama has to integrate its maritime port development with national development , and not only benefit to the coastal areas , but also to the interior of the country , generating employment, wealth and social well-being. For all this, Panama needs a strategic plan for maritime port development , which allows it to take advantage of its strengths, overcome its weaknesses, exploit its opportunities and confront its threats.
  • 12. 12 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 1. A plan that is the result of participatory , consensual and transparent work, involving all actors in the sector , both public and private , both national and international . 2. A plan that is flexible, dynamic and adaptable , that is updated periodically and that is constantly evaluated . 3. A plan that is a roadmap, a guide, a tool for Panama to achieve its 2040 vision: to be a first-class maritime country , with a maritime port system of excellence , quality infrastructure and services, and a logistics hub of world class. GENERAL OBJECTIVES  Consolidate Panama as a world-class logistics hub, leader in freight traffic and the provision of value-added logistics services , taking advantage of its strategic geographical position , its interoceanic canal and its human potential .  Integrate maritime port development with national development, generating employment, wealth and social well-being for the entire country, respecting the environment and maritime culture.
  • 13. 13 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES  Strengthen the role of the AMP as the managing body of the maritime port sector, providing it with financial autonomy, regulatory capacity, transparency and efficiency .  Optimize the management of the AMP's port assets , guaranteeing their safety, quality and profitability , as well as adaptation to the needs of the market and users.  Promote the productive, industrial and logistical development of Panama, diversifying the port offer, encouraging private investment, promoting innovation and digitalization, and creating synergies with other economic sectors.  Improve social well-being and respect for the environment, contributing to the reduction of poverty, inequality and exclusion , promoting the formation and training of human capital, and applying environmental and social sustainability criteria in all maritime-port activities. . THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK The theoretical framework of this plan is based on the concepts of competitiveness, innovation and logistics , which are the thematic axes of the IV Hemispheric Conference where the document was presented. These concepts are fundamental to understand the context, challenges and opportunities of the maritime port sector in Panama and the region . Competitiveness refers to The ability of a country or region to offer products and services that satisfy the needs and expectations of customers , both internal and external , and that are differentiated from those of the competition , both in quality and price . Competitiveness implies a continuous
  • 14. 14 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 improvement in productivity, efficiency and quality , as well as adaptation to changes in the market and environment . Competitiveness is measured by indicators such as: 1. economic growth, 2. foreign trade, 3. The human development index, 4. The ease of doing business index, among others. Innovation refers to The ability to generate and apply new ideas, knowledge and technologies that add value to products and services, and that allow solving problems or satisfying needs in a creative and original way . Innovation implies a proactive , curious and open attitude to learning , as well as a collaboration between the different actors in the innovation system, such as academia, business, government and society . Innovation is measured by indicators such as spending on research and development, the number of patents, the global innovation index, among others. Logistics refers to Set of activities and processes that allow the efficient and effective flow of goods and services from origin to destination , as well as: 1. information management, 2. The inventory, 3. Transport, 4. The storage, 5. The distribution 6. And customer service. Logistics involves coordination and integration of the different links in the value chain, as well as optimization of resources and minimization of costs and risks . Logistics is measured by indicators such as:
  • 15. 15 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 1. The logistics performance index, 2. The time and cost of port operations, 3. The maritime connectivity index, among others. These concepts are related to each other and feed each other , forming a virtuous circle that drives the maritime port development of Panama . Competitiveness requires Innovation requires Logistics requires of innovation to generate competitive advantages and differentiate ourselves from the competition. of logistics to materialize ideas and take them to the market. of competitiveness to offer quality and attractive services to customers. Thus, Panama's strategic maritime port development plan is based on a theoretical framework that seeks to enhance the competitiveness, innovation and logistics of the sector, with a vision of the future and a comprehensive perspective. CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE The strategic maritime port development plan of Panama 2040 is a document that presents a vision of the future for the sector, with the aim of turning Panama into a world-class logistics hub, a leader in freight traffic and the provision of logistics services. of added value, integrating port development with national development, social well-being and respect for the environment. But how does this plan compare with the reality of other Central American countries? What factors have favored or hindered maritime port development in the region? What lessons can be drawn from cases of success and failure? Below, we present an analysis of
  • 16. 16 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 five Central American countries, with their respective cases of success and failure, and the questions and answers that will help us understand them better. COSTA RICA Case of success The port of Moín, located on the Caribbean coast of Costa Rica, is the country's main port and the second most important in Central America , after Colón in Panama. The port of Moín has undergone a notable transformation in recent years, thanks to the concession granted in 2011 to the Dutch company APM Terminals , which invested more than a billion dollars 😲in the construction of a state-of-the-art container terminal, with capacity to serve ships of up to 13,000 TEU (unit equivalent to a 20-foot container), making it the most modern and efficient port in the region. The new container terminal came into operation in 2019 , and since then it has: 1. Increased cargo movement,
  • 17. 17 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 2. Reduced waiting times, 3. Improved security and quality of service, 4. And generated economic and social benefits for the country. Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Moín? Answer: Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Moín are: 1. The strategic vision of the government of Costa Rica, which recognized the importance of modernizing the port to improve the country's competitiveness and facilitate foreign trade, especially with Europe and Asia. 2. The participation of the private sector, which provided the investment, technology and experience necessary to build and operate the container terminal, under a concession model that guarantees the profitability and sustainability of the project. 3. The support of the port community, which was involved in the planning, design and execution process of the terminal, and who benefited from the training, job creation and local development that the work brought with it. 4. Compliance with environmental and social standards, which ensured that the container terminal integrated with the natural environment and respected the rights of workers and communities affected by the project.
  • 18. 18 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Failure case: The port of Caldera , located on the Pacific coast of Costa Rica, is the country's second port and the main departure point for agricultural exports , especially coffee, pineapple and bananas . The port of Caldera has suffered progressive deterioration in recent years, due to: 1. The lack of investment, 2. The obsolescence of infrastructure and equipment, 3. operational inefficiency, 4. The congestion, 5. Delays, 6. High costs and low quality of service. The port of Caldera was concessioned in 2006 to the Colombian company Sociedad Portuaria de Caldera (SPC) , which undertook to make improvements to the port , but which: 1. Has not met expectations
  • 19. 19 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 2. Nor with contractual obligations. The government of Costa Rica has attempted to renegotiate the concession , but has not reached a satisfactory agreement with the company , which has generated a legal conflict and a situation of uncertainty for the future of the port. Question: What factors have caused the failure of the Caldera port? Answer: Some of the factors that have caused the failure of the Caldera port are: 1. The lack of strategic planning by the government of Costa Rica, which did not clearly define the objectives, conditions and control mechanisms of the concession, which generated ambiguities, gaps and contradictions in the contract. 2. The lack of commitment from the private sector, which did not invest enough in the port, nor met the expansion, modernization and efficiency goals that had been agreed upon, and which hid behind legal and technical arguments to justify its non- compliance. 3. The lack of coordination of the port community, which did not achieve effective articulation between the different actors involved in the port, such as exporters, transporters, operators, unions and authorities, and which was affected by labor conflicts, the protests and blockades that occurred in the port. 4. The lack of respect for environmental and social standards, which caused damage to the marine and coastal ecosystem, and violated the rights of workers and communities near the port.
  • 20. 20 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 GUATEMALA Case of success The port of Santo Tomás de Castilla , located on the Atlantic coast of Guatemala , is the country's main port and the third most important in Central America , after those of Colón and Balboa in Panama. The port of Santo Tomás de Castilla has achieved notable growth in recent years, thanks to: 1. The investment, 2. The modernization and 3. The diversification of its services. The port has expanded its capacity for handling ships , has incorporated cutting-edge technology , has improved its safety and efficiency, and has expanded its offer of logistics services, such as storage, transshipment, assembly and labeling of goods. The port has increased its participation in Guatemala's foreign trade , and has attracted new clients and operators, both regional and international.
  • 21. 21 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Santo Tomás de Castilla? Answer: Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Santo Tomás de Castilla are: 1. The strategic vision of the Santo Tomás de Castilla National Port Company (EMPORNAC), which has managed the port with criteria of competitiveness, quality and sustainability, seeking to satisfy the needs of the market and users. 2. The participation of the private sector, which has invested in the port, both in infrastructure and equipment, under a public-private alliance model that guarantees the profitability and transparency of the project. 3. The support of the port community, which has collaborated in the planning, execution and evaluation process of the improvements in the port, and which has benefited from the training, job creation and local development that the project has brought with it. 4. Compliance with environmental and social standards, which have ensured that the port is integrated with the natural environment and respects the rights of workers and communities affected by the project.
  • 22. 22 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Failure case: The port of Quetzal , located on the Pacific coast of Guatemala, is the second port in the country and the fourth most important in Central America , after those of Colón, Balboa and Santo Tomás de Castilla. The port of Quetzal has suffered serious deterioration in recent years, due to: 1. The corruption, 2. The non-compliance and 3. The cancellation of the concession granted in 2012 to the Spanish company Terminal de Containers Quetzal (TCQ), which undertook to build and operate a state-of-the-art container terminal, with the capacity to handle ships of up to 14,000 teu. The concession was annulled in 2016 , after it was discovered that there had been bribery and fraud in the award process, which generated a political and judicial scandal involving senior officials of the previous government. The port of Quetzal has been left in a situation of
  • 23. 23 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 uncertainty and paralysis, without being able to advance in the modernization and competitiveness that the sector requires. Question : What factors have caused the failure of the port of Quetzal? Answer: Some of the factors that have caused the failure of the port of Quetzal are: 1. The lack of strategic planning by the Guatemalan government, which did not clearly define the objectives, conditions and control mechanisms of the concession, which generated ambiguities, gaps and contradictions in the contract. 2. The lack of commitment of the private sector, which did not invest enough in the port, nor met the expansion, modernization and efficiency goals that had been agreed upon, and which was involved in acts of corruption and fraud that affected the credibility and legality of the project. 3. The lack of coordination of the port community, which did not achieve effective coordination between the different actors involved in the port, such as exporters, importers, operators, unions and authorities, and which was affected by labor conflicts, the protests and blockades that occurred in the port. 4. The lack of respect for environmental and social standards, which caused damage to the marine and coastal ecosystem, and violated the rights of workers and communities near the port.
  • 24. 24 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 HONDURAS Case of success: The port of Cortés, located on the Atlantic coast of Honduras, is the country's main port and the fifth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de Castilla and Quetzal. The port of Cortés has achieved notable progress in recent years, thanks to the implementation of a port management system based on the landlord model, which separates the administration, regulation and operation functions of the port, and that allows the participation of operators. private companies under a clear and transparent legal and regulatory framework. The port of Cortés has improved its infrastructure, equipment, security and efficiency, and has expanded its offer of logistics services, such as storage, transshipment, assembly and labeling of goods. The port of Cortés has increased its cargo movement, reduced operating costs and times, and generated economic and social benefits for the country. Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Cortés? Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Cortés are:  The strategic vision of the Commission for the Promotion of Public-Private Partnership (COALIANZA), which promoted the modernization of the port by granting the port
  • 25. 25 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 operation to the Philippine company International Container Terminal Services, Inc. (ICTSI), which invested more of 600 million dollars in the project.  The participation of the private sector, which provided the investment, technology and experience necessary to operate the port, under a concession model that guarantees the profitability and sustainability of the project, and that establishes coordination and supervision mechanisms with the port authority.  The support of the port community, which was involved in the planning, design and execution process of the modernization of the port, and who benefited from the training, job creation and local development that the project brought with it.  Compliance with environmental and social standards, which ensured that the port was integrated with the natural environment and respected the rights of workers and communities affected by the project.
  • 26. 26 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Failure case: The port of San Lorenzo, located on the Pacific coast of Honduras, is the second port in the country and the ninth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal, Cortés, Limón-Moín, Acajutla and Corinth. The port of San Lorenzo has suffered stagnation in recent years, due to lack of investment, obsolescence of infrastructure and equipment, operational inefficiency, congestion, delays, high costs and low quality of service. The port of San Lorenzo was concessioned in 2007 to the Honduran company Operadora Portuaria Centroamericana (OPC), which committed to making improvements to the port, but has not met expectations or contractual obligations. The Honduran government has attempted to renegotiate the concession, but has not reached a satisfactory agreement with the company, which has generated a legal conflict and a situation of uncertainty for the future of the port.
  • 27. 27 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 THE SAVIOR Case of success: The port of Acajutla, located on the Pacific coast of El Salvador, is the main port in the country and the sixth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal and Cortés. The port of Acajutla has achieved notable progress in recent years, thanks to the implementation of a port management system based on the public company model, which strengthens the role of the Autonomous Port Executive Commission (CEPA), as administrator, regulator and port operator, and that allows the participation of private operators under a clear and transparent legal and regulatory framework. The port of Acajutla has improved its infrastructure, equipment, safety and efficiency, and has expanded its offer of logistics services, such as storage, transshipment, assembly and labeling of goods. The port of Acajutla has increased its cargo movement, reduced operating costs and times, and generated economic and social benefits for the country.
  • 28. 28 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of La Unión? Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of La Unión are:  The strategic vision of the government of El Salvador, which promoted the construction of the port as part of a national development plan, which seeks to improve connectivity, competitiveness and regional integration of the country.  The international cooperation of the government of Japan, which provided the financing, technology and technical assistance necessary for the execution of the project, under a donation and concessional loan scheme, which guarantees its viability and sustainability.  The support of the port community, which participated in the planning, design and operation process of the port, and who benefited from the training, job creation and local development that the project brought with it.  Compliance with environmental and social standards, which ensured that the port was integrated with the natural environment and respected the rights of workers and communities affected by the project.
  • 29. 29 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Failure case: The port of Acajutla, located on the Pacific coast of El Salvador, is the oldest and most traditional port in the country, and the sixth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal and La Unión. The port of Acajutla has suffered stagnation and decline in recent years, due to lack of investment, obsolescence of infrastructure and equipment, operational inefficiency, congestion, delays, high costs and low quality of the service. The port of Acajutla has not been able to adapt to the demands of the market and users, nor compete with the other ports in the region, especially with that of La Unión, which has taken away cargo and customers. The port of Acajutla has been left in a situation of backwardness and disadvantage, without being able to advance in the modernization and competitiveness that the sector requires. Question : What factors have caused the failure of the port of Acajutla? Answer : Some of the factors that have caused the failure of the port of Acajutla are:  The lack of strategic planning by the government of El Salvador, which did not clearly define the role and future of the port, nor allocate sufficient resources for its maintenance and improvement, which generated a progressive deterioration of facilities and services.
  • 30. 30 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040  The lack of participation of the private sector, which did not invest in the port, nor was it involved in its management and operation, under a concession model or public- private alliance, which could provide efficiency and transparency to the project.  The lack of coordination of the port community, which did not achieve effective coordination between the different actors involved in the port, such as exporters, importers, operators, unions and authorities, and which was affected by labor conflicts, the protests and blockades that occurred in the port.  The lack of respect for environmental and social standards, which caused damage to the marine and coastal ecosystem, and violated the rights of workers and communities near the port.
  • 31. 31 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 NICARAGUA Case of success: The port of Corinto, located on the Pacific coast of Nicaragua, is the country's main port and the ninth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal, La Unión, Acajutla, Cortés and San Lawrence. The port of Corinth has achieved significant progress in recent years, thanks to investment, modernization and diversification of its services. The port has expanded its capacity for handling ships, has incorporated cutting-edge technology, has improved its safety and efficiency, and has expanded its offer of logistics services, such as storage, transshipment, assembly and labeling of goods. The port of Corinto has increased its participation in the foreign trade of Nicaragua and the region, and has attracted new clients and operators, both regional and international.
  • 32. 32 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Question : What factors have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth? Answer : Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth are: Some of the factors that have contributed to the success of the port of Corinth are  The strategic vision of the National Port Company (EPN), which has managed the port with criteria of competitiveness, quality and sustainability, seeking to satisfy the needs of the market and users.  The participation of the private sector, which has invested in the port, both in infrastructure and equipment, under a public-private alliance model that guarantees the profitability and transparency of the project.  The support of the port community, which has collaborated in the planning, execution and evaluation process of the improvements in the port, and which has benefited from the training, job creation and local development that the project has brought with it.  Compliance with environmental and social standards, which have ensured that the port is integrated with the natural environment and respects the rights of workers and communities affected by the project.
  • 33. 33 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Failure case: The port of Bluefields, located on the Atlantic coast of Nicaragua , is the second port in the country and the tenth most important in Central America, after those of Colón, Balboa, Santo Tomás de Castilla, Quetzal, La Unión, Acajutla, Cortés, San Lorenzo and Corinth. The port of Bluefields has suffered a setback and abandonment in recent years , due to lack of investment, obsolescence of infrastructure and equipment, operational inefficiency, insecurity, delays, high costs and low quality of the service. The port of Bluefields has not been able to adapt to the demands of the market and users, nor compete with the other ports in the region, especially with that of Santo Tomás de Castilla , which has taken away cargo and customers. The port of Bluefields has been left in a situation of backwardness and
  • 34. 34 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 disadvantage , without being able to advance in the modernization and competitiveness that the sector requires. Question : What factors have caused the failure of the Bluefields port? Answer : Some of the factors that have caused the failure of the Bluefields port are:  The lack of strategic planning by the Nicaraguan government, which did not clearly define the role and future of the port, nor allocate sufficient resources for its maintenance and improvement, which generated a progressive deterioration of facilities and services.  The lack of participation of the private sector, which did not invest in the port, nor was it involved in its management and operation, under a concession model or public- private alliance, which could provide efficiency and transparency to the project.  The lack of coordination of the port community, which did not achieve effective coordination between the different actors involved in the port, such as exporters, importers, operators, unions and authorities, and which was affected by labor conflicts, the protests and blockades that occurred in the port.  The lack of respect for environmental and social standards, which caused damage to the marine and coastal ecosystem, and violated the rights of workers and communities near the port.
  • 35. 35 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE 5 NORTH AMERICAN PORTS USA Case of success: The Port of Long Beach, California , is one of the most successful ports in the United States, and the second largest in the country. This port has managed to increase its capacity and efficiency, thanks to investment in infrastructure, technology and innovation. For example, the port has implemented a maritime traffic management system, which allows optimizing the use of docks, cranes and tugboats. It has also developed an environmental sustainability
  • 36. 36 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 program, which reduces emissions, noise and energy consumption. In addition, the port has strengthened its port security, with prevention and response measures against possible threats. Tips and advice: Panama can learn from this success story, and apply some of the good practices that the port of Long Beach has adopted. For example, Panama can invest in infrastructure and technology to improve the capacity and efficiency of its ports. You can also implement environmental sustainability programs to reduce the impact of maritime activity on the environment. And you can also strengthen your port security, to prevent and respond to possible attacks. Failure case:
  • 37. 37 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 The Port of New Orleans, Louisiana, is one of the oldest and most important ports in the United States, but also one of the most vulnerable. This port has suffered the consequences of several natural disasters, such as hurricanes, floods and earthquakes, which have damaged its infrastructure and operations. For example, Hurricane Katrina in 2005 caused the destruction of more than 80% of port facilities and paralyzed trade for several months. In addition, the port has faced congestion, competition and financing problems, which have affected its profitability and competitiveness. Tips and advice: Panama can learn from this case of failure, and avoid some of the bad practices that the port of New Orleans has committed. For example, Panama can better prepare for natural disasters, and have contingency and recovery plans for its ports. It can also improve port traffic management, and seek alliances and agreements with other countries and regions. And you can also look for alternative sources of financing, and diversify your port income.
  • 38. 38 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 CANADA Case of success : The port of Prince Rupert, British Columbia, is one of Canada's most successful ports, and the closest to Asia. This port has managed to position itself as an attractive and competitive option for transpacific trade, thanks to its geographical location, its infrastructure and its service. For example, the port has a state-of-the-art container terminal, which offers high productivity and low congestion. It also has a direct rail connection to the central United States, which reduces transportation time and cost. In addition, the port has efficient and transparent port management, which facilitates the flow of information and documentation. Suggestions and advice : Panama can learn from this success story, and replicate some of the good practices that the port of Prince Rupert has implemented. For example, Panama can take advantage of its geographic location and offer a fast and efficient connection between the Atlantic and Pacific oceans. You can also improve your infrastructure and service, to increase productivity and customer satisfaction. And you can also improve your port management, to streamline processes and communication.
  • 39. 39 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Failure case : The Port of Churchill in Manitoba is one of Canada's oldest and most isolated ports, and the country's only Arctic port. This port has suffered the consequences of economic dependence, lack of diversification and lack of support. For example, the port depends almost exclusively on grain transportation, which is a volatile and seasonal market. It also has a limited and uncompetitive offer, which does not attract other types of cargo or customers. Additionally, the port has lost support from the government and operators, who have cut funding and service. Suggestions and advice : Panama can learn from this case of failure, and prevent some of the bad practices that the port of Churchill has suffered. For example, Panama can diversify its economy, and not depend only on the Canal, but also on other sectors. You can also diversify your offer, and offer more and better services to ships that pass through your ports. And it can also seek the support of the government and operators, to guarantee the financing and service of its ports.
  • 40. 40 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 MEXICO Case of success : The port of Lázaro Cárdenas, in Michoacán, is one of the most successful ports in Mexico, and the largest in the Mexican Pacific. This port has managed to increase its capacity and competitiveness, thanks to investment in infrastructure, technology and security. For example, the port has an automated container terminal, which offers high speed and low pollution. It also has a surveillance and control system, which guarantees the security and transparency of port operations. Additionally, the port has a special economic zone, which offers tax and regulatory incentives to companies that set up shop in the area. Suggestions and advice : Panama can learn from this success story, and adopt some of the good practices that the port of Lázaro Cárdenas has developed. For example, Panama can invest in infrastructure and technology to increase the capacity and competitiveness of its ports. You can also invest in security and transparency, to guarantee the trust and legality of the port operation. And it can also create special economic zones, to attract investment and business to its ports. Failure case :
  • 41. 41 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 The port of Veracruz, in Veracruz, is one of the oldest and most important ports in Mexico, and the main port in the Gulf of Mexico. This port has suffered the consequences of lack of planning, lack of coordination and lack of sustainability. For example, the port has an obsolete and saturated infrastructure, which limits the capacity and efficiency of the ports. It also has a lack of articulation with other modes of transport, which makes mobility and port connectivity difficult. Furthermore, the port has a negative environmental and social impact, which affects the quality of life and development of local communities. Suggestions and advice : Panama can learn from this case of failure, and correct some of the bad practices that the port of Veracruz has committed. For example, Panama can plan port development , and have a long-term vision of its objectives and actions. It can also coordinate port development, and have articulation with other modes of transport and with other actors. And it can also carry out sustainable port development, and take into account the environmental and social impact of its ports.
  • 42. 42 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Success story: Chile and the port of Valparaíso Chile is a country that has managed to consolidate itself as an export power of agricultural, mining, forestry and fishing products, thanks to its privileged geographical location and its commercial openness. Its port system has been key to facilitating foreign trade and connecting the country with the main markets in the world. Within this system, the port of Valparaíso stands out as one of the most important and competitive in the region, due to its capacity, efficiency, security and connectivity. The port of Valparaíso has been able to adapt to the changes and challenges of international maritime transport, through modern, innovative and participatory management. The port has been concessioned to private operators since 1999, which has allowed greater investment, modernization and diversification of port services. The port has two specialized terminals, one for containers and the other for general cargo and vehicles, which operate 24 hours a day, 365 days a year. The port also has an integrated logistics platform, which
  • 43. 43 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 facilitates the flow of information, documentation and coordination between the different actors in the logistics chain. The port of Valparaíso has managed to position itself as a world-class logistics hub, a leader in freight traffic and the provision of value-added logistics services. The port has been recognized for its quality, productivity, competitiveness and sustainability, both nationally and internationally. The port has contributed to the economic, social and environmental development of the city of Valparaíso and the region, generating employment, income, culture and tourism. Suggestions and advice from the success story  Maintain a long-term strategic vision, which considers the trends and opportunities of global maritime trade, and which is aligned with the sustainable development objectives of the country and the region.  Promote efficient, transparent and participatory port management, involving the public, private and social sectors, and seeking continuous improvement of processes, innovation and customer satisfaction.  Promote sustainable port investment, which allows for the expansion and modernization of port infrastructure, equipment and technology, and which respects the environment and the cultural heritage of the city.  Strengthen port connectivity, both maritime and land, to facilitate access to and exit of goods, and reduce transportation costs and times.  Develop an integrated logistics platform that optimizes the flow of information, documentation and coordination between the different actors in the logistics chain, and that offers value-added logistics services to port users.  Strengthen the port's role as a world-class logistics hub, which attracts and retains the main shipping lines and the most demanding shippers, and which offers competitive and differentiating advantages in the market.  Contribute to the economic, social and environmental development of the city and the region, generating employment, income, culture and tourism, and maintaining a harmonious and collaborative relationship with the community. Failure case: Venezuela and the port of La Guaira
  • 44. 44 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 Venezuela is a country that has suffered a profound economic, political and social crisis in recent years, which has seriously affected its foreign trade and its port system. Its port system has been a victim of lack of investment, planning, management and maintenance, resulting in a loss of capacity, efficiency, security and connectivity. Within this system, the port of La Guaira has been especially affected, as it is the main port in the country and the closest to the capital, Caracas. The port of La Guaira has been the object of centralized, bureaucratic and corrupt state management, which has neglected the needs and demands of international maritime transport. The port has been subjected to a process of nationalization and militarization, which has scared away private operators and potential clients. The port lacks adequate infrastructure, equipment and technology that allows it to handle cargo quickly and safely. The port also suffers from a lack of connectivity, both maritime and land, which makes access to and exit of goods difficult, and increases transportation costs and times. The port of La Guaira has lost its position as a strategic port for the foreign trade of Venezuela and the region. The port has seen its cargo movement, productivity,
  • 45. 45 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 competitiveness and profitability decrease drastically. The port has generated a negative impact on the economic, social and environmental development of the city of La Guaira and the region, causing unemployment, poverty, pollution and violence. Suggestions and advice in case of failure  Recover a long-term strategic vision that recognizes the importance and potential of maritime trade for the development of the country and the region, and is based on the principles of sustainable development.  Implement effective, decentralized and transparent port management, which delegates port operations to competent and reliable private operators, and which seeks quality, innovation and customer satisfaction.  Carry out an urgent port investment, which allows the rehabilitation and modernization of port infrastructure, equipment and technology, and which considers the environment and the well-being of the city.  Improve port connectivity, both maritime and land, to facilitate access to and exit of goods, and reduce transportation costs and times.  Create an integrated logistics platform that improves the flow of information, documentation and coordination between the different actors in the logistics chain, and that offers value-added logistics services to port users
  • 46. 46 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 SUCCESS STORY: PORT OF CALLAO, PERU The port of Callao in Peru is a true success story that deserves to be celebrated! With its strategic approach and vision of the future, Callao has become an internationally renowned port. What is your secret? Well, here are the keys to its success: 1. Modern infrastructure: The port of Callao wisely invested in state-of-the-art port infrastructure. Its terminals have cutting-edge equipment and efficient logistics systems, which has allowed a constant flow of goods and a significant reduction in waiting times. 2. Development of logistics zones: To complement its port activity, Callao has developed strategic logistics zones in its surroundings. These areas offer value-added services
  • 47. 47 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 such as warehousing, packaging and distribution, which has attracted investment and generated substantial economic growth. 3. International alliances: The port of Callao has established strategic alliances with key international players in the maritime sector. These associations have strengthened its position in the global market, facilitating the acquisition of new trade routes and improving connectivity with other important ports. Tips and suggestions for the success story:  Maintain focus on the modernization and constant improvement of port infrastructure.  It encourages the development of complementary logistics zones to boost economic activity around the port.  Seek strategic international alliances to strengthen the port's position in the global market.
  • 48. 48 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 CASE OF FAILURE: PORT OF GUAYAQUIL, ECUADOR Failure case: Port of Guayaquil, Ecuador Oh, the Port of Guayaquil in Ecuador, a case of failure that teaches us valuable lessons! Despite its privileged geographical location and its potential to become a major maritime centre, the port has faced significant difficulties and challenges. Here are some of the reasons behind this failure: 1. Lack of investment in infrastructure: Over the years, the Port of Guayaquil has suffered from a lack of investment in adequate port infrastructure. The lack of
  • 49. 49 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 modernization and upgrading has led to capacity issues, operational inefficiencies and delays in processing goods. 2. Bureaucracy and corruption: Excessive bureaucracy and corruption have plagued port management. These problems have generated delays and obstacles in customs processes, which has discouraged investors and negatively affected the port's competitiveness. 3. Poor strategic planning: The lack of comprehensive strategic planning has been another determining factor in the port's failure. The absence of a long-term vision and the lack of coordination between the actors involved have made it difficult to develop an effective strategy for the growth and improvement of the port. Tips and suggestions in case of failure:  Prioritizes investment in modern and updated port infrastructure to improve operational capacity and efficiency.  Promotes transparency and combats corruption through rigorous management and appropriate controls.  Establishes comprehensive strategic planning that involves all relevant actors and focuses on the long-term development of the port.
  • 50. 50 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 SWOT STRENGTHS OPPORTUNITIES Panama has a privileged geographical position, which allows it to connect the Atlantic and Pacific oceans, and facilitate international trade between the continents of America, Europe and Asia. Panama has the opportunity to take advantage of the growth of global trade and the demand for logistics services, which is expected to increase in the coming years, due to globalization, digitalization and technological innovation. Panama has the Panama Canal, a unique engineering work in the world, which gives it a competitive advantage and a source of income for the country. Panama has the opportunity to diversify its port offer, developing new infrastructure and services in strategic areas of the country, such as Vacamonte, which is located near the Canal and the Panama Pacific, and which could become a hub of logistics and industrial development. Panama has a diversified port system, which includes state, concessioned and private ports, which offer loading and unloading, storage, transshipment, assembly, labeling and other value-added logistics services. Panama has the opportunity to integrate its port development with national development, seeking to generate economic, social and environmental benefits for the country, and contribute to the fulfillment of the UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Panama has favorable legislation for the development of the maritime port sector, which includes tax, customs and labor incentives, as well as a regulatory framework that promotes competitiveness, quality and sustainability. Panama has the opportunity to strengthen its regional integration, participating in initiatives such as the Puebla-Panama Plan, the Free Trade Agreement with the United States (CAFTA) and brotherhood agreements with other ports in the world, which allow it to expand its markets and its Strategic Alliances. Panama has a recognized and respected maritime authority, which is the Panama Maritime Authority (AMP), which is responsible for the management, control Panama has the opportunity to enhance its image and reputation as a world-class logistics hub, a leader in freight traffic and the provision of value-added logistics
  • 51. 51 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 and promotion of the maritime port sector, and which has the support of international organizations such as the CAF and the OMA. services, and as an attractive and safe tourist destination, offering a variety of attractions. natural, cultural and historical. WEAKNESSES THREATS Panama has an excessive dependence on the Panama Canal, which represents 40% of its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), and which makes it vulnerable to changes in the market, competition, politics and climate. Panama faces the threat of competition from other ports in the region, which offer lower rates, more specialized services, more modern infrastructure and more efficient management, which can attract customers and operators who currently use Panamanian ports. Panama has a concentration of port activity in the interoceanic region, which covers the axes between the province of Colón and Panama, and which generates problems of congestion, pollution, insecurity and social inequality. Panama faces the threat of the opening of new maritime routes, which may reduce demand for the Panama Canal and associated ports, such as the expansion of the Suez Canal, the development of the Guatemalan Interoceanic Corridor, the Nicaragua Canal project and the melting of the Arctic. Panama has a deficient port infrastructure, which presents limitations in depth, space, equipment, technology and security, which affect the efficiency, quality and competitiveness of port services. Panama faces the threat of natural risks, which can affect the operation and safety of the Panama Canal and ports, such as earthquakes, hurricanes, droughts, floods and climate change. Panama has ineffective port management, which is characterized by lack of financial autonomy, lack of control over port land, lack of coordination between sector actors, lack of transparency and corruption. Panama faces the threat of social risks, which can generate conflicts and violence in the maritime port sector, such as labor problems, social protests, drug trafficking, terrorism and piracy. Panama has insufficient port training, which is reflected in the lack of qualified technical personnel, the lack of continuous training Panama faces the threat of health risks, which can cause crises and emergencies in the maritime port sector, such as
  • 52. 52 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 programs, the lack of innovation and the drain of talent. pandemics, tropical diseases, pollution and the mollusk plague. CONCLUSION Well, I have already told you everything I think about the Strategic Plan for Maritime and Port Development of Panama 2040, the coolest, coolest and most ardent plan that has been
  • 53. 53 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 made in history. Now I am going to tell you my final conclusion, which is what I want you to take away from everything I have told you. My conclusion is that the plan is an innovative and necessary project , which seeks to position Panama as a world- class logistics hub and a key sector for national economic development. I believe that the plan has an ambitious and visionary , but also realistic and feasible , vision of what Panama's maritime-port system should be like in the year 2040. I believe that the plan recognizes the current weaknesses and challenges of the sector , but also identifies the strengths and opportunities of the country . I believe that the plan proposes concrete and coherent actions to achieve these objectives, and that it is aligned with other plans and with the changes expected in the sector. I believe that the plan has very great potential benefits for Panama and for the world, but also some challenges and risks that must be evaluated and managed appropriately. But I also believe that the plan is not perfect , nor is it the only possible solution, nor is it the guarantee of success . I think the plan has some limitations and weaknesses, such as: 1. The lack of information , 2. The lack of participation , 3. The lack of consensus , 4. The lack of flexibility and 5. Lack of follow-up . I think the plan has some assumptions and risks , such as: 1. The availability of resources, 2. The political will, 3. Institutional coordination, 4. The regional competition and 5. Technological adaptation. I think the plan has some negative and unwanted effects , such as: 1. The environmental impact, 2. The social impact, 3. The economic impact, 4. The political impact and 5. The cultural impact. Therefore, I believe that the plan is not a static thing , but a dynamic thing, which must be constantly reviewed, updated, improved and adapted . I believe that the plan is not
  • 54. 54 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 something for a few, but something for everyone, which must be known, discussed, supported and executed by all the actors involved. I believe that the plan is not an easy thing, but a difficult thing , which requires: 1. A lot of work, 2. A lot of commitment, 3. a lot of effort and 4. A lot of sacrifice. In summary, I believe that the plan is a unique and historic opportunity for Panama , but also an enormous and complex responsibility. I believe that the plan is a challenge worth taking on , but also a risk that must be managed . I think the plan is a dream that we can make come true , but also a reality that can turn into a nightmare. And what do you think? Do you like the plan? Do you dare to participate? You dare to dream? I hope so, because Panama needs you, and the world awaits you. 😊 BIBLIOGRAPHY Strategic Plans | Maritime Authority of Panama. https://www.amp.gob.pa/iniciativas/planes- estrategicos/. PANAMA BEGINS THE STRATEGIC MARITIME AND PORT DEVELOPMENT PLAN.... https://www.amp.gob.pa/noticias/panama-da-inicio-al-plan-estrategico-de-desarrollo- maritimo-y-portuario -of-the-republic-of-panama-vision-2040/. CAM Panama: AMP presented Strategic Plan for Maritime Development and.... https://bing.com/search?q=Plan+Estrat%c3%a9gico+de+Desarrollo+Mar%c3%adtimo+y+Por tuario+de +Panama%c3%a1+2040. THE AMP PRESENTS THE RESULTS OF THE STRATEGIC DEVELOPMENT PLAN.... https://www.amp.gob.pa/noticias/la-amp-presenta-los-resultados-del-plan-estrategico-de- desarrollo-maritimo- port-of-the-republic-of-panama-vision-2040/.
  • 55. 55 EL PLAN ESTRATÉGICO DE DESARROLLO MARÍTIMO Y PORTUARIO DE PANAMÁ 2040 They present the Strategic Plan for Maritime Port Development of the .... https://www.panamaamerica.com.pa/economia/presentan-plan-estrategico-de-desarrollo- maritimo-portuario-de-la-republica-de-panama .