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The Disaggregated Future of Educa3on
          Or, How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the Internet



                               David Wiley, PhD
              Department of Instruc3onal Psychology & Technology
                           Brigham Young University


                                                                     CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
The Trucker Tale

                        A parable of ingenuity and despair




                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
CC BY
                        http://www.flickr.com/photos/farleyj/2768941171/
Friday, June 12, 2009
http://www.flickr.com/photos/pagedooley/2810314243/   CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
CC BY
                        http://www.flickr.com/photos/chicagoeye/2710749425/
Friday, June 12, 2009
http://www.flickr.com/photos/striatic/2192192956/




                                                              CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
http://www.flickr.com/photos/booleansplit/2634767088/




                                                       CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
CC BY
                        http://www.flickr.com/photos/flissphil/245158736/
Friday, June 12, 2009
Terms of Distribu3on

                   Surrender rights to the product
                    Truckers keep 100% of all sales
               Perpetual deal, no review or modifica3on


                                                         CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
http://www.flickr.com/photos/glutnix/47989973/




                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
The Moral of the Story

                        This is a tale about faculty and their 
                                        research



                                                                  CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
• Come up with ideas for research,
               • Find grant funding for the research,
               • Iden3fy and hire graduate students 
               and other professionals,
               • Conduct the research,
               • Write up the results of the research in 
               a clear and concise manner, and
               • Surrender all rights to the wriPen 
               results of the research to a publisher.
                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
The Open Access Movement

              Free Online Access to Research Ar3cles




                                                       CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Stewardship of Public Funds

                 If the taxpayers funded the research, 
                   the results belong to the taxpayers



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Public Investment in Research

                        $105,385 to $119,913 per ar3cle
                           (US NIH‐funded research)



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Publisher Investment in Research

                          $2750 per ar3cle, including 
                        administra3ve and all other costs



                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Does This Make Sense?

                    Publishers make approximately 2% of 
                           the overall investment



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Friday, June 12, 2009
Unbelievable Profits

                 Elsevier + LexusNexus = $1,500,000,000 
                                 in 2008

                          (Not revenue ‐ profit)

                                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Have You or U of S Ever Been Paid?

              (You also do all the reviewing and edi3ng)




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Friday, June 12, 2009
US NIH Public Access Mandate

                        Ar3cles must be placed in PubMed 
                            Central upon acceptance



                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Otherwise, You Pay Dozens of Times 

                        Once to fund the research, and then 
                          over and again for each library



                                                               CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Advance the Field / Bless the World

                BePer access catalyzes the development 
                   of new knowledge more quickly



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
“The Faculty of the MassachusePs Ins3tute of 
      Technology is commiPed to dissemina3ng the 
      fruits of its research and scholarship as widely as 
      possible. In keeping with that commitment, the 
      Faculty adopts the following policy: Each Faculty 
      member grants to the MassachusePs Ins3tute of 
      Technology nonexclusive permission to make 
      available his or her scholarly ar3cles and to 
      exercise the copyright in those ar3cles for the 
      purpose of open dissemina3on.”

            MIT Faculty Open‐Access Policy
                                                         CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Advance the Field / Bless the World

                BePer access catalyzes the development 
                   of new knowledge more quickly



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Secret History of Open Access

                  A story of disaggrega3on: 1000 ‐ 1600




                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Restric3ng Access to the Bible

                        When policy and technology collide




                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
11th Century

                        Vernacular transla3ons of the Bible 
                                     forbidden



                                                               CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
12th Century

                        Possession or memoriza3on of 
                             scriptures forbidden



                                                        CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
14th Century

                        Wycliffe finishes English transla3on




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Friday, June 12, 2009
15th Century

                Anyone caught reading the English Bible 
                will quot;Forfeit land, caPle, life, and goods 
                        from their heirs forever.quot;


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Friday, June 12, 2009
A Kinder, Gentler DMCA

                        And all this before publishers even 
                               came into existence!



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Friday, June 12, 2009
15th Century

                        Gutenberg, the prin3ng press, and 
                             metallic movable type



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Friday, June 12, 2009
15th Century

                        The church leverages technology to 
                          print indulgences at scale for a 
                                 frac3on of the cost


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Friday, June 12, 2009
16th Century

                  English and German Bibles are mass‐
                produced and pirate Bibles are smuggled 
                     in flour sacks and coPon bales


                                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
16th Century

                        Empowered with access, people 
                          won’t tolerate foolishness 
                                (indulgences)


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Friday, June 12, 2009
16th Century

                        Luther’s 95 theses 




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Friday, June 12, 2009
quot;They preach only human doctrines who say 
    that as soon as the money clinks into the 
    money chest, the soul flies out of purgatory... 
    Any truly repentant Chris3an has a right to 
    full remission of penalty and guilt, even 
    without indulgence lePers.quot;


                                                 CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
16th Century

                        Luther and others work to reform 
                            from the inside, but #fail



                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
16th Century

                    Protestant sects form and the Church 
                       loses membership and revenue



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Friday, June 12, 2009
17th Century

                 30 Years War ends Pope's pan‐European 
                             poli3cal power



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Friday, June 12, 2009
17th Century

                        Popular reforms carried out 
                        (too liPle too late for most)



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Friday, June 12, 2009
The Morals of the Story
                   ‐ Don’t bet against the transforma3ve 
                   power of informa3on technology

                   ‐ You’re going to end up adap3ng anyway,  
                   why not do it on your own terms?
                                                                CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Skipping Ahead a Few 100 Years

                 Could something like this happen again?




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Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
“The World is Changed”

                          Galadriel, Lord of the Rings




                                                         CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
It’s Actually Worse (or BePer)

                        The World is Changing




                                                 CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Analog ⇒ Digital

                         Music, Phones, TV, Newspapers,
                        Movies, Journals, Communica3ons,
                              Intelligence, Defense


                                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Tethered ⇒ Mobile

                        Phones, Internet Access,
                             Employment 



                                                   CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Isolated ⇒ Connected

                         People, Content, Systems




                                                    CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Generic ⇒ Personal

                        Cars, Computers, Mobile Phones




                                                         CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Consuming ⇒ Crea3ng

                 Radio / Podcas3ng, Newspapers / Blogs 
                          Movies / Vodcas3ng



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Closed ⇒ Open

                        Souware (OSs, Applica3ons), 
                            Data (Weather, GIS),
                           Content (Blogs, Wikis)


                                                       CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Then vs Now
                             Analog ⇒ Digital
                           Tethered ⇒ Mobile
                            Isolated ⇒ Connected
                            Generic ⇒ Personal
                        Consump3on ⇒ Crea3ng
                             Closed ⇒ Open


                                                   CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Educa/on vs Everyday
                             Analog ⇒ Digital
                           Tethered ⇒ Mobile
                            Isolated ⇒ Connected
                            Generic ⇒ Personal
                        Consump3on ⇒ Crea3ng
                             Closed ⇒ Open


                                                   CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
“Daily Divide” Is a Huge Threat

                        And the wider the disconnect, 
                        the bigger the threat to higher 
                                  educa3on


                                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
But Wait!  We’re Educa4on!

                        Our historic monopoly is (gratefully) 
                         being challenged on almost every 
                                       front


                                                                 CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Why Do Students Come?

                          Content, Support Services 
                             Social Life, Degrees



                                                       CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Content

                        MIT OpenCourseWare, Wikipedia, 
                           Flat World Knowledge, etc.



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Research

                        Public Library of Science, Arxiv.org, 
                                Google Scholar, etc.



                                                                 CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Support Services

                           ChaCha, Yahoo! Answers, 
                        RateMyProfessor, Email, Instant 
                            Messaging, TwiPer, etc.


                                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Social Life

                          Facebook, MySpace, MMOG,
                        iPhone loca3on‐aware apps, etc.



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Degrees

                        MCSE, RHCE, CCNA




                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
The Monopoly Is Being Busted

                   Everything we provide is now offered 
                             by someone else



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
When Ins3tu3ons Specialize

                        They usually provide bePer quality 
                                at a bePer price



                                                              CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Higher Ed, On the Other Hand

                        76% increase in cost over 10 years
                               How’s our quality?



                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
Industries Failing Everywhere

                        Banks, Insurance, Automobiles
                              Higher Educa3on?



                                                        CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
A Bail Out for Higher Ed?

                        More like double‐digit budget cuts




                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
No Monopoly and No Bail Out

                  How can we innovate to stay relevant?




                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
What About E‐learning?




                                                 CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
What About E‐learning?

                          Quite innova3ve in 1995!




                                                     CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Characteris/cs of E‐learning
                              Analog or Digital
                            Tethered or Mobile
                             Isolated or Connected
                             Generic or Personal
                          Consuming or Crea3ng
                              Closed or Open


                                                       CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Openness is the Cornerstone

             Openness underpins everything interes3ng 
             happening online and is “what they know”



                                                         CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Why Make Such a Claim?

                        Let’s ask Alexa what the 50 most 
                         popular sites on the web are…



                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Sites Where Anyone Can:

             Share a video, share a photo, share a blog 
             post, share their personal info, share their 
           ra3ngs, share their files, share their exper3se 


                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Characteris/cs of E‐learning
                              Analog or Digital
                            Tethered or Mobile
                             Isolated or Connected
                             Generic or Personal
                         Consump/on or Crea3ng
                              Closed or Open


                                                       CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Connec3ng

                   You can’t connect to something if you 
                          don’t have access to it



                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Personalizing

                     You can’t adapt or localize something
                    if you don’t have the rights to modify it




                                                                CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Crea3ng

                        You won’t be crea3ve if there’s no 
                              outlet for your work



                                                              CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
How Might We Open Things?

          Once again there is a demand for greater access




                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
The Open Access Movement

                Providing access to the research created 
                            at the university



                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
The Open Educa3on Movement

                    Providing access to the teaching and 
                      learning materials created at the 
                                 university


                                                            CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
Connec3ng and Openness

                          Sharing some experiments




                                                     CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Crea3ng and Openness

                         Sharing some experiments




                                                    CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Being Even More Open

                         Sharing some experiments




                                                    CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Character Classes

      • Bard (Master of the lore, history, and poli3cs 
        of the field, know what's “out there”)
      • Ar3san (Has materials produc3on skills in all 
        the necessary Web 1.0 and 2.0 tools like 
        HTML, video sharing, podcas3ng)
      • Monk (Master of copyright and licensing 
        arcana and defender of the university brand)
      • Merchant (Deals with short‐ and long‐term 
        sustainability issues)
                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
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Friday, June 12, 2009
Educa3on Will Eventually Be Open

             And involve connec3ng, personalizing, and 
              crea3ng ‐ just like everything else does



                                                          CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Will Your University Be Open?

                           Can your school find the 
                         ins3tu3onal will to change?

                        Or will you fight a 30 year war, 
                          lose, and change anyway?
                                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Ins3tu3onal Disaggrega3on

                          MIT OpenCourseWare, 
                        Western Governors University



                                                       CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Value of Integra3on?

                                  As compared to
                        “specialized pieces loosely joined”



                                                              CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Not a Technology Problem

         Look around the Internet – not only do the 
      technologies we need exist, they’re open source



                                                        CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
This Is a Policy Problem

                         Higher educa3on is behaving like 
                        the recording and movie industries



                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Policy To Defend Tradi3on

                           Rather than innova3ng




                                                    CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
You Must Engage in Policy Reform

                  Ignoring the problem is not a strategy




                                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
“It is not necessary to change. 
                     Survival is not mandatory.”
                             W. E. Deming




                                                      CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Student Learning May Suffer

                            The market will likely meet 
                        students’ increasingly unmet needs



                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Your Employment Will Suffer

                          When your ins3tu3on collapses
                        as Googlers find bePer alterna3ves 



                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
“The last tempta4on 
                        is the greatest treason,
                           To do the right deed 
                        for the wrong reason.”
                  Archbishop Thomas BeckeP (T. S. Eliot)



                                                           CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Innovate for the Students

                  To fulfill your sacred trust as a teacher




                                                             CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009
Thank You!

                        david.wiley@byu.edu

                        hPp://davidwiley.org/


                                                CC BY
Friday, June 12, 2009

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The Disaggregation of Higher Education

Editor's Notes

  1. Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  2. Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  3. Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  4. Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  5. Massive hyperlinking; 300,000 person communities of interest; etc.
  6. Podcasting, blogs, independent films
  7. Stock and weather data
  8. Classroom experience versus using Google and online groups
  9. Classroom experience versus using Google and online groups
  10. It’s not just textbooks anymore.
  11. It’s not just textbooks anymore.
  12. It’s not just textbooks anymore.
  13. It’s not just textbooks anymore.
  14. Not just people with PhDs on university faculties - Pro-ams, etc.
  15. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years
  16. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years
  17. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years
  18. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years
  19. http://disruptingclass.mhprofessional.com/apps/ab/2008/10/22/another-disruption-in-higher-education-the-teaching-university/
  20. Galadriel, Lord of the Rings
  21. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years
  22. http://chronicle.com/daily/2008/10/5085n.htm
  23. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years
  24. No. We’re not talking about just putting more classes on the internet.
  25. You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  26. You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  27. No. We’re not talking about just putting more classes on the internet.
  28. You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  29. You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  30. You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  31. You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  32. You can’t connect to / with things you can’t access. You can’t custom pull modules into an instructional experience when you don’t have access to the modules. And students certainly can’t participate when there is no mechanism for contribution of materials or a way to find and tutor one another.
  33. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years
  34. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years
  35. Not just experiences that take four, six, or eight years