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Why Open Education? Three Arguments

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Keynote address delivered at the AECT International Research Conference. Shanghai, China, June 2015.

Published in: Education
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Why Open Education? Three Arguments

  1. 1. Why Open Education? Three Arguments David Wiley Lumen / BYU / Creative Commons
  2. 2. This presentation is licensed CC BY unless indicated otherwise in notes
  3. 3. Download these slides davidwiley.org
  4. 4. < philosophical >
  5. 5. education
  6. 6. education =
  7. 7. education = sharing
  8. 8. sharing
  9. 9. what you know
  10. 10. sharing
  11. 11. feedback
  12. 12. sharing
  13. 13. encouragement
  14. 14. sharing
  15. 15. passion
  16. 16. sharing
  17. 17. yourself
  18. 18. education
  19. 19. searching for parking
  20. 20. faculty meetings
  21. 21. tenure and promotion
  22. 22. educative acts
  23. 23. ALL
  24. 24. sharing
  25. 25. if
  26. 26. sharing
  27. 27. education
  28. 28. “rivalrous”
  29. 29. “nonrival”
  30. 30. sharing
  31. 31. asynchronously?
  32. 32. externalize
  33. 33. externalized ideas
  34. 34. converted to rivalrous
  35. 35. externalized & nonrivalrous?
  36. 36. “internet”
  37. 37. externalized ideas
  38. 38. externalized ideas + internet =
  39. 39. nonrival
  40. 40. Handwriting Printing Press Internet Make a copy of a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distribute a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  41. 41. unprecedented capacity
  42. 42. sharing
  43. 43. education = sharing
  44. 44. unprecedented capacity
  45. 45. educate
  46. 46. except we can’t
  47. 47. ©
  48. 48. Copyright Regulates Handwriting Printing Press Internet Copying of a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distributing a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  49. 49. Tech Enables Law Forbids
  50. 50. in the air?
  51. 51. open
  52. 52. Open Educational Resources
  53. 53. open ≠ free
  54. 54. open = free + permissions
  55. 55. • Make and own copiesRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  56. 56. Retain is fundamental
  57. 57. • Make and own copiesRetain • Use in a wide range of waysReuse • Adapt, modify, and improveRevise • Combine two or moreRemix • Share with othersRedistribute The 5Rs
  58. 58. Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable copyright permissions
  59. 59. Open Permissions Handwriting Printing Press Internet Copying of a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy Distributing a textbook $1000s per copy $1s per copy $0.0001s per copy
  60. 60. Tech Enables OER Permits
  61. 61. traditionally © materials + internet
  62. 62. openly licensed materials + internet
  63. 63. < / philosophical >
  64. 64. < innovation >
  65. 65. Infrastructure
  66. 66. Infrastructure is “resources that create benefits for society primarily through the facilitation of downstream productive activities.” -- Brett Frischmann
  67. 67. “downstream productive activities”
  68. 68. Permissionless Innovation Adam Thierer Equal Participation in Innovation Eric Von Hippel
  69. 69. Infrastructure and Innovation
  70. 70. Relatively inexpensive Broad permissions
  71. 71. thrives when the costs and obstacles to experimenting are low
  72. 72. “Intellectual infrastructure” is “nonrival input into a wide variety of outputs.” -- Brett Frischmann
  73. 73. Educational Materials Research Articles Intellectual Infrastructure for Ed
  74. 74. Extremely expensive Very narrow permissions Educational Materials Research Articles
  75. 75. Extremely Expensive Only those with significant capital can afford to experiment and innovate
  76. 76. $0 $200 $400 $600 $800 $1,000 $1,200 $1,400 $1,600 $1,800 Tuition Textbooks Annual Costs $1288 $1666
  77. 77. Textbook Pricing in Context One Month Streaming Access to… Costs… Netflix – 10k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month Hulu Plus – 45k Movies and Episodes $7.99 / month CourseSmart – 1 Biology Textbook $19.67 / month
  78. 78. Accelerating Journal Costs
  79. 79. Very Narrow Permissions ALL Rights Reserved
  80. 80. Trouble with Costs and Permissions?
  81. 81. Open 1. Free and unfettered access 2. Perpetual, irrevocable copyright permissions
  82. 82. The Content Oligarchies Textbooks (74%) • Pearson • Cengage • McGraw-Hill Journals (73%) • Reed-Elsevier • Wiley-Blackwell • Springer • Taylor & Francis • Sage
  83. 83. Open Education Infrastructure Will enable everyone to innovate Will enable everyone to benefit
  84. 84. < / innovation >
  85. 85. < evidence >
  86. 86. 105 Textbook Costs and Student Success Outcomes Six-year graduation rate for open access institutions 33% Avg. annual textbook cost per college student $1,200 Costs growing 3x inflation Cost students go without textbooks due to cost 6 in 10 take fewer courses due to textbook cost 35% Access of community college students achieve credential goals <50%
  87. 87. 106 Internet, Textbook Costs, Student Success Outcomes Six-year graduation rate for open access institutions ?% Avg. annual textbook cost per college student < $50 Costs dropping Cost students go without textbooks due to cost 0 in 10 take fewer courses due to textbook cost 0% Access of community college students achieve credential goals ?%
  88. 88. The Impact of Open Textbooks on Secondary Science Learning Outcomes Robinson, Fischer, Hilton, and Wiley Published in Ed Researcher
  89. 89. Participants • Nebo School District • 4183 students • 43 teachers • Earth Science, Biology, Chemistry
  90. 90. Method Quasi-experimental design with: • Treatment and Control Group • Pre and Post Test • Dependent variable: Score on 2012 statewide standardized science exam • Independent variable: Textbook condition • 15 Covariates: including age, gender, special education, English language proficiency, 2011 test data, 2011 GPA, and race
  91. 91. Propensity Score Matching Increased group balance by 98%
  92. 92. Outcome: State Standardized Test • IRT scaled scores increased with open textbooks, p < .001 • Multiple r squared = .635 (variance in scores accounted for in our model)
  93. 93. A Multi-institutional Study of the Impact of Open Textbook Adoption on the Learning Outcomes of Post-secondary Students Fischer, Hilton, Robinson, and Wiley Accepted in JCHE
  94. 94. Participants • 4909 treatment • 11,818 control • 50 different undergraduate courses • 130 teachers • 10 institutions
  95. 95. Method Quasi-experimental design with: • Propensity Score Matching • Post Test Only • Dependent variables: Completion; C or Better; Credits Enrolled This Term; Next Term • Independent variable: Textbook condition • 3 covariates: including age, gender, and race
  96. 96. Results
  97. 97. Credits Taken Semester Treatment Control Result Fall 13.29 11.14 t (8101) = 27.81 p < .01 Winter 10.71 9.16 F(1, 6440) = 154.08, p <.01)
  98. 98. The Tidewater Z-Degree and the INTRO Model for Sustaining OER Adoption Wiley, DeMarte, Williams, and Hilton Accepted in EPAA
  99. 99. Associates of Business “Z Degree” Graduate without ever buying a textbook World’s first “all-OER” degree ~30% cheaper for students
  100. 100. When a student drops, it.. Slows down their graduation Costs the institution tuition dollars (refunds)
  101. 101. (182 * .89 * $164.35 * 3) in-state + (182 * .11 * $358.95 * 3) out-of-state = $101,042 annual INTRO INTRO Model
  102. 102. Mad, Glad, Sad, Rad: A Framework for Evaluating the Academic Return on Investment in Textbooks and Other Educational Materials Wiley, Hilton, Fischer, and Puente Submitted
  103. 103. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  104. 104. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Commercial Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  105. 105. “Mad” “Glad” “Sad” “Rad” Cost Completing with C or Better Commercial OER Student Success per Dollar 0 100% $200
  106. 106. Completing with C or Better Student Success per Dollar 0 100% 0 50 100 150 200 250 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 Cost $250 $0
  107. 107. openedgroup.org/review
  108. 108. 11 Peer Reviewed Studies http://openedgroup.org/
  109. 109. 48,623 Students http://openedgroup.org/
  110. 110. 93% Same or Better Outcomes http://openedgroup.org/
  111. 111. 9 Peer Reviewed Studies of Perceptions of OER Quality http://openedgroup.org/
  112. 112. 4,510 Professors and Students http://openedgroup.org/
  113. 113. 50% Same35% Better 15% Worse http://openedgroup.org/
  114. 114. impact.lumenlearning.com
  115. 115. < / evidence >
  116. 116. Why open education?
  117. 117. Why open education? Better philosophical alignment Increased academic freedom for faculty Better academic outcomes for students Positive institutional budget impacts
  118. 118. Why not open education?
  119. 119. Discussion! davidwiley.org

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