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RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 1
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 2
Content
INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................8
STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM .......................................................................................................9
What factors can affect the resilience of maritime-port logistics? ...............................................9
Some of the factors that can endanger the resilience of maritime-port logistics are the
following: ..................................................................................................................................9
Natural factors: .........................................................................................................................9
Human factors: .........................................................................................................................9
Technological factors: .............................................................................................................10
Socioeconomic factors: ...........................................................................................................10
What benefits can be obtained by improving the resilience of maritime-port logistics? ............10
By improving the resilience of maritime-port logistics, various benefits can be obtained, such
as: ...........................................................................................................................................10
Greater competitiveness and profitability: .............................................................................10
Greater security and confidence: ............................................................................................11
Greater adaptability and opportunity: ....................................................................................11
Greater reputation and responsibility: ....................................................................................11
BACKGROUND ...............................................................................................................................11
What is the background to maritime sector resilience? ..........................................................11
What are the main antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector? ................................12
Some of the main antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector are the following: ....12
The creation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO): ............................................12
The evolution of technology and innovation: ..........................................................................12
Globalization and international trade: ....................................................................................12
Challenges and crises: .............................................................................................................13
What lessons can be drawn from the history of maritime sector resilience? .............................13
Some lessons can be drawn from the history of the resilience of the maritime sector, such
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as: ...........................................................................................................................................13
The importance of collaboration and coordination: ................................................................13
The need for planning and risk management: .........................................................................13
The value of innovation and digitalization: .............................................................................14
Commitment to sustainability and social responsibility: .........................................................14
JUSTIFICATION ..............................................................................................................................15
How can resilience and crisis management be justified in the logistics and maritime market? .15
Economic argument: ...............................................................................................................15
Social argument: .....................................................................................................................15
Environmental argument: .......................................................................................................15
How resilience can save your life (and business) at sea ................................................................16
Take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis: .....................................................16
Anticipate and prepare for possible scenarios: .......................................................................17
Adapt to changes and be flexible: ...........................................................................................18
Learn from experience and continually improve: ....................................................................19
The secret of champions: resilience in maritime logistics .............................................................21
Arguments in favor of resilience in maritime logistics ...................................................................21
The arguments in favor of resilience in maritime logistics are based on the following aspects: .21
Resilience allows you to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis: ...............21
Resilience allows us to anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them: ..........................22
Resilience allows us to adapt to changes and be flexible: .......................................................22
Resilience allows us to learn from experience and continually improve: ................................23
Arguments against resilience in maritime logistics ........................................................................23
The arguments against resilience in maritime logistics are based on the following aspects: .....23
Resilience implies high cost and low profitability: ...................................................................23
Resilience implies high complexity and low efficiency: ...........................................................23
Resilience implies high uncertainty and low security: .............................................................24
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Resilience implies high responsibility and low sustainability: ..................................................24
Refuting the arguments against resilience in maritime logistics ....................................................24
The arguments against resilience in maritime logistics can be refuted as follows: .....................24
Resilience does not imply high cost and low profitability, but quite the opposite: .................24
Resilience does not imply high complexity and low efficiency, but quite the opposite: ..........25
Resilience does not imply high uncertainty and low security, but quite the opposite: ............25
Resilience does not imply high responsibility and low sustainability, but quite the opposite: 25
SWOT ............................................................................................................................................27
Strengths ...................................................................................................................................27
Opportunities .............................................................................................................................27
Weaknesses ...............................................................................................................................28
Threats .......................................................................................................................................28
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 NORTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES .........................................30
Success story: United States ......................................................................................................31
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................31
Failure case: Canada ..................................................................................................................32
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................32
Success story: Mexico ................................................................................................................33
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................34
Failure case: Costa Rica. .............................................................................................................34
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................35
Failure case: Costa Rica ..............................................................................................................35
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................36
Success story: Panama. ..............................................................................................................36
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................37
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 6 SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES .........................................38
Success story: Brazil ...................................................................................................................38
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How do i do it? Some of the keys were ...................................................................................38
Failure case: Colombia. ..............................................................................................................39
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................39
Success story: Chile . ..................................................................................................................40
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................40
Success story: Peru. ...................................................................................................................41
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................41
Failure case: Argentina. ..............................................................................................................42
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................42
Success story: Uruguay. .............................................................................................................43
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................43
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 AFRICA COUNTRIES ...........................................................44
Success story: South Africa. .......................................................................................................44
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................45
Failure case: Egypt. ....................................................................................................................45
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................46
Success story: Kenya ..................................................................................................................46
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................47
Success story: Morocco ..............................................................................................................47
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................48
Failure case: Nigeria. ..................................................................................................................49
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................49
Success story: Ethiopia ...............................................................................................................50
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................50
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 6 COUNTRIES OF EUROPE ....................................................51
Success story: Spain ...................................................................................................................51
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................51
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Failure case: UK ..........................................................................................................................52
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were²: ....................................................53
Success story: Germany .............................................................................................................53
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................54
Success story: France .................................................................................................................54
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................55
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................56
Success story: Netherlands ........................................................................................................56
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................57
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 COUNTRIES IN ASIA ...........................................................58
Success story: China ...................................................................................................................58
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................58
Failure case: Japan .....................................................................................................................59
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................59
Success story: Singapore ............................................................................................................60
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................60
Success story: India ....................................................................................................................61
How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................62
Failure case: South Korea ...........................................................................................................62
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were2: ....................................................63
Success story: Vietnam ..............................................................................................................63
How do i do it? Some of the keys were ...................................................................................64
CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................64
BIBLIOGRAPHY ..............................................................................................................................68
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INTRODUCTION
What do maritime-port logistics and the game of Tetris have in common? At first
glance, it may seem like nothing, but if you think about it, both are based on the ability to
adapt to changes and make the most of the available space . In Tetris, we have to fit the
pieces that fall on the screen, without leaving gaps or reaching the upper limit. In maritime-port
logistics, we have to manage the flow of goods that arrive and leave through the ports,
without generating traffic jams or wasting resources.
But there is a fundamental difference: in Tetris, we know which pieces are going to fall and we
can anticipate their movements. In maritime-port logistics, we cannot predict what is going to
happen and we have to be prepared to face unforeseen situations , such as:
 A global pandemic,
 A dockworkers' strike
 A tropical storm or a blockage of the Suez Canal .
These situations can cause serious problems in the supply chain , such as delays, losses,
damages, theft, fines, etc.
How can we avoid or minimize these problems? The answer is resilience, that is, the
ability to adapt and maintain operation in the face of disruptive scenarios . Resilience is
essential for the competitiveness and efficiency of companies and operators participating in
maritime-port logistics. But, How is resilience measured? What factors favor or hinder
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it? What tools and strategies can be used to improve it? These are some of the
questions addressed in the article we are going to analyze, published by Logistop , a logistics
innovation platform.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
What is resilience and why is it so important in maritime-port logistics? Resilience is
the ability to adapt and overcome adversities, changes and crises. In the maritime-port logistics
environment, resilience is key to guaranteeing the continuity and efficiency of the supply chain,
especially in a context of uncertainty and volatility like the current one¹. Resilience implies
having a holistic and strategic vision of risks and opportunities, as well as having resources and
tools to anticipate, prevent, mitigate and recover from possible disruptive scenarios.
What factors can affect the resilience of maritime-port logistics?
Some of the factors that can endanger the resilience of maritime-port logistics are
the following :
Natural factors:
Such as extreme weather events, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, etc. These factors
can cause material and human damage, as well as disruptions to port and maritime
infrastructure, services and operations.
Human factors:
Such as armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, acts of piracy, sabotage, strikes, accidents, human
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errors, etc. These factors can generate violence, insecurity, economic losses, delays,
breakdowns, pollution, etc.
Technological factors:
Such as failures in information and communication systems, cyber attacks, breakdowns in
equipment and machinery, quality problems, theft, counterfeiting, etc. These factors can cause
loss of information, control, trust, competitiveness, reputation, etc.
Socioeconomic factors:
Such as fluctuations in demand and supply, financial crises, legal regulations, trade policies,
sanctions, embargoes, tariffs, etc. These factors can cause changes in trade flows, costs, prices,
margins, profits, etc.
What benefits can be obtained by improving the resilience of maritime-port
logistics?
By improving the resilience of maritime-port logistics, various benefits can be
obtained, such as:
Greater competitiveness and profitability:
By improving supply chain efficiency, productivity, quality and innovation, you can reduce costs,
increase revenue, improve margins and profits, differentiate yourself from the competition and
meet customer needs and expectations. customers.
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Greater security and confidence:
By improving risk prevention, protection, mitigation and recovery, losses, damages, delays,
interruptions, claims, etc. can be avoided or minimized, as well as service continuity and quality
guaranteed. , and generate trust and loyalty among customers and partners.
Greater adaptability and opportunity:
By improving the flexibility, agility, transparency and traceability of the supply chain, they can
quickly adapt to changes and crises, as well as take advantage of opportunities that arise in the
market and environment.
Greater reputation and responsibility:
By improving the environmental, social and economic impact of maritime-port logistics,
standards and regulations can be met, as well as the commitments and expectations of
stakeholders and society, and generate a positive image and social responsibility. .
BACKGROUND
What is the background to maritime sector resilience?
The antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector are those facts, events or
circumstances that have influenced the sector's ability to adapt and overcome adversities,
changes and crises throughout history. This background allows us to better understand the
present and future of the sector, as well as assess its strengths and weaknesses.
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What are the main antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector?
Some of the main antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector are the
following :
The creation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO):
It is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for developing and adopting
international standards on maritime safety, security and the environment. The IMO was
founded in 1948, but came into force in 1959, and since then has contributed to improving the
resilience of the sector through harmonization, cooperation and risk prevention.
The evolution of technology and innovation:
The maritime sector has experienced great technological and innovative development over the
years, which has allowed it to optimize, automate and integrate its operations, as well as
increase its efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Some examples of technological and
innovative advances are satellite navigation, information and communication systems, smart
ships, containers, mega ships , etc.
Globalization and international trade:
The maritime sector has been a key actor in the process of globalization and international trade,
facilitating the transportation of goods and people between different regions and countries of
the world. The maritime sector has been able to adapt to fluctuations in demand and supply, as
well as trade regulations and policies, and has taken advantage of the opportunities offered by
the global market.
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The challenges and crises:
The maritime sector has had to face various challenges and crises throughout history, both of
natural and human origin, which have tested its resilience. Some examples of challenges and
crises are extreme weather events, armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, acts of piracy, accidents,
fires, groundings, quality problems, cyber attacks, financial crises, pandemics, etc. .
What lessons can be drawn from the history of maritime sector resilience?
Some lessons can be drawn from the history of the resilience of the maritime
sector, such as :
The importance of collaboration and coordination:
The maritime sector is a complex and diverse sector, which involves multiple actors, such as
suppliers, customers, logistics operators, port authorities, shipping companies, etc. Therefore, it
is essential to promote cooperation and communication between them, as well as create
networks and strategic alliances, and share information, knowledge and good practices.
The need for planning and risk management:
The maritime sector is exposed to numerous risks, both internal and external, that can affect its
continuity and efficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to identify, analyze, evaluate and prioritize
potential risks, as well as define the objectives, actions, resources and those responsible to
prevent, mitigate and manage them. It is also essential to establish contingency, emergency and
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recovery plans, as well as monitoring, control and continuous improvement mechanisms.
The value of innovation and digitalization:
The maritime sector is in an environment of constant change and high competitiveness, which
requires innovative and differentiating solutions. Therefore, it is important to incorporate new
technologies, solutions and processes that allow us to optimize, automate, integrate and secure
maritime operations, as well as increase the flexibility, agility, transparency and traceability of
the supply chain. It is also essential to develop digital capabilities and competencies, as well as
foster a culture of innovation.
Commitment to sustainability and social responsibility:
The maritime sector has a great environmental, social and economic impact, both positive and
negative, on the planet and society. Therefore, it is essential to adopt measures that contribute
to reducing the negative impact and generating positive value, both for stakeholders and for
society in general. It is also essential to comply with ethical, legal and quality principles, as well
as promote inclusion, diversity, equity and people's well-being.
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JUSTIFICATION
How can resilience and crisis management be justified in the logistics and
maritime market?
Economic argument:
Resilience and crisis management can reduce costs, increase revenue, improve margins and
profits, and maintain competitiveness and customer satisfaction. According to a Mckinsey study
, companies that invest in supply chain resilience can see a return on investment of between 15
and 25 percent5
.
Social argument:
Resilience and crisis management contribute to ensuring the safety, security, health and well-
being of people who work in or depend on the logistics and maritime sector, as well as society in
general. According to a FAO report , supply chain resilience is essential to ensure food and
nutritional security for millions of people suffering from hunger and poverty 6
.
Environmental argument:
Resilience and crisis management help minimize the negative impact and maximize the positive
impact of the logistics and maritime sector on the environment, as well as meet sustainable
development goals and climate commitments. According to an ECLAC study , the resilience of
the supply chain is key to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the carbon footprint, energy
consumption and the use of natural resources 7
.
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How resilience can save your life (and business) at sea
What would happen if one day you woke up to find that your ship was on fire, that there was a
storm raging across the sea, that pirates were chasing you, and that your customer had canceled
your order?
Would you give up and let yourself sink into panic and despair?
Would you fight to move forward and find a solution?
This is the question I ask you to talk about a very important topic: how resilience can save your
life (and business) at sea.
To improve resilience in the maritime sector, I can give the following advice and suggestions,
based on deep subjective reasoning of lateral thinking:
Take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis:
Would you like to become a maritime logistics champion? Would you like to know how to
overcome any crisis and emerge stronger from it? These are the questions I ask you to talk to
you about a very interesting topic: how to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the
crisis.
The crisis is a situation of difficulty, change or conflict that can affect the functioning and
continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes, activities and agents involved in the
transport and distribution of goods and services by sea. , from origin to destination. The crisis
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can be of natural or human origin, and can have negative consequences, such as disruptions,
losses, delays, breakdowns, pollution, etc.
But the crisis can also be an opportunity to innovate, create and transform. Instead of seeing the
crisis as a threat, it can be seen as a challenge and a motivation to improve and grow. For
example, the health crisis can be used to promote the digitalization, automation and integration
of maritime operations, as well as to promote collaboration and solidarity between the different
actors in the supply chain.
To take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis, you need to be resilient. Resilience
is the ability to adapt and overcome adversities, changes and crises. Resilience is the secret of
champions, because it allows them to reduce costs, increase revenue, improve margins and
profits, and maintain competitiveness and customer satisfaction.
Anticipate and prepare for possible scenarios:
Would you like to always be one step ahead of problems? Would you like to know how to
prepare for any situation and get out of it successfully? These are the questions I ask you to talk
to you about a very interesting topic: how to anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them.
Possible scenarios are situations that may occur in the future, both positive and negative, that
may affect the functioning and continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes,
activities and agents involved in transportation and distribution. of goods and services by sea,
from origin to destination. Possible scenarios can be of natural or human origin, and can have
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diverse consequences, such as opportunities, threats, benefits, losses, etc.
To anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them, you need to have vision and strategy.
Vision is the ability to imagine and project the future, taking into account the internal and
external factors that can influence it. Strategy is the ability to define and execute the objectives,
actions, resources and those responsible to achieve the vision. For example, a risk analysis can
be carried out, contingency, emergency and recovery plans established, as well as having
adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events.
Anticipating possible scenarios and preparing for them is a skill that can save your life (and
business) at sea, because it allows you to reduce uncertainty, increase safety, improve efficiency
and maintain competitiveness and customer satisfaction. customers.
Adapt to changes and be flexible:
Would you like to be a master of maritime logistics? Would you like to know how to face any
situation and emerge victorious from it? These are the questions I ask you to talk to you about a
very interesting topic: how to adapt to changes and be flexible.
Changes are the variations or modifications that occur in the environment, the market, the
customer, the supplier, the product, the service, etc., that can affect the operation and
continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes, activities and agents involved in the
transportation and distribution of goods and services by sea, from origin to destination. Changes
can be of natural or human origin, and can have diverse consequences, such as opportunities,
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threats, benefits, losses, etc.
To adapt to changes and be flexible, you need to have attitude and aptitude. Attitude is the
disposition or willingness to accept and take advantage of changes, rather than resisting or
rejecting them. Aptitude is the capacity or ability to adjust and reconfigure processes, resources
and logistics systems to respond to changes. For example, the route, mode, supplier or
customer can be modified according to market and environmental conditions, as well as offering
personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations.
Adapting to change and being flexible is a skill that can make you successful at sea, because it
allows you to reduce costs, increase revenue, improve margins and profits, and maintain
competitiveness and customer satisfaction.
Learn from experience and continually improve:
Would you like to be an expert in maritime logistics? Would you like to know how to avoid
mistakes and take advantage of opportunities? These are the questions I ask you to talk to you
about a very interesting topic: how to learn from experience and continually improve.
Experience is the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are acquired through observation,
practice and reflection on reality. Experience is essential for maritime logistics, because it allows
improving the operation and continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes,
activities and agents involved in the transport and distribution of goods and services by sea,
from the origin to the destination. Experience also allows you to face the risks and challenges
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that can affect maritime logistics, such as extreme weather events, armed conflicts, terrorist
attacks, acts of piracy, accidents, human errors, technological failures, cyberattacks. , demand
and supply fluctuations, financial crises, legal regulations, trade policies, sanctions, tariffs,
pandemics, etc.
To learn from experience and continually improve, you need to be curious and humble. Curiosity
is the desire to know more and explore new possibilities. Humility is the recognition of one's
own limits and the need to improve. For example, you can evaluate performance, identify
strengths and weaknesses, apply lessons learned, share good practices, as well as seek feedback
and continuous improvement.
Learning from experience and continually improving is a skill that can make you stand out at sea,
because it allows you to reduce errors, increase quality, improve efficiency and maintain
competitiveness and customer satisfaction.
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The secret of champions: resilience in maritime logistics
Given this panorama, the question arises: how can maritime logistics actors overcome
these adversities and maintain their competitiveness and efficiency? The answer is:
through resilience . Resilience is the ability to adapt and overcome adversities, changes and
crises that may affect the functioning and continuity of the supply chain⁴. Resilience is the secret
of champions, because:
 Allows them to reduce costs,
 Increase income,
 Improve margins and profits, and
 Maintain customer satisfaction.
But, How can resilience be achieved in maritime logistics? What factors favor or hinder it?
What benefits or drawbacks does it have? These are the questions we are going to analyze in
this article, presenting the arguments for and against, refuting opposing points of view and
drawing persuasive conclusions based on evidence.
Arguments in favor of resilience in maritime logistics
The arguments in favor of resilience in maritime logistics are based on the
following aspects:
Resilience allows you to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis:
Would you like to turn a crisis into an opportunity? Would you like to know how to take
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advantage of difficulties and transform them into benefits? These are the questions I ask you to
talk to you about a very interesting topic: how resilience allows you to take advantage of the
opportunities offered by the crisis.
The crisis is a situation of change, conflict or adversity that can affect the functioning and
continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes, activities and agents involved in the
transport and distribution of goods and services by sea. , from origin to destination. The crisis
can be of natural or human origin, and can have negative consequences, such as disruptions,
losses, delays, breakdowns, pollution, etc.
Resilience is the ability to adapt and overcome crises, maintaining or improving supply chain
performance and competitiveness. Resilience is an advantage, because it allows you to see the
crisis as an opportunity to innovate, create and transform. For example, you can take advantage
of the health crisis to drive digitalization, automation and integration of maritime operations, as
well as to foster collaboration and solidarity between different actors in the supply chain.
Resilience allows us to anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them:
Instead of waiting for the worst to happen, you can anticipate possible scenarios and prepare
for them. For example, a risk analysis can be carried out, contingency, emergency and recovery
plans established, as well as having adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and
manage possible disruptive events.
Resilience allows us to adapt to changes and be flexible:
Instead of resisting change and being rigid, you can adapt to change and be flexible. For
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example, the route, mode, supplier or customer can be modified according to market and
environmental conditions, as well as offering personalized and alternative solutions to customer
needs and expectations.
Resilience allows us to learn from experience and continually improve:
Instead of repeating the same mistakes and staying stagnant, you can learn from experience and
continually improve. For example, you can evaluate performance, identify strengths and
weaknesses, apply lessons learned, share good practices, as well as seek feedback and
continuous improvement.
Arguments against resilience in maritime logistics
The arguments against resilience in maritime logistics are based on the following
aspects:
Resilience implies high cost and low profitability:
To achieve resilience, it is necessary to invest in resources, technologies, infrastructure, training,
etc., which involve high cost and low profitability. Furthermore, resilience can lead to an
oversupply of capacity, a reduction in prices and a loss of competitiveness.
Resilience implies high complexity and low efficiency:
To achieve resilience, multiple actors, processes and systems need to be coordinated and
harmonized, which imply high complexity and low efficiency. Furthermore, resilience can lead to
a lack of control, a loss of quality, and vulnerability to failure.
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Resilience implies high uncertainty and low security:
To achieve resilience, it is necessary to assume and manage risks, which imply high uncertainty
and low security. Additionally, resilience can lead to a lack of trust, a loss of reputation, and
exposure to threats.
Resilience implies high responsibility and low sustainability:
To achieve resilience, it is necessary to comply with the standards, principles and goals of
sustainable development, which imply high responsibility and low sustainability. Furthermore,
resilience can generate a negative impact on the environment, society and the economy.
Refuting the arguments against resilience in maritime logistics
The arguments against resilience in maritime logistics can be refuted as follows:
Resilience does not imply high cost and low profitability, but quite the opposite:
Resilience is not an expense, but an investment, reducing costs, increasing revenue, improving
margins and profits, and maintaining competitiveness and customer satisfaction. According to a
McKinsey study , companies that invest in supply chain resilience can see a return on investment
of between 15 and 25 percent.
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Resilience does not imply high complexity and low efficiency, but quite the
opposite:
Resilience is not a problem, but a solution, which allows us to optimize, automate, integrate and
secure maritime operations, as well as increase the flexibility, agility, transparency and
traceability of the supply chain. According to a study by ECLAC , the resilience of the supply
chain is key to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the carbon footprint, energy consumption
and the use of natural resources.
Resilience does not imply high uncertainty and low security, but quite the
opposite:
Resilience is not a risk, but an opportunity, which allows you to identify, analyze, evaluate and
prioritize potential risks, as well as define the objectives, actions, resources and those
responsible to prevent, mitigate and manage them. According to a UN study , supply chain
resilience is essential to ensure food and nutritional security for millions of people suffering
from hunger and poverty.
Resilience does not imply high responsibility and low sustainability, but quite the
opposite:
Resilience is not a burden, but a commitment, which allows us to comply with the standards,
principles and objectives of sustainable development, which imply high responsibility and
sustainability. Furthermore, resilience can generate a positive impact on the environment,
society and the economy, by reducing emissions, consumption, waste, poverty, hunger, etc.
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SWOT
A SWOT is an analysis that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of a
situation, a project, an organization or a sector. The SWOT allows us to know the internal and
external reality, as well as define strategies to take advantage of the advantages and face the
challenges. In this case, we are going to carry out a SWOT of resilience and crisis management in
the logistics and maritime market, which is a very relevant topic in the current context.
Below, we present the SWOT of resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime
market, based on the arguments for and against that you have provided us:
Strengths Opportunities
- Resilience allows us to take advantage
of the opportunities offered by the crisis,
such as innovation, creation and
transformation of logistics and maritime
processes, products and services.
- The crisis can be a source of learning,
improvement and change for the logistics and
maritime sector, which can adapt to new
customer needs and expectations, as well as
new market and environmental conditions.
- Resilience allows us to anticipate
possible scenarios and prepare for them,
through risk analysis, contingency,
emergency and recovery plans, and the
- Anticipation and preparation can generate a
competitive advantage for the logistics and
maritime sector, which can offer greater
security, quality and efficiency in its services,
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appropriate resources and tools. as well as a greater capacity to respond and
solve disruptive events.
- Resilience allows us to adapt to
changes and be flexible, by modifying
the route, mode, supplier or client
according to market and environmental
conditions, as well as offering
personalized and alternative solutions.
- Adaptation and flexibility can generate
greater customer satisfaction and loyalty,
who can find tailored and affordable
solutions for their needs and expectations, as
well as greater diversification and
profitability for the logistics and maritime
sector.
- Resilience allows us to learn from
experience and continually improve, by
evaluating performance, identifying
strengths and weaknesses, applying
lessons learned, sharing good practices,
and seeking feedback and continuous
improvement. .
- Learning and continuous improvement can
generate greater quality and efficiency in
logistics and maritime processes, resources
and systems, as well as greater innovation
and development of new products, services
and solutions that provide added value to the
sector and customers.
Weaknesses Threats
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- Resilience implies a high cost and low
profitability, due to the investment in
resources, technologies, infrastructure,
training, etc., which may not have an
immediate or sufficient return.
- The crisis can generate an oversupply of
capacity, a reduction in prices and a loss of
competitiveness for the logistics and
maritime sector, which may see its income,
margins and profits decrease, as well as its
market share and positioning.
- Resilience implies high complexity and
low simplicity, due to the diversity and
simultaneity of the risks and challenges
that the logistics and maritime sector may
face, which may require more intense and
effective coordination, communication and
collaboration between the different actors.
of the supply chain.
- The crisis can generate greater
uncertainty and less predictability for the
logistics and maritime sector, which may
see its planning, programming and
execution of its operations affected, as well
as its ability to anticipate and react to
changes and contingencies.
- Resilience implies high responsibility and
low sustainability, because the logistics
and maritime sector must comply with the
standards, principles and objectives of
sustainable development, which imply
greater demand and commitment to the
- The crisis can generate a greater impact
and less mitigation for the logistics and
maritime sector, which may see its
reputation, image and trust affected, as
well as its social and environmental
responsibility, due to the possible damages
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environment, society and the economy. or losses that it may cause or suffer.
As you can see, resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market has its
pros and cons, its strengths and its weaknesses, its opportunities and its threats. Therefore, it is
important to carry out a SWOT to understand the internal and external reality, as well as define
strategies to take advantage of the advantages and face the challenges.
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 NORTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES
Resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market is a very relevant topic in
the current context, since this sector faces numerous risks and challenges, both internal and
external, that can cause disruptions, losses, delays, breakdowns, pollution, etc. Resilience is the
ability to adapt and overcome crises, maintaining or improving supply chain performance and
competitiveness. Crisis management is the set of actions and measures taken to prevent,
mitigate and resolve emergency situations that may put the supply chain at risk.
To illustrate this topic, we are going to analyze some cases of success and failure of resilience
and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market in 5 North American countries:
United States, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica and Panama. These cases will allow us to identify
good and bad practices, as well as lessons learned and recommendations for improvement.
Are you ready to know these cases? Let us begin!
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Failure case: Costa Rica. The 2018 national strike, which lasted more than three months
between September and December, was one of the longest and most complex crises to affect
Costa Rica's logistics and maritime sector, causing losses estimated at $1.6 billion and affecting
more of 12 thousand jobs. The national strike was a protest by public sector unions against the
government's proposed tax reform, which sought to reduce the fiscal deficit and public debt.
The national strike interrupted the transport of goods by road
Success story: United States
Hurricane Harvey, which struck Texas and Louisiana in August 2017, was one of the costliest
natural disasters in U.S. history, causing an estimated $125 billion in damage and affecting
more than 13 million people¹. The hurricane also had a major impact on the logistics and
maritime sector, as it disrupted the transportation of goods by road, rail, air and sea, as well as
the supply of fuel and energy. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great
resilience and crisis management, as it was able to recover quickly and minimize losses.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. Collaboration and coordination between the different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, clients, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
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2. The flexibility and adaptability to modify routes, modes, suppliers and clients according to
market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative
solutions to the needs and expectations of clients.
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
4. Preparation and learning to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as
adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events,
as well as to apply the lessons learned and seek continuous improvement.
Failure case: Canada
The 2020 rail blockade, which lasted more than three weeks between February and March, was
one of the most serious crises to affect Canada's logistics and maritime sector, causing losses
estimated at $3.2 billion and affecting more than 6 thousand jobs³. The rail blockade was a
protest by indigenous and environmental groups against the construction of a gas pipeline in the
territory of the Wet'suwet'en nation , in British Columbia. The rail blockade disrupted rail freight
transportation, which accounts for 70% of interprovincial trade and 50% of Canada's
international trade⁴. The rail blockade also had a major impact on the maritime sector, causing
congestion and rerouting of ships in ports, as well as increased costs and delays.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of communication and negotiation between the government, companies and
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protesters, which prevented reaching a peaceful and timely agreement to resolve the
conflict and lift the blockade.
2. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transport of goods, which made the
logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on rail, without having other viable
options for transport by road, air or sea.
3. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which
meant that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to
respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment.
4. The lack of preparation and learning to have contingency, emergency and recovery
plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible
disruptive events, as well as to apply the lessons learned and seek continuous
improvement.
Success story: Mexico
The 2017 earthquake, which struck central and southern Mexico in September 2017, was one of
the most devastating natural disasters in Mexican history, causing more than 300 deaths,
thousands of injuries, and damage estimated at $2 billion. Dollars. The earthquake also had a
major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, damaging the infrastructure and operation of
ports, airports, roads and railways, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, the
logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was
able to restore its services and support the affected population.
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How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the
logistics and maritime sector, which joined the rescue, aid and reconstruction efforts,
donating and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the
affected areas .
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share
information, resources and solutions.
3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according
to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative
solutions to customer needs and expectations.
4. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
Failure case: Costa Rica.
The 2018 national strike, which lasted more than three months between September and
December, was one of the longest and most complex crises to affect Costa Rica's logistics and
maritime sector, causing losses estimated at $1.6 billion and affecting more of 12 thousand
jobs1. The national strike was a protest by public sector unions against the government's
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proposed tax reform, which sought to reduce the fiscal deficit and public debt. The national
strike interrupted the transport of goods by road, rail, air and sea, as well as the operation of
ports, airports, customs and free zones.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, the unions and the
private sector, which prevented reaching a peaceful and timely agreement to resolve
the conflict and end the strike.
2. The lack of security and protection for transporters, port operators and other actors in
the supply chain, who suffered threats, attacks, blockades and sabotage by strikers,
which prevented the passage of goods and services.
3. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transport of goods, which made the
logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on the road, without having other
viable options for transport by rail, air or sea.
4. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which
meant that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to
respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment.
Failure case: Costa Rica
The 2018 national strike, which lasted more than three months between September and
December, was one of the longest and most complex crises to affect Costa Rica's logistics and
maritime sector, causing losses estimated at $1.6 billion and affecting more of 12 thousand
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jobs1. The national strike was a protest by public sector unions against the government's
proposed tax reform, which sought to reduce the fiscal deficit and public debt. The national
strike interrupted the transport of goods by road, rail, air and sea, as well as the operation of
ports, airports, customs and free zones.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, the unions and the private
sector, which prevented reaching a peaceful and timely agreement to resolve the conflict
and end the strike.
2. The lack of security and protection for transporters, port operators and other actors in
the supply chain, who suffered threats, attacks, blockades and sabotage by strikers,
which prevented the passage of goods and services.
3. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transport of goods, which made the
logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on the road, without having other viable
options for transport by rail, air or sea.
4. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which meant
that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to
the demands and expectations of the market and the environment.
Success story: Panama.
The Panama Canal, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, is one of the
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most important and strategic infrastructures in the logistics and maritime sector, since it allows
the passage of more than 14 thousand ships a year, transporting 6% of the world trade2. The
Panama Canal has demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it has been able to
maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in the face of the different crises it has
faced, such as drought, pandemic, competition and digital transformation.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services,
as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
2. The adaptation and flexibility to modify rates, schedules, protocols and requirements
according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and
alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients.
3. Anticipation and preparation to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as
well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible
disruptive events.
4. The collaboration and social responsibility of the Panama Canal Authority, which has
been involved with the different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port
operators, authorities, clients, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and
solutions , as well as with the community and the environment, to support the
sustainable development of the country.
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SUCCESS AND FAILURE CASES IN 6 SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES
To illustrate this topic, we are going to analyze some cases of success and failure of resilience
and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market in 3 South American countries:
Brazil, Colombia and Chile. These cases will allow us to identify good and bad practices, as well
as lessons learned and recommendations for improvement.
Success story: Brazil
The Santos port fire, which occurred in April 2015, was one of the most serious accidents that
affected Brazil's logistics and maritime sector, causing damage estimated at 100 million dollars
and affecting more than 200 thousand tons of merchandise. The fire originated in a container
containing flammable chemicals and spread to other containers, causing a large column of
smoke and flames that could be seen for several kilometers. The fire also had a great
environmental impact, as it contaminated the air, water and soil in the area. However, the
logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was
able to control the fire and resume operations in a short time.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were
1. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
2. Preparation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well
as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive
events, such as detection, extinction and evacuation systems.
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3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to
market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative
solutions to customer needs and expectations.
4. The responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and
maritime sector, which committed to repairing the damage caused and compensating
those affected, as well as improving their safety and environmental practices.
Failure case: Colombia.
The 2021 national strike, which began in April and lasted more than two months, was one of
the longest and most complex crises that affected Colombia's logistics and maritime sector,
causing losses estimated at $3.6 billion and affecting to more than 40 thousand jobs². The
national strike was a protest by various social sectors against the tax reform proposed by the
government, which sought to increase taxes to face the economic and social crisis generated by
the pandemic. The national strike interrupted the transport of goods by road, rail, air and sea,
as well as the operation of ports, airports, customs and free zones.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, the protesters and the
private sector, which prevented reaching a peaceful and timely agreement to resolve the
conflict and end the strike.
2. The lack of security and protection for transporters, port operators and other actors in the
supply chain, who suffered threats, attacks, blockades and vandalism by protesters, which
prevented the passage of goods and services.
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3. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transport of goods, which made the
logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on the road, without having other viable
options for transport by rail, air or sea.
4. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which meant
that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to
the demands and expectations of the market and the environment.
Success story: Chile .
The 2010 earthquake and tsunami, which affected central and southern Chile in February 2010,
was one of the most devastating natural disasters in Chilean history, causing more than 500
deaths, thousands of injuries, and damage estimated at $30 billion. of dollars. The earthquake
and tsunami also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it damaged the
infrastructure and operation of ports, airports, roads and railways, as well as the supply of fuel
and energy. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis
management, as it was able to restore its services and support the affected population.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics
and maritime sector, which joined the rescue, aid and reconstruction efforts, donating
and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the affected areas .
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
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3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to
market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative
solutions to customer needs and expectations.
4. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
Success story: Peru.
The El Niño Costero phenomenon, which affected northern and central Peru between
December 2016 and May 2017, was one of the most intense and destructive weather events in
the history of Peru, causing more than 100 deaths, thousands of injuries and Damage estimated
at $3.1 billion. The El Niño Costero phenomenon also had a great impact on the logistics and
maritime sector, as it caused floods, landslides, landslides and erosion that damaged the
infrastructure and operation of ports, airports, roads and railways, as well as the supply of fuel
and energy. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis
management, as it was able to restore its services and support the affected population.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics
and maritime sector, which joined the rescue, aid and reconstruction efforts, donating
and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the affected areas .
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
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resources and solutions.
3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to
market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative
solutions to customer needs and expectations.
4. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
Failure case: Argentina.
The economic and social crisis of 2018-2019, which was worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic
in 2020, was one of the deepest and longest crises that affected Argentina's logistics and
maritime sector, causing a 2.5% drop in GDP. in 2018, 2.1% in 2019 and 9.9% in 2020, as well as
an inflation of 47.6% in 2018, 53.8% in 2019 and 36.1% in 20202. The economic and social crisis
also had a great impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it reduced the demand and
supply of goods and services, increased costs and taxes, deteriorated infrastructure and
security, and generated labor and social conflicts.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of stability and confidence in the macroeconomic and political framework,
which prevented attracting investments, generating growth and improving the
competitiveness of the logistics and maritime sector.
2. The lack of regional integration and cooperation, which limited access to markets and
foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector.
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3. The lack of diversification and modernization of the productive and logistics matrix,
which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on primary and low-
complexity products, without adding value or innovating.
4. The lack of preparation and adaptation to the COVID-19 pandemic, which meant that the
logistics and maritime sector could not respond adequately to health measures, mobility
restrictions and changes in consumer habits.
Success story: Uruguay.
Uruguay. The COVID-19 pandemic, which began in March 2020 and continues, has been one of
the most serious health and economic crises that has affected the world, causing more than 4
million deaths, millions of infections and estimated damages in 10 billion dollars. The COVID-19
pandemic has also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, disrupting the
transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as the supply of fuel and energy.
However, Uruguay's logistics and maritime sector has demonstrated great resilience and crisis
management, as it has been able to maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in
the face of the pandemic.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well
as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive
events, such as health protocols, protective equipment, rapid tests, etc.
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2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
4. The responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and
maritime sector, which have committed to comply with the standards, principles and
objectives of sustainable development, which imply greater demand and commitment to
the environment, society and the economy.
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 AFRICA COUNTRIES
Success story: South Africa.
The 2015-2018 drought, which affected southern and western South Africa, was one of the
most severe and prolonged droughts in South Africa's history, causing water shortages,
consumption restrictions, agricultural losses and risk of famine. The drought also had a major
impact on the logistics and maritime sector, reducing the availability and quality of water for
port operations, shipping and container washing, as well as the supply of hydroelectric power.
However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis
management, as it was able to adapt and mitigate the effects of the drought.
tanker, generators, etc.
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How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
2. The collaboration and social responsibility of companies and organizations in the logistics
and maritime sector, which committed to reducing their water consumption, to recycle
and reuse water, to implement savings and efficiency measures, and to support
communities affected by the drought.
3. Anticipation and preparation to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well
as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive
events, such as storage tanks, tank trucks, generators, etc.
4. The adaptation and flexibility to modify rates, schedules, protocols and requirements
according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and
alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients.
Failure case: Egypt.
The blockage of the Suez Canal, which occurred in March 2021, was one of the most serious
accidents that affected the logistics and maritime sector of Egypt and the world, causing losses
estimated at 9.6 billion dollars and affecting more than 400 vessels. that transported 12% of
world trade. The blockage of the Suez Canal was caused by the grounding of the Ever ship
Given , which measured 400 meters long and 59 meters wide, and which was trapped in the
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canal by a sandstorm and strong wind. The blockage of the Suez Canal disrupted the transport
of goods by sea, which accounts for 90% of international trade, as well as the supply of fuel and
energy.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of security and prevention to prevent the ship Ever Given will enter the canal
under adverse weather conditions, as well as to have detection, alert and assistance
systems in case of emergency.
2. The lack of coordination and collaboration between the authorities, companies and
countries involved in the blockade, which prevented a quick and effective response to
free the ship and resume maritime traffic.
3. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transportation of goods, which made
the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on the Suez Canal, without having
other viable options for transportation by other routes or modes.
4. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which made
the Suez Canal have a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and
expectations of the market and the environment.
Success story: Kenya
Westgate shopping center , which occurred in September 2013, was one of the bloodiest and
most violent attacks in Kenya's history, causing more than 70 deaths, hundreds of injuries, and
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damage estimated at $10 million. The terrorist attack also had a great impact on the logistics
and maritime sector, as it affected the security, confidence and economic activity of the
country, as well as the flow of tourists, investors and merchants. However, the logistics and
maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to recover
and strengthen after the attack.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics
and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and reconstruction efforts, donating
and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the victims already
those affected by the attack.
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
4. The adaptation and flexibility to modify rates, schedules, protocols and requirements
according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and
alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients.
Success story: Morocco
The COVID-19 pandemic, which began in March 2020 and continues, has been one of the most
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serious health and economic crises that has affected the world, causing more than 4 million
deaths, millions of infections and estimated damages in 10 billion dollars. The COVID-19
pandemic has also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, disrupting the
transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as the supply of fuel and energy.
However, Morocco's logistics and maritime sector has demonstrated great resilience and crisis
management, as it has been able to maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in
the face of the pandemic.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well
as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive
events, such as health protocols, protective equipment, rapid tests, etc.
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
4. Regional integration and cooperation, which allowed Morocco to access markets and
foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector, as well as funds and aid
from the European Union and other partners.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 49
Failure case: Nigeria.
The armed conflict in the Niger Delta, which began in 2003 and continues, has been one of the
most violent and prolonged conflicts that has affected the logistics and maritime sector of
Nigeria and Africa, causing thousands of deaths, displacements and kidnappings. , as well as
damages estimated at 100 billion dollars. The armed conflict in the Niger Delta arose from the
demands of local armed groups, which demanded a greater share in the benefits and
management of the oil and gas resources in the area, as well as greater protection of the
environment and human rights. The armed conflict in the Niger Delta disrupted the
transportation and exploitation of hydrocarbons, which represent 90% of exports and 70% of
the Nigerian government's income, as well as the supply of fuel and energy.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, armed groups and oil
companies, which prevented reaching a peaceful and sustainable agreement to resolve
the conflict and end the violence.
2. The lack of security and protection for transporters, port operators and other actors in
the supply chain, who suffered threats, aggressions, attacks and sabotage by armed
groups, which prevented the passage of goods and services.
3. The lack of diversification and modernization of the productive and logistics matrix,
which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on hydrocarbons,
without adding value or innovating.
4. The lack of responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the
logistics and maritime sector, which have been involved in cases of corruption, tax
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 50
evasion, pollution and violation of human rights.
Success story: Ethiopia
The 2015-2016 drought, which affected eastern and southern Ethiopia, was one of the most
severe and longest droughts in Ethiopia's history, causing food, water and fodder shortages, as
well as risk of famine for more than 10 millions of people. The drought also had a major impact
on the logistics and maritime sector, reducing the availability and quality of water for port
operations, shipping and container washing, as well as the supply of hydroelectric power.
However, Ethiopia's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis
management as it was able to adapt and mitigate the effects of the drought.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics
and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and reconstruction efforts, donating
and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the victims already
those affected by drought.
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to
market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative
solutions to customer needs and expectations.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 51
4. Investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which allowed Ethiopia
to improve its capacity and competitiveness to respond to the demands and expectations
of the market and the environment, such as the development of the Doraleh port in
Djibouti, the Addis Ababa railway to Djibouti, and the Hawassa industrial park .
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 6 COUNTRIES OF EUROPE
Success story: Spain
The health and economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which began in March 2020
and continues, has been one of the most serious and complex crises that has affected the
logistics and maritime sector in Spain and the world, causing more than 80 thousand deaths,
millions of infections and damages estimated at 11% of GDP. The COVID-19 pandemic has also
had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, disrupting the transportation and
distribution of goods and services, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, Spain's
logistics and maritime sector has demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it
has been able to maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in the face of the
pandemic. How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 52
and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and reconstruction efforts, donating
and transporting food, medicine, medical supplies, protective equipment, etc., to the
areas and sectors most affected by the pandemic.
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
4. - Adaptation and flexibility to modify rates, schedules, protocols and requirements
according to market conditions and the environment, as well as to offer personalized and
alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients.
Failure case: United Kingdom
Brexit, which took place on January 31, 2020, was one of the most controversial and conflictive
processes that has affected the logistics and maritime sector in the United Kingdom and Europe,
causing uncertainty, instability and losses estimated at 4.9% of GDP. Brexit implied the
departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union and the end of the free movement
of people, goods and services between both blocs. Brexit also had a great impact on the logistics
and maritime sector, as it generated new barriers, tariffs, controls and procedures for the
transport and trade of goods and services, as well as the supply of fuel and energy.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 53
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were²:
1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, the opposition, parliament
and civil society, which prevented reaching a clear, orderly and beneficial agreement for
all parties involved in Brexit.
2. The lack of preparation and planning to face the consequences of Brexit, which meant
that the logistics and maritime sector did not have the appropriate resources, tools and
protocols to adapt to the changes and new regulations.
3. The lack of regional integration and cooperation, which limited access to markets and
foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector.
4. The lack of diversification and modernization of the productive and logistics matrix, which
made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on products and services
coming from or destined for the European Union, without exploring other options or
markets.
Success story: Germany
The financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009, which was caused by the collapse of the United
States mortgage market, was one of the deepest and most global crises that has affected the
logistics and maritime sector in Germany and the world, causing a drop in GDP of 5.7% in 2009
and a contraction of world trade of 12.2%. The financial and economic crisis also had a major
impact on the logistics and maritime sector, reducing demand and supply of goods and
services, increasing costs and risks, deteriorating confidence and investment, and generating
unemployment and poverty. However, Germany's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated
great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to recover and grow after the crisis.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 54
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. Stability and confidence in the macroeconomic and political framework, which allowed
attracting investments, generating growth and improving the competitiveness of the
logistics and maritime sector.
2. The diversification and modernization of the production and logistics matrix, which made
the logistics and maritime sector offer products and services of high quality, complexity
and innovation, with high added and differential value.
3. Regional integration and cooperation, which allowed Germany to access markets and
foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector, as well as funds and aid
from the European Union and other partners.
4. - The responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and
maritime sector, which committed to comply with the standards, principles and
objectives of sustainable development, which imply greater demand and commitment to
the environment, society and the economy.
Success story: France
Notre Dame Cathedral fire , which occurred in April 2019, was one of the most shocking
cultural disasters that has affected the logistics and maritime sector of France and the world,
causing irreparable damage to the historical, artistic and religious heritage of The humanity.
The fire at Notre Dame Cathedral was caused by a short circuit in the electrical system, which
caused the spire, roof and part of the vault to collapse. The fire at Notre Dame Cathedral
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 55
affected the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as tourism and the
economy of France. However, France's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great
resilience and crisis management, as it was able to collaborate and contribute to the
restoration and reconstruction of the cathedral.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics
and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and donation efforts, transporting
and delivering materials, equipment, tools, etc., to the rescue and restoration teams .
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
4. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to
market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative
solutions to customer needs and expectations.
Failure case: Italy
The collapse of the Morandi bridge, which occurred in August 2018, was one of the most tragic
and serious accidents that has affected the logistics and maritime sector of Italy and Europe,
causing 43 deaths, dozens of injuries and damages estimated at 2.5 billion of euros. The
collapse of the Morandi Bridge was caused by the deterioration and corrosion of the steel
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 56
cables that supported the viaduct, which broke due to the effects of wind and rain. The collapse
of the Morandi Bridge interrupted the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as
well as access to the port of Genoa, which is the most important in Italy and the sixth in Europe.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of maintenance and prevention to prevent the Morandi Bridge from
deteriorating and collapsing, as well as to have detection, alert and assistance systems in
case of emergency.
2. The lack of coordination and collaboration between the authorities, companies and
citizens involved in the sinking, which prevented a quick and effective response to rescue
the victims and restore traffic.
3. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which made
the Morandi Bridge have a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and
expectations of the market and the environment.
4. The lack of responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the
logistics and maritime sector, which have been involved in cases of corruption, tax
evasion, negligence and violation of regulations.
Success story: Netherlands
The mink coronavirus crisis, which began in April 2020 and is still ongoing, has been one of the
most unexpected and unique health and economic crises that has affected the logistics and
maritime sector in the Netherlands and the world, causing of more than 2.5 million mink, the
infection of more than 100 people and the loss of a productive sector. The mink coronavirus
crisis was caused by the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from humans to mink and vice
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 57
versa, on mink breeding farms, which are used for fur production. The mink coronavirus crisis
affected the transport and distribution of goods and services, as well as public health and safety
in the Netherlands. However, the Netherlands' logistics and maritime sector demonstrated
great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to adapt and mitigate the effects of the
crisis.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well
as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive
events, such as health protocols, protective equipment, rapid tests, etc.
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
4. The diversification and modernization of the production and logistics matrix, which made
the logistics and maritime sector offer products and services of high quality, complexity
and innovation, with high added and differential value.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 58
CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 COUNTRIES IN ASIA
Success story: China
The trade war with the United States, which began in 2018 and continues, has been one of the
most intense and prolonged political and economic crises that has affected the logistics and
maritime sector of China and the world, causing tariffs, sanctions, restrictions and retaliations
that have affected bilateral and multilateral trade. The trade war with the United States has
also had a great impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it has reduced the demand and
supply of goods and services, increased costs and risks, deteriorated confidence and
investment, and generated imbalances. and tensions. However, China's logistics and maritime
sector has demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it has been able to
maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in the face of the trade war.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The diversification and modernization of the production and logistics matrix, which made
the logistics and maritime sector offer products and services of high quality, complexity
and innovation, with high added and differential value.
2. Regional integration and cooperation, which allowed China to access markets and foreign
trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector, as well as funds and aid from
the Belt and Road Initiative, the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Regional and
other partners.
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 59
4. - Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according
to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative
solutions to customer needs and expectations.
Failure case: Japan
The 2011 earthquake and tsunami, which occurred in March 2011, was one of the most
devastating and catastrophic natural disasters that has affected the logistics and maritime
sector of Japan and the world, causing more than 15 thousand deaths, thousands of missing
and injured, and damages estimated at 235 billion dollars. The 2011 earthquake and tsunami
also caused the Fukushima nuclear accident, which was the worst nuclear accident since
Chernobyl, causing the release of radioactive material into the environment and the risk of
contamination. The 2011 earthquake and tsunami disrupted the transportation and distribution
of goods and services, as well as access to ports, roads, airports and critical infrastructure.
What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were:
1. The lack of maintenance and prevention to prevent nuclear facilities from being
damaged and collapsing, as well as to have detection, alert and assistance systems in
case of emergency.
2. The lack of coordination and collaboration between the authorities, companies and
citizens involved in the disaster, which prevented a rapid and effective response to
rescue the victims and restore traffic.
3. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which meant
that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to
the demands and expectations of the market and the environment.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 60
4. - The lack of responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the
logistics and maritime sector, which have been involved in cases of corruption, tax
evasion, negligence and violation of regulations.
Success story: Singapore
The ship coronavirus crisis, which began in May 2020 and is still ongoing, has been one of the
most unexpected and unique health and economic crises that has affected the logistics and
maritime sector in Singapore and the world, causing the spread of more than 1,000 sailors, the
isolation of more than 40 thousand ships, and the loss of an essential sector. The ship
coronavirus crisis originated from the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus among ship crew
members, who were prevented from disembarking at ports due to mobility restrictions and
health measures. The coronavirus crisis on ships affected the transport and distribution of
goods and services, as well as the safety and health of sailors. However, Singapore's logistics
and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management as it was able to
collaborate and contribute to the solution and alleviation of the crisis.
How do i do it? Some of the keys were:
1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics
and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and donation efforts, transporting
and delivering food, medicine, medical supplies, protective equipment, etc., to the ships.
and to the sailors affected by the crisis.
2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as
transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
resources and solutions.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE
MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 61
3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the
internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as
well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
4. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well
as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive
events, such as health protocols, protective equipment, rapid tests, etc.
Success story: India
The 2012 blackout crisis, which occurred in July 2012, was one of the most massive and
extensive electricity outages to have affected the logistics and maritime sector in India and the
world, causing disruption of power supply to more than 600 million people, 9% of the GDP and
40% of the population. The 2012 blackout crisis was caused by the imbalance between energy
supply and demand, which was worsened by drought, electricity theft, lack of investment and
mismanagement. The 2012 blackout crisis affected the transportation and distribution of goods
and services, as well as the operation of ports, airports, railways and critical infrastructure.
However, India's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis
management as it was able to recover and restore its services and competitiveness after the
blackout.
Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as
adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, such
as generators, batteries, solar panels, etc.
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET

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RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET

  • 1. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 1 RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET
  • 2. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 2 Content INTRODUCTION ...............................................................................................................................8 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM .......................................................................................................9 What factors can affect the resilience of maritime-port logistics? ...............................................9 Some of the factors that can endanger the resilience of maritime-port logistics are the following: ..................................................................................................................................9 Natural factors: .........................................................................................................................9 Human factors: .........................................................................................................................9 Technological factors: .............................................................................................................10 Socioeconomic factors: ...........................................................................................................10 What benefits can be obtained by improving the resilience of maritime-port logistics? ............10 By improving the resilience of maritime-port logistics, various benefits can be obtained, such as: ...........................................................................................................................................10 Greater competitiveness and profitability: .............................................................................10 Greater security and confidence: ............................................................................................11 Greater adaptability and opportunity: ....................................................................................11 Greater reputation and responsibility: ....................................................................................11 BACKGROUND ...............................................................................................................................11 What is the background to maritime sector resilience? ..........................................................11 What are the main antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector? ................................12 Some of the main antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector are the following: ....12 The creation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO): ............................................12 The evolution of technology and innovation: ..........................................................................12 Globalization and international trade: ....................................................................................12 Challenges and crises: .............................................................................................................13 What lessons can be drawn from the history of maritime sector resilience? .............................13 Some lessons can be drawn from the history of the resilience of the maritime sector, such
  • 3. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 3 as: ...........................................................................................................................................13 The importance of collaboration and coordination: ................................................................13 The need for planning and risk management: .........................................................................13 The value of innovation and digitalization: .............................................................................14 Commitment to sustainability and social responsibility: .........................................................14 JUSTIFICATION ..............................................................................................................................15 How can resilience and crisis management be justified in the logistics and maritime market? .15 Economic argument: ...............................................................................................................15 Social argument: .....................................................................................................................15 Environmental argument: .......................................................................................................15 How resilience can save your life (and business) at sea ................................................................16 Take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis: .....................................................16 Anticipate and prepare for possible scenarios: .......................................................................17 Adapt to changes and be flexible: ...........................................................................................18 Learn from experience and continually improve: ....................................................................19 The secret of champions: resilience in maritime logistics .............................................................21 Arguments in favor of resilience in maritime logistics ...................................................................21 The arguments in favor of resilience in maritime logistics are based on the following aspects: .21 Resilience allows you to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis: ...............21 Resilience allows us to anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them: ..........................22 Resilience allows us to adapt to changes and be flexible: .......................................................22 Resilience allows us to learn from experience and continually improve: ................................23 Arguments against resilience in maritime logistics ........................................................................23 The arguments against resilience in maritime logistics are based on the following aspects: .....23 Resilience implies high cost and low profitability: ...................................................................23 Resilience implies high complexity and low efficiency: ...........................................................23 Resilience implies high uncertainty and low security: .............................................................24
  • 4. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 4 Resilience implies high responsibility and low sustainability: ..................................................24 Refuting the arguments against resilience in maritime logistics ....................................................24 The arguments against resilience in maritime logistics can be refuted as follows: .....................24 Resilience does not imply high cost and low profitability, but quite the opposite: .................24 Resilience does not imply high complexity and low efficiency, but quite the opposite: ..........25 Resilience does not imply high uncertainty and low security, but quite the opposite: ............25 Resilience does not imply high responsibility and low sustainability, but quite the opposite: 25 SWOT ............................................................................................................................................27 Strengths ...................................................................................................................................27 Opportunities .............................................................................................................................27 Weaknesses ...............................................................................................................................28 Threats .......................................................................................................................................28 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 NORTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES .........................................30 Success story: United States ......................................................................................................31 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................31 Failure case: Canada ..................................................................................................................32 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................32 Success story: Mexico ................................................................................................................33 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................34 Failure case: Costa Rica. .............................................................................................................34 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................35 Failure case: Costa Rica ..............................................................................................................35 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................36 Success story: Panama. ..............................................................................................................36 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................37 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 6 SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES .........................................38 Success story: Brazil ...................................................................................................................38
  • 5. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 5 How do i do it? Some of the keys were ...................................................................................38 Failure case: Colombia. ..............................................................................................................39 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................39 Success story: Chile . ..................................................................................................................40 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................40 Success story: Peru. ...................................................................................................................41 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................41 Failure case: Argentina. ..............................................................................................................42 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................42 Success story: Uruguay. .............................................................................................................43 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................43 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 AFRICA COUNTRIES ...........................................................44 Success story: South Africa. .......................................................................................................44 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................45 Failure case: Egypt. ....................................................................................................................45 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................46 Success story: Kenya ..................................................................................................................46 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................47 Success story: Morocco ..............................................................................................................47 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................48 Failure case: Nigeria. ..................................................................................................................49 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................49 Success story: Ethiopia ...............................................................................................................50 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................50 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 6 COUNTRIES OF EUROPE ....................................................51 Success story: Spain ...................................................................................................................51 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................51
  • 6. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 6 Failure case: UK ..........................................................................................................................52 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were²: ....................................................53 Success story: Germany .............................................................................................................53 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................54 Success story: France .................................................................................................................54 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................55 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................56 Success story: Netherlands ........................................................................................................56 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................57 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 COUNTRIES IN ASIA ...........................................................58 Success story: China ...................................................................................................................58 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................58 Failure case: Japan .....................................................................................................................59 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: ......................................................59 Success story: Singapore ............................................................................................................60 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................60 Success story: India ....................................................................................................................61 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: ..................................................................................62 Failure case: South Korea ...........................................................................................................62 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were2: ....................................................63 Success story: Vietnam ..............................................................................................................63 How do i do it? Some of the keys were ...................................................................................64 CONCLUSION ................................................................................................................................64 BIBLIOGRAPHY ..............................................................................................................................68
  • 7. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 7
  • 8. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 8 INTRODUCTION What do maritime-port logistics and the game of Tetris have in common? At first glance, it may seem like nothing, but if you think about it, both are based on the ability to adapt to changes and make the most of the available space . In Tetris, we have to fit the pieces that fall on the screen, without leaving gaps or reaching the upper limit. In maritime-port logistics, we have to manage the flow of goods that arrive and leave through the ports, without generating traffic jams or wasting resources. But there is a fundamental difference: in Tetris, we know which pieces are going to fall and we can anticipate their movements. In maritime-port logistics, we cannot predict what is going to happen and we have to be prepared to face unforeseen situations , such as:  A global pandemic,  A dockworkers' strike  A tropical storm or a blockage of the Suez Canal . These situations can cause serious problems in the supply chain , such as delays, losses, damages, theft, fines, etc. How can we avoid or minimize these problems? The answer is resilience, that is, the ability to adapt and maintain operation in the face of disruptive scenarios . Resilience is essential for the competitiveness and efficiency of companies and operators participating in maritime-port logistics. But, How is resilience measured? What factors favor or hinder
  • 9. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 9 it? What tools and strategies can be used to improve it? These are some of the questions addressed in the article we are going to analyze, published by Logistop , a logistics innovation platform. PROBLEM STATEMENT What is resilience and why is it so important in maritime-port logistics? Resilience is the ability to adapt and overcome adversities, changes and crises. In the maritime-port logistics environment, resilience is key to guaranteeing the continuity and efficiency of the supply chain, especially in a context of uncertainty and volatility like the current one¹. Resilience implies having a holistic and strategic vision of risks and opportunities, as well as having resources and tools to anticipate, prevent, mitigate and recover from possible disruptive scenarios. What factors can affect the resilience of maritime-port logistics? Some of the factors that can endanger the resilience of maritime-port logistics are the following : Natural factors: Such as extreme weather events, earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions, etc. These factors can cause material and human damage, as well as disruptions to port and maritime infrastructure, services and operations. Human factors: Such as armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, acts of piracy, sabotage, strikes, accidents, human
  • 10. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 10 errors, etc. These factors can generate violence, insecurity, economic losses, delays, breakdowns, pollution, etc. Technological factors: Such as failures in information and communication systems, cyber attacks, breakdowns in equipment and machinery, quality problems, theft, counterfeiting, etc. These factors can cause loss of information, control, trust, competitiveness, reputation, etc. Socioeconomic factors: Such as fluctuations in demand and supply, financial crises, legal regulations, trade policies, sanctions, embargoes, tariffs, etc. These factors can cause changes in trade flows, costs, prices, margins, profits, etc. What benefits can be obtained by improving the resilience of maritime-port logistics? By improving the resilience of maritime-port logistics, various benefits can be obtained, such as: Greater competitiveness and profitability: By improving supply chain efficiency, productivity, quality and innovation, you can reduce costs, increase revenue, improve margins and profits, differentiate yourself from the competition and meet customer needs and expectations. customers.
  • 11. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 11 Greater security and confidence: By improving risk prevention, protection, mitigation and recovery, losses, damages, delays, interruptions, claims, etc. can be avoided or minimized, as well as service continuity and quality guaranteed. , and generate trust and loyalty among customers and partners. Greater adaptability and opportunity: By improving the flexibility, agility, transparency and traceability of the supply chain, they can quickly adapt to changes and crises, as well as take advantage of opportunities that arise in the market and environment. Greater reputation and responsibility: By improving the environmental, social and economic impact of maritime-port logistics, standards and regulations can be met, as well as the commitments and expectations of stakeholders and society, and generate a positive image and social responsibility. . BACKGROUND What is the background to maritime sector resilience? The antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector are those facts, events or circumstances that have influenced the sector's ability to adapt and overcome adversities, changes and crises throughout history. This background allows us to better understand the present and future of the sector, as well as assess its strengths and weaknesses.
  • 12. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 12 What are the main antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector? Some of the main antecedents of the resilience of the maritime sector are the following : The creation of the International Maritime Organization (IMO): It is a specialized agency of the United Nations that is responsible for developing and adopting international standards on maritime safety, security and the environment. The IMO was founded in 1948, but came into force in 1959, and since then has contributed to improving the resilience of the sector through harmonization, cooperation and risk prevention. The evolution of technology and innovation: The maritime sector has experienced great technological and innovative development over the years, which has allowed it to optimize, automate and integrate its operations, as well as increase its efficiency, productivity and competitiveness. Some examples of technological and innovative advances are satellite navigation, information and communication systems, smart ships, containers, mega ships , etc. Globalization and international trade: The maritime sector has been a key actor in the process of globalization and international trade, facilitating the transportation of goods and people between different regions and countries of the world. The maritime sector has been able to adapt to fluctuations in demand and supply, as well as trade regulations and policies, and has taken advantage of the opportunities offered by the global market.
  • 13. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 13 The challenges and crises: The maritime sector has had to face various challenges and crises throughout history, both of natural and human origin, which have tested its resilience. Some examples of challenges and crises are extreme weather events, armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, acts of piracy, accidents, fires, groundings, quality problems, cyber attacks, financial crises, pandemics, etc. . What lessons can be drawn from the history of maritime sector resilience? Some lessons can be drawn from the history of the resilience of the maritime sector, such as : The importance of collaboration and coordination: The maritime sector is a complex and diverse sector, which involves multiple actors, such as suppliers, customers, logistics operators, port authorities, shipping companies, etc. Therefore, it is essential to promote cooperation and communication between them, as well as create networks and strategic alliances, and share information, knowledge and good practices. The need for planning and risk management: The maritime sector is exposed to numerous risks, both internal and external, that can affect its continuity and efficiency. Therefore, it is necessary to identify, analyze, evaluate and prioritize potential risks, as well as define the objectives, actions, resources and those responsible to prevent, mitigate and manage them. It is also essential to establish contingency, emergency and
  • 14. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 14 recovery plans, as well as monitoring, control and continuous improvement mechanisms. The value of innovation and digitalization: The maritime sector is in an environment of constant change and high competitiveness, which requires innovative and differentiating solutions. Therefore, it is important to incorporate new technologies, solutions and processes that allow us to optimize, automate, integrate and secure maritime operations, as well as increase the flexibility, agility, transparency and traceability of the supply chain. It is also essential to develop digital capabilities and competencies, as well as foster a culture of innovation. Commitment to sustainability and social responsibility: The maritime sector has a great environmental, social and economic impact, both positive and negative, on the planet and society. Therefore, it is essential to adopt measures that contribute to reducing the negative impact and generating positive value, both for stakeholders and for society in general. It is also essential to comply with ethical, legal and quality principles, as well as promote inclusion, diversity, equity and people's well-being.
  • 15. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 15 JUSTIFICATION How can resilience and crisis management be justified in the logistics and maritime market? Economic argument: Resilience and crisis management can reduce costs, increase revenue, improve margins and profits, and maintain competitiveness and customer satisfaction. According to a Mckinsey study , companies that invest in supply chain resilience can see a return on investment of between 15 and 25 percent5 . Social argument: Resilience and crisis management contribute to ensuring the safety, security, health and well- being of people who work in or depend on the logistics and maritime sector, as well as society in general. According to a FAO report , supply chain resilience is essential to ensure food and nutritional security for millions of people suffering from hunger and poverty 6 . Environmental argument: Resilience and crisis management help minimize the negative impact and maximize the positive impact of the logistics and maritime sector on the environment, as well as meet sustainable development goals and climate commitments. According to an ECLAC study , the resilience of the supply chain is key to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the carbon footprint, energy consumption and the use of natural resources 7 .
  • 16. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 16 How resilience can save your life (and business) at sea What would happen if one day you woke up to find that your ship was on fire, that there was a storm raging across the sea, that pirates were chasing you, and that your customer had canceled your order? Would you give up and let yourself sink into panic and despair? Would you fight to move forward and find a solution? This is the question I ask you to talk about a very important topic: how resilience can save your life (and business) at sea. To improve resilience in the maritime sector, I can give the following advice and suggestions, based on deep subjective reasoning of lateral thinking: Take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis: Would you like to become a maritime logistics champion? Would you like to know how to overcome any crisis and emerge stronger from it? These are the questions I ask you to talk to you about a very interesting topic: how to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis. The crisis is a situation of difficulty, change or conflict that can affect the functioning and continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes, activities and agents involved in the transport and distribution of goods and services by sea. , from origin to destination. The crisis
  • 17. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 17 can be of natural or human origin, and can have negative consequences, such as disruptions, losses, delays, breakdowns, pollution, etc. But the crisis can also be an opportunity to innovate, create and transform. Instead of seeing the crisis as a threat, it can be seen as a challenge and a motivation to improve and grow. For example, the health crisis can be used to promote the digitalization, automation and integration of maritime operations, as well as to promote collaboration and solidarity between the different actors in the supply chain. To take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis, you need to be resilient. Resilience is the ability to adapt and overcome adversities, changes and crises. Resilience is the secret of champions, because it allows them to reduce costs, increase revenue, improve margins and profits, and maintain competitiveness and customer satisfaction. Anticipate and prepare for possible scenarios: Would you like to always be one step ahead of problems? Would you like to know how to prepare for any situation and get out of it successfully? These are the questions I ask you to talk to you about a very interesting topic: how to anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them. Possible scenarios are situations that may occur in the future, both positive and negative, that may affect the functioning and continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes, activities and agents involved in transportation and distribution. of goods and services by sea, from origin to destination. Possible scenarios can be of natural or human origin, and can have
  • 18. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 18 diverse consequences, such as opportunities, threats, benefits, losses, etc. To anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them, you need to have vision and strategy. Vision is the ability to imagine and project the future, taking into account the internal and external factors that can influence it. Strategy is the ability to define and execute the objectives, actions, resources and those responsible to achieve the vision. For example, a risk analysis can be carried out, contingency, emergency and recovery plans established, as well as having adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events. Anticipating possible scenarios and preparing for them is a skill that can save your life (and business) at sea, because it allows you to reduce uncertainty, increase safety, improve efficiency and maintain competitiveness and customer satisfaction. customers. Adapt to changes and be flexible: Would you like to be a master of maritime logistics? Would you like to know how to face any situation and emerge victorious from it? These are the questions I ask you to talk to you about a very interesting topic: how to adapt to changes and be flexible. Changes are the variations or modifications that occur in the environment, the market, the customer, the supplier, the product, the service, etc., that can affect the operation and continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes, activities and agents involved in the transportation and distribution of goods and services by sea, from origin to destination. Changes can be of natural or human origin, and can have diverse consequences, such as opportunities,
  • 19. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 19 threats, benefits, losses, etc. To adapt to changes and be flexible, you need to have attitude and aptitude. Attitude is the disposition or willingness to accept and take advantage of changes, rather than resisting or rejecting them. Aptitude is the capacity or ability to adjust and reconfigure processes, resources and logistics systems to respond to changes. For example, the route, mode, supplier or customer can be modified according to market and environmental conditions, as well as offering personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations. Adapting to change and being flexible is a skill that can make you successful at sea, because it allows you to reduce costs, increase revenue, improve margins and profits, and maintain competitiveness and customer satisfaction. Learn from experience and continually improve: Would you like to be an expert in maritime logistics? Would you like to know how to avoid mistakes and take advantage of opportunities? These are the questions I ask you to talk to you about a very interesting topic: how to learn from experience and continually improve. Experience is the set of knowledge, skills and attitudes that are acquired through observation, practice and reflection on reality. Experience is essential for maritime logistics, because it allows improving the operation and continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes, activities and agents involved in the transport and distribution of goods and services by sea, from the origin to the destination. Experience also allows you to face the risks and challenges
  • 20. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 20 that can affect maritime logistics, such as extreme weather events, armed conflicts, terrorist attacks, acts of piracy, accidents, human errors, technological failures, cyberattacks. , demand and supply fluctuations, financial crises, legal regulations, trade policies, sanctions, tariffs, pandemics, etc. To learn from experience and continually improve, you need to be curious and humble. Curiosity is the desire to know more and explore new possibilities. Humility is the recognition of one's own limits and the need to improve. For example, you can evaluate performance, identify strengths and weaknesses, apply lessons learned, share good practices, as well as seek feedback and continuous improvement. Learning from experience and continually improving is a skill that can make you stand out at sea, because it allows you to reduce errors, increase quality, improve efficiency and maintain competitiveness and customer satisfaction.
  • 21. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 21 The secret of champions: resilience in maritime logistics Given this panorama, the question arises: how can maritime logistics actors overcome these adversities and maintain their competitiveness and efficiency? The answer is: through resilience . Resilience is the ability to adapt and overcome adversities, changes and crises that may affect the functioning and continuity of the supply chain⁴. Resilience is the secret of champions, because:  Allows them to reduce costs,  Increase income,  Improve margins and profits, and  Maintain customer satisfaction. But, How can resilience be achieved in maritime logistics? What factors favor or hinder it? What benefits or drawbacks does it have? These are the questions we are going to analyze in this article, presenting the arguments for and against, refuting opposing points of view and drawing persuasive conclusions based on evidence. Arguments in favor of resilience in maritime logistics The arguments in favor of resilience in maritime logistics are based on the following aspects: Resilience allows you to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis: Would you like to turn a crisis into an opportunity? Would you like to know how to take
  • 22. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 22 advantage of difficulties and transform them into benefits? These are the questions I ask you to talk to you about a very interesting topic: how resilience allows you to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis. The crisis is a situation of change, conflict or adversity that can affect the functioning and continuity of the supply chain, which is the set of processes, activities and agents involved in the transport and distribution of goods and services by sea. , from origin to destination. The crisis can be of natural or human origin, and can have negative consequences, such as disruptions, losses, delays, breakdowns, pollution, etc. Resilience is the ability to adapt and overcome crises, maintaining or improving supply chain performance and competitiveness. Resilience is an advantage, because it allows you to see the crisis as an opportunity to innovate, create and transform. For example, you can take advantage of the health crisis to drive digitalization, automation and integration of maritime operations, as well as to foster collaboration and solidarity between different actors in the supply chain. Resilience allows us to anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them: Instead of waiting for the worst to happen, you can anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them. For example, a risk analysis can be carried out, contingency, emergency and recovery plans established, as well as having adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events. Resilience allows us to adapt to changes and be flexible: Instead of resisting change and being rigid, you can adapt to change and be flexible. For
  • 23. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 23 example, the route, mode, supplier or customer can be modified according to market and environmental conditions, as well as offering personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations. Resilience allows us to learn from experience and continually improve: Instead of repeating the same mistakes and staying stagnant, you can learn from experience and continually improve. For example, you can evaluate performance, identify strengths and weaknesses, apply lessons learned, share good practices, as well as seek feedback and continuous improvement. Arguments against resilience in maritime logistics The arguments against resilience in maritime logistics are based on the following aspects: Resilience implies high cost and low profitability: To achieve resilience, it is necessary to invest in resources, technologies, infrastructure, training, etc., which involve high cost and low profitability. Furthermore, resilience can lead to an oversupply of capacity, a reduction in prices and a loss of competitiveness. Resilience implies high complexity and low efficiency: To achieve resilience, multiple actors, processes and systems need to be coordinated and harmonized, which imply high complexity and low efficiency. Furthermore, resilience can lead to a lack of control, a loss of quality, and vulnerability to failure.
  • 24. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 24 Resilience implies high uncertainty and low security: To achieve resilience, it is necessary to assume and manage risks, which imply high uncertainty and low security. Additionally, resilience can lead to a lack of trust, a loss of reputation, and exposure to threats. Resilience implies high responsibility and low sustainability: To achieve resilience, it is necessary to comply with the standards, principles and goals of sustainable development, which imply high responsibility and low sustainability. Furthermore, resilience can generate a negative impact on the environment, society and the economy. Refuting the arguments against resilience in maritime logistics The arguments against resilience in maritime logistics can be refuted as follows: Resilience does not imply high cost and low profitability, but quite the opposite: Resilience is not an expense, but an investment, reducing costs, increasing revenue, improving margins and profits, and maintaining competitiveness and customer satisfaction. According to a McKinsey study , companies that invest in supply chain resilience can see a return on investment of between 15 and 25 percent.
  • 25. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 25 Resilience does not imply high complexity and low efficiency, but quite the opposite: Resilience is not a problem, but a solution, which allows us to optimize, automate, integrate and secure maritime operations, as well as increase the flexibility, agility, transparency and traceability of the supply chain. According to a study by ECLAC , the resilience of the supply chain is key to reducing greenhouse gas emissions, the carbon footprint, energy consumption and the use of natural resources. Resilience does not imply high uncertainty and low security, but quite the opposite: Resilience is not a risk, but an opportunity, which allows you to identify, analyze, evaluate and prioritize potential risks, as well as define the objectives, actions, resources and those responsible to prevent, mitigate and manage them. According to a UN study , supply chain resilience is essential to ensure food and nutritional security for millions of people suffering from hunger and poverty. Resilience does not imply high responsibility and low sustainability, but quite the opposite: Resilience is not a burden, but a commitment, which allows us to comply with the standards, principles and objectives of sustainable development, which imply high responsibility and sustainability. Furthermore, resilience can generate a positive impact on the environment, society and the economy, by reducing emissions, consumption, waste, poverty, hunger, etc.
  • 26. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 26
  • 27. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 27 SWOT A SWOT is an analysis that identifies the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats of a situation, a project, an organization or a sector. The SWOT allows us to know the internal and external reality, as well as define strategies to take advantage of the advantages and face the challenges. In this case, we are going to carry out a SWOT of resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market, which is a very relevant topic in the current context. Below, we present the SWOT of resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market, based on the arguments for and against that you have provided us: Strengths Opportunities - Resilience allows us to take advantage of the opportunities offered by the crisis, such as innovation, creation and transformation of logistics and maritime processes, products and services. - The crisis can be a source of learning, improvement and change for the logistics and maritime sector, which can adapt to new customer needs and expectations, as well as new market and environmental conditions. - Resilience allows us to anticipate possible scenarios and prepare for them, through risk analysis, contingency, emergency and recovery plans, and the - Anticipation and preparation can generate a competitive advantage for the logistics and maritime sector, which can offer greater security, quality and efficiency in its services,
  • 28. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 28 appropriate resources and tools. as well as a greater capacity to respond and solve disruptive events. - Resilience allows us to adapt to changes and be flexible, by modifying the route, mode, supplier or client according to market and environmental conditions, as well as offering personalized and alternative solutions. - Adaptation and flexibility can generate greater customer satisfaction and loyalty, who can find tailored and affordable solutions for their needs and expectations, as well as greater diversification and profitability for the logistics and maritime sector. - Resilience allows us to learn from experience and continually improve, by evaluating performance, identifying strengths and weaknesses, applying lessons learned, sharing good practices, and seeking feedback and continuous improvement. . - Learning and continuous improvement can generate greater quality and efficiency in logistics and maritime processes, resources and systems, as well as greater innovation and development of new products, services and solutions that provide added value to the sector and customers. Weaknesses Threats
  • 29. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 29 - Resilience implies a high cost and low profitability, due to the investment in resources, technologies, infrastructure, training, etc., which may not have an immediate or sufficient return. - The crisis can generate an oversupply of capacity, a reduction in prices and a loss of competitiveness for the logistics and maritime sector, which may see its income, margins and profits decrease, as well as its market share and positioning. - Resilience implies high complexity and low simplicity, due to the diversity and simultaneity of the risks and challenges that the logistics and maritime sector may face, which may require more intense and effective coordination, communication and collaboration between the different actors. of the supply chain. - The crisis can generate greater uncertainty and less predictability for the logistics and maritime sector, which may see its planning, programming and execution of its operations affected, as well as its ability to anticipate and react to changes and contingencies. - Resilience implies high responsibility and low sustainability, because the logistics and maritime sector must comply with the standards, principles and objectives of sustainable development, which imply greater demand and commitment to the - The crisis can generate a greater impact and less mitigation for the logistics and maritime sector, which may see its reputation, image and trust affected, as well as its social and environmental responsibility, due to the possible damages
  • 30. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 30 environment, society and the economy. or losses that it may cause or suffer. As you can see, resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market has its pros and cons, its strengths and its weaknesses, its opportunities and its threats. Therefore, it is important to carry out a SWOT to understand the internal and external reality, as well as define strategies to take advantage of the advantages and face the challenges. CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 NORTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES Resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market is a very relevant topic in the current context, since this sector faces numerous risks and challenges, both internal and external, that can cause disruptions, losses, delays, breakdowns, pollution, etc. Resilience is the ability to adapt and overcome crises, maintaining or improving supply chain performance and competitiveness. Crisis management is the set of actions and measures taken to prevent, mitigate and resolve emergency situations that may put the supply chain at risk. To illustrate this topic, we are going to analyze some cases of success and failure of resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market in 5 North American countries: United States, Canada, Mexico, Costa Rica and Panama. These cases will allow us to identify good and bad practices, as well as lessons learned and recommendations for improvement. Are you ready to know these cases? Let us begin!
  • 31. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 31 Failure case: Costa Rica. The 2018 national strike, which lasted more than three months between September and December, was one of the longest and most complex crises to affect Costa Rica's logistics and maritime sector, causing losses estimated at $1.6 billion and affecting more of 12 thousand jobs. The national strike was a protest by public sector unions against the government's proposed tax reform, which sought to reduce the fiscal deficit and public debt. The national strike interrupted the transport of goods by road Success story: United States Hurricane Harvey, which struck Texas and Louisiana in August 2017, was one of the costliest natural disasters in U.S. history, causing an estimated $125 billion in damage and affecting more than 13 million people¹. The hurricane also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it disrupted the transportation of goods by road, rail, air and sea, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to recover quickly and minimize losses. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. Collaboration and coordination between the different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, clients, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions.
  • 32. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 32 2. The flexibility and adaptability to modify routes, modes, suppliers and clients according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients. 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 4. Preparation and learning to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, as well as to apply the lessons learned and seek continuous improvement. Failure case: Canada The 2020 rail blockade, which lasted more than three weeks between February and March, was one of the most serious crises to affect Canada's logistics and maritime sector, causing losses estimated at $3.2 billion and affecting more than 6 thousand jobs³. The rail blockade was a protest by indigenous and environmental groups against the construction of a gas pipeline in the territory of the Wet'suwet'en nation , in British Columbia. The rail blockade disrupted rail freight transportation, which accounts for 70% of interprovincial trade and 50% of Canada's international trade⁴. The rail blockade also had a major impact on the maritime sector, causing congestion and rerouting of ships in ports, as well as increased costs and delays. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of communication and negotiation between the government, companies and
  • 33. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 33 protesters, which prevented reaching a peaceful and timely agreement to resolve the conflict and lift the blockade. 2. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transport of goods, which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on rail, without having other viable options for transport by road, air or sea. 3. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which meant that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment. 4. The lack of preparation and learning to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, as well as to apply the lessons learned and seek continuous improvement. Success story: Mexico The 2017 earthquake, which struck central and southern Mexico in September 2017, was one of the most devastating natural disasters in Mexican history, causing more than 300 deaths, thousands of injuries, and damage estimated at $2 billion. Dollars. The earthquake also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, damaging the infrastructure and operation of ports, airports, roads and railways, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to restore its services and support the affected population.
  • 34. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 34 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which joined the rescue, aid and reconstruction efforts, donating and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the affected areas . 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations. 4. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. Failure case: Costa Rica. The 2018 national strike, which lasted more than three months between September and December, was one of the longest and most complex crises to affect Costa Rica's logistics and maritime sector, causing losses estimated at $1.6 billion and affecting more of 12 thousand jobs1. The national strike was a protest by public sector unions against the government's
  • 35. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 35 proposed tax reform, which sought to reduce the fiscal deficit and public debt. The national strike interrupted the transport of goods by road, rail, air and sea, as well as the operation of ports, airports, customs and free zones. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, the unions and the private sector, which prevented reaching a peaceful and timely agreement to resolve the conflict and end the strike. 2. The lack of security and protection for transporters, port operators and other actors in the supply chain, who suffered threats, attacks, blockades and sabotage by strikers, which prevented the passage of goods and services. 3. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transport of goods, which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on the road, without having other viable options for transport by rail, air or sea. 4. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which meant that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment. Failure case: Costa Rica The 2018 national strike, which lasted more than three months between September and December, was one of the longest and most complex crises to affect Costa Rica's logistics and maritime sector, causing losses estimated at $1.6 billion and affecting more of 12 thousand
  • 36. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 36 jobs1. The national strike was a protest by public sector unions against the government's proposed tax reform, which sought to reduce the fiscal deficit and public debt. The national strike interrupted the transport of goods by road, rail, air and sea, as well as the operation of ports, airports, customs and free zones. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, the unions and the private sector, which prevented reaching a peaceful and timely agreement to resolve the conflict and end the strike. 2. The lack of security and protection for transporters, port operators and other actors in the supply chain, who suffered threats, attacks, blockades and sabotage by strikers, which prevented the passage of goods and services. 3. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transport of goods, which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on the road, without having other viable options for transport by rail, air or sea. 4. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which meant that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment. Success story: Panama. The Panama Canal, which connects the Atlantic Ocean with the Pacific Ocean, is one of the
  • 37. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 37 most important and strategic infrastructures in the logistics and maritime sector, since it allows the passage of more than 14 thousand ships a year, transporting 6% of the world trade2. The Panama Canal has demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it has been able to maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in the face of the different crises it has faced, such as drought, pandemic, competition and digital transformation. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 2. The adaptation and flexibility to modify rates, schedules, protocols and requirements according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients. 3. Anticipation and preparation to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events. 4. The collaboration and social responsibility of the Panama Canal Authority, which has been involved with the different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, clients, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions , as well as with the community and the environment, to support the sustainable development of the country.
  • 38. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 38 SUCCESS AND FAILURE CASES IN 6 SOUTH AMERICAN COUNTRIES To illustrate this topic, we are going to analyze some cases of success and failure of resilience and crisis management in the logistics and maritime market in 3 South American countries: Brazil, Colombia and Chile. These cases will allow us to identify good and bad practices, as well as lessons learned and recommendations for improvement. Success story: Brazil The Santos port fire, which occurred in April 2015, was one of the most serious accidents that affected Brazil's logistics and maritime sector, causing damage estimated at 100 million dollars and affecting more than 200 thousand tons of merchandise. The fire originated in a container containing flammable chemicals and spread to other containers, causing a large column of smoke and flames that could be seen for several kilometers. The fire also had a great environmental impact, as it contaminated the air, water and soil in the area. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to control the fire and resume operations in a short time. How do i do it? Some of the keys were 1. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 2. Preparation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, such as detection, extinction and evacuation systems.
  • 39. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 39 3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations. 4. The responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which committed to repairing the damage caused and compensating those affected, as well as improving their safety and environmental practices. Failure case: Colombia. The 2021 national strike, which began in April and lasted more than two months, was one of the longest and most complex crises that affected Colombia's logistics and maritime sector, causing losses estimated at $3.6 billion and affecting to more than 40 thousand jobs². The national strike was a protest by various social sectors against the tax reform proposed by the government, which sought to increase taxes to face the economic and social crisis generated by the pandemic. The national strike interrupted the transport of goods by road, rail, air and sea, as well as the operation of ports, airports, customs and free zones. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, the protesters and the private sector, which prevented reaching a peaceful and timely agreement to resolve the conflict and end the strike. 2. The lack of security and protection for transporters, port operators and other actors in the supply chain, who suffered threats, attacks, blockades and vandalism by protesters, which prevented the passage of goods and services.
  • 40. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 40 3. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transport of goods, which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on the road, without having other viable options for transport by rail, air or sea. 4. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which meant that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment. Success story: Chile . The 2010 earthquake and tsunami, which affected central and southern Chile in February 2010, was one of the most devastating natural disasters in Chilean history, causing more than 500 deaths, thousands of injuries, and damage estimated at $30 billion. of dollars. The earthquake and tsunami also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it damaged the infrastructure and operation of ports, airports, roads and railways, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to restore its services and support the affected population. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which joined the rescue, aid and reconstruction efforts, donating and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the affected areas . 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions.
  • 41. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 41 3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations. 4. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. Success story: Peru. The El Niño Costero phenomenon, which affected northern and central Peru between December 2016 and May 2017, was one of the most intense and destructive weather events in the history of Peru, causing more than 100 deaths, thousands of injuries and Damage estimated at $3.1 billion. The El Niño Costero phenomenon also had a great impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it caused floods, landslides, landslides and erosion that damaged the infrastructure and operation of ports, airports, roads and railways, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to restore its services and support the affected population. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which joined the rescue, aid and reconstruction efforts, donating and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the affected areas . 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information,
  • 42. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 42 resources and solutions. 3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations. 4. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. Failure case: Argentina. The economic and social crisis of 2018-2019, which was worsened by the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020, was one of the deepest and longest crises that affected Argentina's logistics and maritime sector, causing a 2.5% drop in GDP. in 2018, 2.1% in 2019 and 9.9% in 2020, as well as an inflation of 47.6% in 2018, 53.8% in 2019 and 36.1% in 20202. The economic and social crisis also had a great impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it reduced the demand and supply of goods and services, increased costs and taxes, deteriorated infrastructure and security, and generated labor and social conflicts. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of stability and confidence in the macroeconomic and political framework, which prevented attracting investments, generating growth and improving the competitiveness of the logistics and maritime sector. 2. The lack of regional integration and cooperation, which limited access to markets and foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector.
  • 43. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 43 3. The lack of diversification and modernization of the productive and logistics matrix, which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on primary and low- complexity products, without adding value or innovating. 4. The lack of preparation and adaptation to the COVID-19 pandemic, which meant that the logistics and maritime sector could not respond adequately to health measures, mobility restrictions and changes in consumer habits. Success story: Uruguay. Uruguay. The COVID-19 pandemic, which began in March 2020 and continues, has been one of the most serious health and economic crises that has affected the world, causing more than 4 million deaths, millions of infections and estimated damages in 10 billion dollars. The COVID-19 pandemic has also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, disrupting the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, Uruguay's logistics and maritime sector has demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it has been able to maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in the face of the pandemic. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, such as health protocols, protective equipment, rapid tests, etc.
  • 44. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 44 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 4. The responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which have committed to comply with the standards, principles and objectives of sustainable development, which imply greater demand and commitment to the environment, society and the economy. CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 AFRICA COUNTRIES Success story: South Africa. The 2015-2018 drought, which affected southern and western South Africa, was one of the most severe and prolonged droughts in South Africa's history, causing water shortages, consumption restrictions, agricultural losses and risk of famine. The drought also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, reducing the availability and quality of water for port operations, shipping and container washing, as well as the supply of hydroelectric power. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to adapt and mitigate the effects of the drought. tanker, generators, etc.
  • 45. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 45 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 2. The collaboration and social responsibility of companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which committed to reducing their water consumption, to recycle and reuse water, to implement savings and efficiency measures, and to support communities affected by the drought. 3. Anticipation and preparation to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, such as storage tanks, tank trucks, generators, etc. 4. The adaptation and flexibility to modify rates, schedules, protocols and requirements according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients. Failure case: Egypt. The blockage of the Suez Canal, which occurred in March 2021, was one of the most serious accidents that affected the logistics and maritime sector of Egypt and the world, causing losses estimated at 9.6 billion dollars and affecting more than 400 vessels. that transported 12% of world trade. The blockage of the Suez Canal was caused by the grounding of the Ever ship Given , which measured 400 meters long and 59 meters wide, and which was trapped in the
  • 46. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 46 canal by a sandstorm and strong wind. The blockage of the Suez Canal disrupted the transport of goods by sea, which accounts for 90% of international trade, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of security and prevention to prevent the ship Ever Given will enter the canal under adverse weather conditions, as well as to have detection, alert and assistance systems in case of emergency. 2. The lack of coordination and collaboration between the authorities, companies and countries involved in the blockade, which prevented a quick and effective response to free the ship and resume maritime traffic. 3. The lack of diversification and alternatives for the transportation of goods, which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on the Suez Canal, without having other viable options for transportation by other routes or modes. 4. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which made the Suez Canal have a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment. Success story: Kenya Westgate shopping center , which occurred in September 2013, was one of the bloodiest and most violent attacks in Kenya's history, causing more than 70 deaths, hundreds of injuries, and
  • 47. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 47 damage estimated at $10 million. The terrorist attack also had a great impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it affected the security, confidence and economic activity of the country, as well as the flow of tourists, investors and merchants. However, the logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to recover and strengthen after the attack. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and reconstruction efforts, donating and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the victims already those affected by the attack. 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 4. The adaptation and flexibility to modify rates, schedules, protocols and requirements according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients. Success story: Morocco The COVID-19 pandemic, which began in March 2020 and continues, has been one of the most
  • 48. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 48 serious health and economic crises that has affected the world, causing more than 4 million deaths, millions of infections and estimated damages in 10 billion dollars. The COVID-19 pandemic has also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, disrupting the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, Morocco's logistics and maritime sector has demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it has been able to maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in the face of the pandemic. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, such as health protocols, protective equipment, rapid tests, etc. 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 4. Regional integration and cooperation, which allowed Morocco to access markets and foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector, as well as funds and aid from the European Union and other partners.
  • 49. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 49 Failure case: Nigeria. The armed conflict in the Niger Delta, which began in 2003 and continues, has been one of the most violent and prolonged conflicts that has affected the logistics and maritime sector of Nigeria and Africa, causing thousands of deaths, displacements and kidnappings. , as well as damages estimated at 100 billion dollars. The armed conflict in the Niger Delta arose from the demands of local armed groups, which demanded a greater share in the benefits and management of the oil and gas resources in the area, as well as greater protection of the environment and human rights. The armed conflict in the Niger Delta disrupted the transportation and exploitation of hydrocarbons, which represent 90% of exports and 70% of the Nigerian government's income, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, armed groups and oil companies, which prevented reaching a peaceful and sustainable agreement to resolve the conflict and end the violence. 2. The lack of security and protection for transporters, port operators and other actors in the supply chain, who suffered threats, aggressions, attacks and sabotage by armed groups, which prevented the passage of goods and services. 3. The lack of diversification and modernization of the productive and logistics matrix, which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on hydrocarbons, without adding value or innovating. 4. The lack of responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which have been involved in cases of corruption, tax
  • 50. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 50 evasion, pollution and violation of human rights. Success story: Ethiopia The 2015-2016 drought, which affected eastern and southern Ethiopia, was one of the most severe and longest droughts in Ethiopia's history, causing food, water and fodder shortages, as well as risk of famine for more than 10 millions of people. The drought also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, reducing the availability and quality of water for port operations, shipping and container washing, as well as the supply of hydroelectric power. However, Ethiopia's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management as it was able to adapt and mitigate the effects of the drought. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and reconstruction efforts, donating and transporting food, medicine, water, clothing, materials, etc., to the victims already those affected by drought. 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 3. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations.
  • 51. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 51 4. Investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which allowed Ethiopia to improve its capacity and competitiveness to respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment, such as the development of the Doraleh port in Djibouti, the Addis Ababa railway to Djibouti, and the Hawassa industrial park . CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 6 COUNTRIES OF EUROPE Success story: Spain The health and economic crisis caused by the COVID-19 pandemic, which began in March 2020 and continues, has been one of the most serious and complex crises that has affected the logistics and maritime sector in Spain and the world, causing more than 80 thousand deaths, millions of infections and damages estimated at 11% of GDP. The COVID-19 pandemic has also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, disrupting the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as the supply of fuel and energy. However, Spain's logistics and maritime sector has demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it has been able to maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in the face of the pandemic. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics
  • 52. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 52 and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and reconstruction efforts, donating and transporting food, medicine, medical supplies, protective equipment, etc., to the areas and sectors most affected by the pandemic. 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 4. - Adaptation and flexibility to modify rates, schedules, protocols and requirements according to market conditions and the environment, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to the needs and expectations of clients. Failure case: United Kingdom Brexit, which took place on January 31, 2020, was one of the most controversial and conflictive processes that has affected the logistics and maritime sector in the United Kingdom and Europe, causing uncertainty, instability and losses estimated at 4.9% of GDP. Brexit implied the departure of the United Kingdom from the European Union and the end of the free movement of people, goods and services between both blocs. Brexit also had a great impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it generated new barriers, tariffs, controls and procedures for the transport and trade of goods and services, as well as the supply of fuel and energy.
  • 53. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 53 What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were²: 1. The lack of dialogue and consensus between the government, the opposition, parliament and civil society, which prevented reaching a clear, orderly and beneficial agreement for all parties involved in Brexit. 2. The lack of preparation and planning to face the consequences of Brexit, which meant that the logistics and maritime sector did not have the appropriate resources, tools and protocols to adapt to the changes and new regulations. 3. The lack of regional integration and cooperation, which limited access to markets and foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector. 4. The lack of diversification and modernization of the productive and logistics matrix, which made the logistics and maritime sector largely dependent on products and services coming from or destined for the European Union, without exploring other options or markets. Success story: Germany The financial and economic crisis of 2008-2009, which was caused by the collapse of the United States mortgage market, was one of the deepest and most global crises that has affected the logistics and maritime sector in Germany and the world, causing a drop in GDP of 5.7% in 2009 and a contraction of world trade of 12.2%. The financial and economic crisis also had a major impact on the logistics and maritime sector, reducing demand and supply of goods and services, increasing costs and risks, deteriorating confidence and investment, and generating unemployment and poverty. However, Germany's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to recover and grow after the crisis.
  • 54. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 54 How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. Stability and confidence in the macroeconomic and political framework, which allowed attracting investments, generating growth and improving the competitiveness of the logistics and maritime sector. 2. The diversification and modernization of the production and logistics matrix, which made the logistics and maritime sector offer products and services of high quality, complexity and innovation, with high added and differential value. 3. Regional integration and cooperation, which allowed Germany to access markets and foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector, as well as funds and aid from the European Union and other partners. 4. - The responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which committed to comply with the standards, principles and objectives of sustainable development, which imply greater demand and commitment to the environment, society and the economy. Success story: France Notre Dame Cathedral fire , which occurred in April 2019, was one of the most shocking cultural disasters that has affected the logistics and maritime sector of France and the world, causing irreparable damage to the historical, artistic and religious heritage of The humanity. The fire at Notre Dame Cathedral was caused by a short circuit in the electrical system, which caused the spire, roof and part of the vault to collapse. The fire at Notre Dame Cathedral
  • 55. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 55 affected the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as tourism and the economy of France. However, France's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to collaborate and contribute to the restoration and reconstruction of the cathedral. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and donation efforts, transporting and delivering materials, equipment, tools, etc., to the rescue and restoration teams . 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 4. Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations. Failure case: Italy The collapse of the Morandi bridge, which occurred in August 2018, was one of the most tragic and serious accidents that has affected the logistics and maritime sector of Italy and Europe, causing 43 deaths, dozens of injuries and damages estimated at 2.5 billion of euros. The collapse of the Morandi Bridge was caused by the deterioration and corrosion of the steel
  • 56. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 56 cables that supported the viaduct, which broke due to the effects of wind and rain. The collapse of the Morandi Bridge interrupted the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as access to the port of Genoa, which is the most important in Italy and the sixth in Europe. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of maintenance and prevention to prevent the Morandi Bridge from deteriorating and collapsing, as well as to have detection, alert and assistance systems in case of emergency. 2. The lack of coordination and collaboration between the authorities, companies and citizens involved in the sinking, which prevented a quick and effective response to rescue the victims and restore traffic. 3. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which made the Morandi Bridge have a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment. 4. The lack of responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which have been involved in cases of corruption, tax evasion, negligence and violation of regulations. Success story: Netherlands The mink coronavirus crisis, which began in April 2020 and is still ongoing, has been one of the most unexpected and unique health and economic crises that has affected the logistics and maritime sector in the Netherlands and the world, causing of more than 2.5 million mink, the infection of more than 100 people and the loss of a productive sector. The mink coronavirus crisis was caused by the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus from humans to mink and vice
  • 57. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 57 versa, on mink breeding farms, which are used for fur production. The mink coronavirus crisis affected the transport and distribution of goods and services, as well as public health and safety in the Netherlands. However, the Netherlands' logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it was able to adapt and mitigate the effects of the crisis. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, such as health protocols, protective equipment, rapid tests, etc. 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions. 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 4. The diversification and modernization of the production and logistics matrix, which made the logistics and maritime sector offer products and services of high quality, complexity and innovation, with high added and differential value.
  • 58. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 58 CASES OF SUCCESS AND FAILURE IN 5 COUNTRIES IN ASIA Success story: China The trade war with the United States, which began in 2018 and continues, has been one of the most intense and prolonged political and economic crises that has affected the logistics and maritime sector of China and the world, causing tariffs, sanctions, restrictions and retaliations that have affected bilateral and multilateral trade. The trade war with the United States has also had a great impact on the logistics and maritime sector, as it has reduced the demand and supply of goods and services, increased costs and risks, deteriorated confidence and investment, and generated imbalances. and tensions. However, China's logistics and maritime sector has demonstrated great resilience and crisis management, as it has been able to maintain and improve its services and competitiveness in the face of the trade war. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The diversification and modernization of the production and logistics matrix, which made the logistics and maritime sector offer products and services of high quality, complexity and innovation, with high added and differential value. 2. Regional integration and cooperation, which allowed China to access markets and foreign trade opportunities for the logistics and maritime sector, as well as funds and aid from the Belt and Road Initiative, the Comprehensive Economic Partnership Regional and other partners. 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations.
  • 59. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 59 4. - Adaptation and flexibility to modify routes, modes, suppliers and customers according to market and environmental conditions, as well as to offer personalized and alternative solutions to customer needs and expectations. Failure case: Japan The 2011 earthquake and tsunami, which occurred in March 2011, was one of the most devastating and catastrophic natural disasters that has affected the logistics and maritime sector of Japan and the world, causing more than 15 thousand deaths, thousands of missing and injured, and damages estimated at 235 billion dollars. The 2011 earthquake and tsunami also caused the Fukushima nuclear accident, which was the worst nuclear accident since Chernobyl, causing the release of radioactive material into the environment and the risk of contamination. The 2011 earthquake and tsunami disrupted the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as access to ports, roads, airports and critical infrastructure. What went wrong in this case? Some of the causes were: 1. The lack of maintenance and prevention to prevent nuclear facilities from being damaged and collapsing, as well as to have detection, alert and assistance systems in case of emergency. 2. The lack of coordination and collaboration between the authorities, companies and citizens involved in the disaster, which prevented a rapid and effective response to rescue the victims and restore traffic. 3. The lack of investment and modernization of infrastructure and technology, which meant that the logistics and maritime sector had a limited and obsolete capacity to respond to the demands and expectations of the market and the environment.
  • 60. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 60 4. - The lack of responsibility and sustainability of companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which have been involved in cases of corruption, tax evasion, negligence and violation of regulations. Success story: Singapore The ship coronavirus crisis, which began in May 2020 and is still ongoing, has been one of the most unexpected and unique health and economic crises that has affected the logistics and maritime sector in Singapore and the world, causing the spread of more than 1,000 sailors, the isolation of more than 40 thousand ships, and the loss of an essential sector. The ship coronavirus crisis originated from the transmission of the SARS-CoV-2 virus among ship crew members, who were prevented from disembarking at ports due to mobility restrictions and health measures. The coronavirus crisis on ships affected the transport and distribution of goods and services, as well as the safety and health of sailors. However, Singapore's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management as it was able to collaborate and contribute to the solution and alleviation of the crisis. How do i do it? Some of the keys were: 1. The solidarity and social responsibility of the companies and organizations in the logistics and maritime sector, which joined the aid, support and donation efforts, transporting and delivering food, medicine, medical supplies, protective equipment, etc., to the ships. and to the sailors affected by the crisis. 2. Coordination and collaboration between different actors in the supply chain, such as transporters, port operators, authorities, customers, suppliers, etc., to share information, resources and solutions.
  • 61. RESILENCE AND CRISIS MANAGEMENT IN THE MARITIME LOGISTICS MARKET CARLOS CESAR CAMPOS 61 3. Innovation and technology to use digital tools, such as GPS, blockchain , big data, the internet of things, etc., to monitor, track and optimize the flow of goods and services, as well as to improve security and the efficiency of operations. 4. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, such as health protocols, protective equipment, rapid tests, etc. Success story: India The 2012 blackout crisis, which occurred in July 2012, was one of the most massive and extensive electricity outages to have affected the logistics and maritime sector in India and the world, causing disruption of power supply to more than 600 million people, 9% of the GDP and 40% of the population. The 2012 blackout crisis was caused by the imbalance between energy supply and demand, which was worsened by drought, electricity theft, lack of investment and mismanagement. The 2012 blackout crisis affected the transportation and distribution of goods and services, as well as the operation of ports, airports, railways and critical infrastructure. However, India's logistics and maritime sector demonstrated great resilience and crisis management as it was able to recover and restore its services and competitiveness after the blackout. Anticipation and prevention to have contingency, emergency and recovery plans, as well as adequate resources and tools to prevent, mitigate and manage possible disruptive events, such as generators, batteries, solar panels, etc.