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Open Educational Resources: Implementation and Impact

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Talk delivered to the Connecticut State Colleges & Universities (CSCU) OER Leadership Summit, March 24, 2017.

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Open Educational Resources: Implementation and Impact

  1. 1. Open Educational Resources: Implementation and Impact David Wiley, PhD Lumen Learning @opencontent
  2. 2. Unless otherwise noted this presentation is licensed CC BY 4.0
  3. 3. education = sharing
  4. 4. sharing
  5. 5. what you know
  6. 6. sharing
  7. 7. feedback
  8. 8. sharing
  9. 9. encouragement
  10. 10. sharing
  11. 11. passion
  12. 12. sharing
  13. 13. yourself
  14. 14. “internet”
  15. 15. Handwriting Printing Press Internet Copying a book $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distributing a book $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  16. 16. unprecedented capacity
  17. 17. sharing
  18. 18. education = sharing
  19. 19. unprecedented capacity
  20. 20. education
  21. 21. except, it doesn’t
  22. 22. ©
  23. 23. Handwriting Printing Press Internet Copying a book $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distributing a book $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  24. 24. Copyright Regulates Handwriting Printing Press Internet Copying a book $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distributing a book $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  25. 25. Internet Enables Copyright Forbids
  26. 26. Open Educational Resources (OER)
  27. 27. Which “open”?
  28. 28. open ≈ free
  29. 29. the internet is already free to read / watch / listen to
  30. 30. open = a free grant of permissions
  31. 31. • Make and own a copyRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  32. 32. 1. retain + redistribute = download and share for free 2. revise + remix = edit, improve, customize, collaborate 3. reuse = class, lab, study group, etc. Implications of the 5Rs
  33. 33. • Make and own a copyRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  34. 34. Open A free grant of the 5R permissions
  35. 35. “Faux-pen” 1. Free (but gated) access 2. All rights reserved PLUS Terms of Use
  36. 36. Cost to Students Permissions for Faculty and Students Commercial Textbooks Expensive Restrictive “The Web” MOOCs Library Resources “Free” Restrictive Open Educational Resources Free 5Rs
  37. 37. choosing traditionally © materials
  38. 38. Internet Enables Copyright Forbids
  39. 39. choosing open educational resources
  40. 40. Internet Enables Open Permits
  41. 41. OER Examples Full courses, complete textbooks, chapters, modules, videos, simulations, assessments, syllabi, etc.
  42. 42. OER Adoption Replacing whatever was previously in the “Required Materials” section of your syllabus with OER
  43. 43. High Impact OER Adoption 1. Improves affordability, 2. Invigorates pedagogy, 3. Improves student success, and 4. Does it at scale
  44. 44. High Impact OER Adoption 1. Improves affordability, 2. Invigorates pedagogy, 3. Improves student success, and 4. Does it at scale
  45. 45. Textbook Pricing in Context One Month Access to… Costs… Netflix – 20k Movies / TV Episodes $7.99 / month Spotify – 15M Songs $9.99 / month VitalSource – 1 Biology Textbook $28.37 / month
  46. 46. A Wizard of Earthsea Textbooks written in disappearing ink
  47. 47. “Disappearing Ink” Strategies Buyback, rental, e-books online subscriptions
  48. 48. The Academic Costs of Textbooks 48% take fewer courses 26% drop a course 21% withdraw from a course 66% go without textbooks 37% earn a poor grade
  49. 49. Retain and Redistribute Solve the affordability problem
  50. 50. High Impact OER Adoption 1. Improves affordability, 2. Invigorates pedagogy, 3. Improves student success, and 4. Does it at scale
  51. 51. Open Pedagogy Pedagogy distinguished by permissions?
  52. 52. “What does open allow me to do?”
  53. 53. Open Pedagogy • People learn through the things they do • Copyright restricts what we’re allowed to do • Copyright restricts how we can learn • Open permits us to learn in new ways
  54. 54. Disposable Assignments Students hate doing them Faculty hate grading them Huge missed opportunity
  55. 55. US college students spend approximately 40 million hours doing homework every year
  56. 56. Renewable Assignments Students see broader value in doing them Faculty see broader value in grading them The work adds value to the world
  57. 57. Everyone wants to feel like their work matters
  58. 58. PM4ID
  59. 59. Renewable Assignments Are enabled by the 5R permissions
  60. 60. High Impact OER Adoption 1. Improves affordability, 2. Invigorates pedagogy, 3. Improves student success, and 4. Does it at scale
  61. 61. metric cost
  62. 62. A Multi-Institutional Study of the Impact of Open Textbook Adoption on the Learning Outcomes of Post- secondary Students Fischer, Hilton, Robinson, and Wiley Journal of Computing in Higher Education (2015)
  63. 63. Research Context • 4,909 treatment • 11,818 control • 50 different undergraduate courses • 130 teachers • 10 US institutions
  64. 64. Methodology Quasi-experimental design with: • Propensity score matched groups • Dependent variables: Completion; C or Better; Credits Enrolled This Term; Credits Enrolled Next Term • Independent variable: Textbook condition • 3 covariates: age, gender, and race
  65. 65. Journal of Computing in Higher Education (2015)
  66. 66. Credits Taken Semester OER Users Others Result Fall 13.29 11.14 t (8101) = 27.81 p < .01 Winter 10.71 9.16 F(1, 6440) = 154.08, p <.01 Journal of Computing in Higher Education (2015)
  67. 67. Improving Course Throughput Rates and Open Educational Resources: Results from the Z Degree Program at Tidewater Community College Hilton, Fischer, Wiley, and Williams International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning (2016)
  68. 68. Course Throughput Rate IRRODL (in press) Drop Deadline Withdraw Deadline Final Grade Students
  69. 69. Commercial vs OER 2.3% | 1.8% 9.9% | 8.1% 68% | 74% (Face to Face) 60% | 66% Drop Withdraw C or Better CTR IRRODL (in press)
  70. 70. Commercial vs OER 4.0% | 1.4% 13.7% | 13.1% 66% | 70% (Online) 54% | 60% Drop Withdraw C or Better CTR IRRODL (in press)
  71. 71. A Preliminary Exploration of the Relationships Between Student-Created OER, Sustainability, and Students Success Wiley, Tonks, Webb, and Weston International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning (in press)
  72. 72. Research Context • 181 middle and high school students • Online, public, charter school with a commitment to OER • Course on Digital Photography IRRODL (in press)
  73. 73. Methodology • Students were invited to create / remix open tutorials, study guides, and games • Extra credit or TA credit • From no to 5-10% student-created OER over four years • Compare student grades on course assignments IRRODL (in press)
  74. 74. IRRODL (in press)
  75. 75. metric cost
  76. 76. Cost-Savings Achieved in Two Semesters Through the Adoption of Open Educational Resources Hilton, Robinson, Wiley and Ackerman International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning (2014)
  77. 77. Research Context • 256 faculty at eight US colleges • 194 taught using only TPM • 48 taught using only OER • 14 taught some courses using TPM, others using OER
  78. 78. Methodology • Review college bookstore website for each course • Select the cheapest new print or new digital price from the bookstore, Amazon, and other options
  79. 79. Results • On average, required TPM for a course cost US $90.61 per student • Faculty received services supporting OER adoption valued at US $5 per student • OER were 94% less expensive than TPM
  80. 80. The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO Model for Sustaining OER Adoption Wiley, Hilton, Williams, and DeMarte Educational Policy Analysis Archives (2016)
  81. 81. INcreased Tuition Revenue through Open educational resources INTRO Model Tuition revenue retained (not refunded) due to decreases in drop rates
  82. 82. 182 * .89 * $164.35 (in-state) * 3 + 182 * .11 * $358.95 (out-of-state) * 3 US $101,042 INTRO annually INTRO at Tidewater Education Policy Analysis Archives (2016)
  83. 83. metric cost
  84. 84. metric cost • 6% higher Course Throughput Rate • 2.15 credits higher enrollment intensity • 94% lower textbook costs • $100k tuition saved per year
  85. 85. impact.lumenlearning.com
  86. 86. High Impact OER Adoption 1. Improves affordability, 2. Invigorates pedagogy, 3. Improves student success, and 4. Does it at scale
  87. 87. Scale Vertically “OER Degree” - Convert to OER at least one section of every course needed to earn a specific degree
  88. 88. Scale Vertically OER degree initiatives like ATD (38), VCCS Zx23 (23), CA legislature (20) For example, Housatonic CC
  89. 89. Scale Horizontally Work to convert all sections of highest enrolling courses to OER For example, Salt Lake CC
  90. 90. Scale Horizontally An “Open General Education Pathway” benefits all students on campus, not just students in one degree
  91. 91. Successful Scaling Requires strategic support and investment
  92. 92. OER is “free like sunshine”
  93. 93. Open Educational Resources A free grant of the 5R permissions
  94. 94. High Impact OER Adoption 1. Improves affordability, 2. Invigorates pedagogy, 3. Improves student success, and 4. Does it at scale
  95. 95. Discussion! @opencontent david@lumenlearning.com
  96. 96. Lumen is Open • All content we create is licensed CC BY • Our contracts require all joint work to be CC BY • Our platform for managing and integrating OER with the LMS is open source • Our platform for delivering formative and summative assessments and sending grades to the LMS is open source • Our math homework platform is open source

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