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Textual
Evidence
OBJECTIVE
 Determine textual evidence to validate assertions and
counterclaims made about a text read.
S2 Q4 EN11/12RWS-IVac-10
Textual Evidence
Textual evidence is information
gathered from the text that
supports your assertion or
counterclaim about the text. It
refers to any proof of an argument,
a claim, a counterclaim, an
assertion cited in the text leading
to a conclusion.
Question: Based on the text, what is Eric’s work on Saturday mornings?
Eric often gets wet on Saturdays. He wakes up at 6 o’clock in
the morning and goes straight to the faucet. He prepares a
basin, soap, shampoo and a stool. One by one, he calls out
his fur friends for the Saturday mornings “ritual”.
a.Washes clothes
b.Cooks for breakfast
c.Baths his pets
d.Prepares for work
C. Bathes his pets
Textual Evidence: One by one, he calls out his fur friends for the Saturday mornings “ritual”
In expressing your
judgment about the text:
1. state your idea
about the text
2. determine
evidence from the
text, look for clues
and keywords that
support your idea
about the text
3. Quote or
paraphrase the part
of the text that
helped you come up
with your idea.
4. express how the
quote supports your
idea.
“Harlem”
by Langston Hughes
What happens to a dream deferred?
Does it dry up
Like a raisin in the sun?
Or fester like a sore ----
And then run?
Does it stink like rotten meat?
Or crust and sugar over—
like a syrupy sweet?
Maybe it just sags
like a heavy load.
Or does it explode?
(SOURCE: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/46548/harlem
“Harlem” by Langston Hughes gives me the feeling, or mood of
anger and depression. It feels like the idea of deferring dreams
is hurtful and maybe even causes one to become resentful
before eventually being overcome by anger. I know this
because the poem uses the words “foster like a sore,” which
gives me a feeling of pain. Further, describing deferred dreams
as if they “stink like rotten meat” is an unpleasant image,
giving me the feeling of resentment. Finally, when the poem
end with “Or does it explode?” makes me think of a person
who boils over in anger.
Euthanasia which is also known as mercy, killing, is an act to end a
person’s life to alleviate the suffering brought by a terminal or grave
illness. While it may be supported by some, euthanasia is not only
unethical medical practice, it is also a crime. Afer all, on the most
basic level, this practice takes a life. In fact, majority of the
countries in the world consider it as homicide. Aside from being a
crime, euthanasia is unethical in the medical context because it
violates the pne of the tenets pf the Physician’s oath, namely that of
primum non nocore” which means “first, do no harm”. In the
Declaration of Geneva, doctors have the responsibility of saving
lives not destroying them. In essence, euthanasia is a violation of
life, and it can never be an acceptable procedure.
WAYS TO PRESENT
TEXTUAL EVIDENCE
PARAPHRASING
-This is restating an author’s or
someone else’s work using your own
words without losing the original idea
of the text.
REFERENCING
-is the act of mentioning a specific
section of the text like an event or
action.
.
SUMMARIZING
-This is stating the essential ideas
together of the text in a shorter way.
QUOTING
-This is stating a part of a text in the
exact way it was written.
Determine the
type of textual
evidence used in
the following:
 According to Fussell, ‘The Oxford Book of English Verse
presides over the Great War in a way that has never been
fully appreciated’ (159).
The movie “Seven Sundays” in 2017 is a heart-warming story and
shows the importance of family in our lives. The
movie tells about the Bonifacio siblings who were reunited because of
their father who was mistakenly diagnosed with cancer. It presented the
different struggles of their lives and how they were able to overcome
them.
 Samantha King, a forensic specialist, stated that “DNA
evidence is usually indisputable.
 The Department of Education ensures the delivery of
quality education and safety of the learners in the opening
of classes for this school year amidst COVID 19 as stated
in the Deped Order no.7 s. 2020 on DepEd School
Calendar and Activities for S.Y. 2020-2021paragraph 2
and 3.
 According to Confucius, “You can’t open a book without
learning something.”
 In research papers students
often quote excessively, failing to
keep quoted material down to a
desirable level. Since the problem
usually originates during note
taking. It is essential to minimize
the material recorded verbatim
(Lester, 1976 p. 46 – 47)
 Students frequently overuse direct
quotation in taking notes; as a result they
overuse quotations in the final (research)
paper. Probably only about 10% of your
final manuscript should appear as directly
quoted matter. Therefore, you should
strive to limit the amount of exact
transcribing of source materials while
taking notes (Lester, 1976 p. 46 – 47)
QUIZ
TIME
Practice choosing the
strongest piece of textual
evidence to support the
claim. Write the letter of the
correct answer on the space
provided before the number.
Claim #1: Simple changes can cut
your carbon emissions greatly!
A. I think that we need to do
something quickly to help save the
environment.
B. If you hang your clothes outside
on the clothesline instead of using
the electric dryer, you can cut your
carbon emissions by 351 lbs./year.
C. Kids can help parents by doing
some household chores.
Practice choosing the
strongest piece of textual
evidence to support the
claim. Write the letter of the
correct answer on the space
provided before the number.
Claim # 2: Exercise is important
for the growth and development of
children.
A. Children watch too much
television.
B. All children love to ride their
bikes outside and on trails
through the forest.
C. Children who are active will
have stronger muscles and
bones.
Claim # 2: Exercise is important
for the growth and development of
children.
A. Children watch too much
television.
B. All children love to ride their
bikes outside and on trails
through the forest.
C. Children who are active will
have stronger muscles and
bones.
Practice choosing the
strongest piece of
textual evidence to
support the claim.
Write the letter of the
correct answer on the
space provided before
the number.
Find yourself a quiet spot at home to attend
your meeting. Turn off the volume of your TV
or music player so you can focus.
Close the door to avoid uninvited party guests
from arriving in the background. While it's not
completely frowned upon, it may distract your
teammates.
Take advantage of virtual backgrounds too if
your meeting app supports it to instantly turn a
messy space into a clean and professional
one.
Claim # 3: A diet rich in fruits
and vegetables has many
benefits.
A. Fruits and vegetables taste
good.
B. Eating lots of fruits and
vegetables lowers your risk of
heart disease.
C. There are many colorful
fruits and vegetables for you to
try.
Practice choosing the
strongest piece of
textual evidence to
support the claim.
Write the letter of the
correct answer on the
space provided before
the number.
Find yourself a quiet spot at home to attend
your meeting. Turn off the volume of your TV
or music player so you can focus.
Close the door to avoid uninvited party guests
from arriving in the background. While it's not
completely frowned upon, it may distract your
teammates.
Take advantage of virtual backgrounds too if
your meeting app supports it to instantly turn a
messy space into a clean and professional
one.
Claim # 4: Smoking cigarettes is
harmful to your health.
A. The mixture of nicotine and carbon
monoxide in cigarettes temporarily
increases your heart rate and blood
pressure, causing strain on your heart and
blood vessels.
B. Cigarette smoke smells really bad and
that smell sticks to your hair
and clothes.
C. Secondhand smoke is bad for the
people around you.
Practice choosing the
strongest piece of
textual evidence to
support the claim.
Write the letter of the
correct answer on the
space provided before
the number.
Find yourself a quiet spot at home to attend
your meeting. Turn off the volume of your TV
or music player so you can focus.
Close the door to avoid uninvited party guests
from arriving in the background. While it's not
completely frowned upon, it may distract your
teammates.
Take advantage of virtual backgrounds too if
your meeting app supports it to instantly turn a
messy space into a clean and professional
one.
Claim # 5: Bullying is a common
problem in schools across the
province.
A. Children who are bullied experience
suffering that can interfere with their
emotional and social development.
B. Surveys indicate that as many as half
of all children are bullied at some time
during their school years.
C. Action needs to be taken to stop
bullying now!
PRACTIC
E
1
It is commonplace to say that nationalism is one of the most
potent factors in the cultural development of a people. Love
of one’s own is essential in the equipment of all truly civilized
human beings; it is the only safe and sensible basis for the
appreciation of things that pertain to others. Only those who
truly love their own country and people – their tradition,
history and destiny – can develop sincere interest in, and
admiration for, the tradition, history and destiny of other
countries peoples. Only they can become genuine
cosmopolites, or “citizens of the world”.
-S.P. Lopez, “Return to the Primitive
PRACTIC
E
2
An excerpt of Meat Culture
By Steve Pavlina
When I see a piece of flesh on someone’s plate, I also see the processes that brought it to
their plate. Some people argue that plants may be harmed by being eaten. I happen to agree.
If we care about minimizing harm to plants, then we’ll do much less harm by eating them
directly as opposed to grinding them up, feeding them to animals, and then grinding up and
eating the animals. If we stopped growing crops to feed to animals and fed those crops to
people directly, it’s estimated that we’d have enough food to feed the whole planet five times
over. So if you do actually care about plants, then you can greatly reduce your plant harm by
eating plants directly. Another way to reduce harm to plants is to favor fruits that can be eaten
without killing the plants. You can eat a wide variety of fruits, both sweet and non-sweet,
without seriously hurting the plant that spawned it. And that same plant will often continue to
bear even more fruit. I think a more sensible and realistic approach is to keep leaning towards
a more conscious, compassionate, and ecologically sound way of eating.
If you want to argue that we should model predators’ diets to justify meat culture, I
encourage you to go ahead and try being a truly predatory person for a while. Do it
consciously. Prey on the weak. See where that takes you.
Source: (Pavlina, 2014) http://www.stevepavlina.com/blog/2014/06/meat-culture/
Write your assertion with textual evidence.
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
_______________________________________________________
Write your counterclaim with textual evidence.
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
________________________________________________
PRACTIC
E 3
Black Lives Matter
Claim/Counterclaim:
Reasons behind your opinion:
Anti Terrorism Bill
Claim/Counterclaim:
Reasons behind your opinion:
Distribution of cash aid under the Social Amelioration
Program in the Philippines
Claim/Counterclaim:
Reasons behind your opinion:
FIRST
OUTPUT
•Write an essay about the topic above. You
may include either your assertion or a
counterclaim on cite textual evidences to
support your opinion.
•Long sized bond paper, 12 font size, Times
New Roman, Long Folder, not lesser than
500 words
•Higher Education Should Be Free for
Everyone
•Developed Worlds Are the Main Cause of
Global Warming
•Music Is a Powerful Cure for Psychological
Problems
TITLE
• Introduction( includes your opinion/assertion/counterclaim)
• Body (Use outside evidence to support argument points)
The next three paragraphs should reinforce your initial viewpoint, thereby
persuading the reader that your position is the best position possible. Each paragraph
should present one reason for your opinion with evidence.
• Your concluding paragraph should reiterate your thesis statement. Then, sum
everything up and conclude the overall essay to drive the point home. Include
your call to action here.
Take your time.

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Textual Evidence in Reading and Writing of SHS

  • 2. OBJECTIVE  Determine textual evidence to validate assertions and counterclaims made about a text read. S2 Q4 EN11/12RWS-IVac-10
  • 3. Textual Evidence Textual evidence is information gathered from the text that supports your assertion or counterclaim about the text. It refers to any proof of an argument, a claim, a counterclaim, an assertion cited in the text leading to a conclusion.
  • 4. Question: Based on the text, what is Eric’s work on Saturday mornings? Eric often gets wet on Saturdays. He wakes up at 6 o’clock in the morning and goes straight to the faucet. He prepares a basin, soap, shampoo and a stool. One by one, he calls out his fur friends for the Saturday mornings “ritual”. a.Washes clothes b.Cooks for breakfast c.Baths his pets d.Prepares for work C. Bathes his pets Textual Evidence: One by one, he calls out his fur friends for the Saturday mornings “ritual”
  • 5. In expressing your judgment about the text:
  • 6. 1. state your idea about the text
  • 7. 2. determine evidence from the text, look for clues and keywords that support your idea about the text
  • 8. 3. Quote or paraphrase the part of the text that helped you come up with your idea.
  • 9. 4. express how the quote supports your idea.
  • 10. “Harlem” by Langston Hughes What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up Like a raisin in the sun? Or fester like a sore ---- And then run? Does it stink like rotten meat? Or crust and sugar over— like a syrupy sweet? Maybe it just sags like a heavy load. Or does it explode? (SOURCE: https://www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/46548/harlem
  • 11. “Harlem” by Langston Hughes gives me the feeling, or mood of anger and depression. It feels like the idea of deferring dreams is hurtful and maybe even causes one to become resentful before eventually being overcome by anger. I know this because the poem uses the words “foster like a sore,” which gives me a feeling of pain. Further, describing deferred dreams as if they “stink like rotten meat” is an unpleasant image, giving me the feeling of resentment. Finally, when the poem end with “Or does it explode?” makes me think of a person who boils over in anger.
  • 12. Euthanasia which is also known as mercy, killing, is an act to end a person’s life to alleviate the suffering brought by a terminal or grave illness. While it may be supported by some, euthanasia is not only unethical medical practice, it is also a crime. Afer all, on the most basic level, this practice takes a life. In fact, majority of the countries in the world consider it as homicide. Aside from being a crime, euthanasia is unethical in the medical context because it violates the pne of the tenets pf the Physician’s oath, namely that of primum non nocore” which means “first, do no harm”. In the Declaration of Geneva, doctors have the responsibility of saving lives not destroying them. In essence, euthanasia is a violation of life, and it can never be an acceptable procedure.
  • 14. PARAPHRASING -This is restating an author’s or someone else’s work using your own words without losing the original idea of the text.
  • 15. REFERENCING -is the act of mentioning a specific section of the text like an event or action. .
  • 16. SUMMARIZING -This is stating the essential ideas together of the text in a shorter way.
  • 17. QUOTING -This is stating a part of a text in the exact way it was written.
  • 18. Determine the type of textual evidence used in the following:
  • 19.  According to Fussell, ‘The Oxford Book of English Verse presides over the Great War in a way that has never been fully appreciated’ (159).
  • 20. The movie “Seven Sundays” in 2017 is a heart-warming story and shows the importance of family in our lives. The movie tells about the Bonifacio siblings who were reunited because of their father who was mistakenly diagnosed with cancer. It presented the different struggles of their lives and how they were able to overcome them.
  • 21.  Samantha King, a forensic specialist, stated that “DNA evidence is usually indisputable.
  • 22.  The Department of Education ensures the delivery of quality education and safety of the learners in the opening of classes for this school year amidst COVID 19 as stated in the Deped Order no.7 s. 2020 on DepEd School Calendar and Activities for S.Y. 2020-2021paragraph 2 and 3.
  • 23.  According to Confucius, “You can’t open a book without learning something.”
  • 24.  In research papers students often quote excessively, failing to keep quoted material down to a desirable level. Since the problem usually originates during note taking. It is essential to minimize the material recorded verbatim (Lester, 1976 p. 46 – 47)  Students frequently overuse direct quotation in taking notes; as a result they overuse quotations in the final (research) paper. Probably only about 10% of your final manuscript should appear as directly quoted matter. Therefore, you should strive to limit the amount of exact transcribing of source materials while taking notes (Lester, 1976 p. 46 – 47)
  • 26. Practice choosing the strongest piece of textual evidence to support the claim. Write the letter of the correct answer on the space provided before the number. Claim #1: Simple changes can cut your carbon emissions greatly! A. I think that we need to do something quickly to help save the environment. B. If you hang your clothes outside on the clothesline instead of using the electric dryer, you can cut your carbon emissions by 351 lbs./year. C. Kids can help parents by doing some household chores.
  • 27. Practice choosing the strongest piece of textual evidence to support the claim. Write the letter of the correct answer on the space provided before the number. Claim # 2: Exercise is important for the growth and development of children. A. Children watch too much television. B. All children love to ride their bikes outside and on trails through the forest. C. Children who are active will have stronger muscles and bones. Claim # 2: Exercise is important for the growth and development of children. A. Children watch too much television. B. All children love to ride their bikes outside and on trails through the forest. C. Children who are active will have stronger muscles and bones.
  • 28. Practice choosing the strongest piece of textual evidence to support the claim. Write the letter of the correct answer on the space provided before the number. Find yourself a quiet spot at home to attend your meeting. Turn off the volume of your TV or music player so you can focus. Close the door to avoid uninvited party guests from arriving in the background. While it's not completely frowned upon, it may distract your teammates. Take advantage of virtual backgrounds too if your meeting app supports it to instantly turn a messy space into a clean and professional one. Claim # 3: A diet rich in fruits and vegetables has many benefits. A. Fruits and vegetables taste good. B. Eating lots of fruits and vegetables lowers your risk of heart disease. C. There are many colorful fruits and vegetables for you to try.
  • 29. Practice choosing the strongest piece of textual evidence to support the claim. Write the letter of the correct answer on the space provided before the number. Find yourself a quiet spot at home to attend your meeting. Turn off the volume of your TV or music player so you can focus. Close the door to avoid uninvited party guests from arriving in the background. While it's not completely frowned upon, it may distract your teammates. Take advantage of virtual backgrounds too if your meeting app supports it to instantly turn a messy space into a clean and professional one. Claim # 4: Smoking cigarettes is harmful to your health. A. The mixture of nicotine and carbon monoxide in cigarettes temporarily increases your heart rate and blood pressure, causing strain on your heart and blood vessels. B. Cigarette smoke smells really bad and that smell sticks to your hair and clothes. C. Secondhand smoke is bad for the people around you.
  • 30. Practice choosing the strongest piece of textual evidence to support the claim. Write the letter of the correct answer on the space provided before the number. Find yourself a quiet spot at home to attend your meeting. Turn off the volume of your TV or music player so you can focus. Close the door to avoid uninvited party guests from arriving in the background. While it's not completely frowned upon, it may distract your teammates. Take advantage of virtual backgrounds too if your meeting app supports it to instantly turn a messy space into a clean and professional one. Claim # 5: Bullying is a common problem in schools across the province. A. Children who are bullied experience suffering that can interfere with their emotional and social development. B. Surveys indicate that as many as half of all children are bullied at some time during their school years. C. Action needs to be taken to stop bullying now!
  • 32. It is commonplace to say that nationalism is one of the most potent factors in the cultural development of a people. Love of one’s own is essential in the equipment of all truly civilized human beings; it is the only safe and sensible basis for the appreciation of things that pertain to others. Only those who truly love their own country and people – their tradition, history and destiny – can develop sincere interest in, and admiration for, the tradition, history and destiny of other countries peoples. Only they can become genuine cosmopolites, or “citizens of the world”. -S.P. Lopez, “Return to the Primitive
  • 33.
  • 35. An excerpt of Meat Culture By Steve Pavlina When I see a piece of flesh on someone’s plate, I also see the processes that brought it to their plate. Some people argue that plants may be harmed by being eaten. I happen to agree. If we care about minimizing harm to plants, then we’ll do much less harm by eating them directly as opposed to grinding them up, feeding them to animals, and then grinding up and eating the animals. If we stopped growing crops to feed to animals and fed those crops to people directly, it’s estimated that we’d have enough food to feed the whole planet five times over. So if you do actually care about plants, then you can greatly reduce your plant harm by eating plants directly. Another way to reduce harm to plants is to favor fruits that can be eaten without killing the plants. You can eat a wide variety of fruits, both sweet and non-sweet, without seriously hurting the plant that spawned it. And that same plant will often continue to bear even more fruit. I think a more sensible and realistic approach is to keep leaning towards a more conscious, compassionate, and ecologically sound way of eating. If you want to argue that we should model predators’ diets to justify meat culture, I encourage you to go ahead and try being a truly predatory person for a while. Do it consciously. Prey on the weak. See where that takes you. Source: (Pavlina, 2014) http://www.stevepavlina.com/blog/2014/06/meat-culture/
  • 36. Write your assertion with textual evidence. _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ _______________________________________________________ Write your counterclaim with textual evidence. ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________ ________________________________________________
  • 40. Distribution of cash aid under the Social Amelioration Program in the Philippines Claim/Counterclaim: Reasons behind your opinion:
  • 42. •Write an essay about the topic above. You may include either your assertion or a counterclaim on cite textual evidences to support your opinion. •Long sized bond paper, 12 font size, Times New Roman, Long Folder, not lesser than 500 words
  • 43. •Higher Education Should Be Free for Everyone •Developed Worlds Are the Main Cause of Global Warming •Music Is a Powerful Cure for Psychological Problems
  • 44. TITLE • Introduction( includes your opinion/assertion/counterclaim) • Body (Use outside evidence to support argument points) The next three paragraphs should reinforce your initial viewpoint, thereby persuading the reader that your position is the best position possible. Each paragraph should present one reason for your opinion with evidence. • Your concluding paragraph should reiterate your thesis statement. Then, sum everything up and conclude the overall essay to drive the point home. Include your call to action here.

Editor's Notes

  1. In formulating assertions and counterclaims about a text, it is important that you support your statements with textual evidence.
  2. Use quotation marks to quote a part of the text. If it is from a book, indicate the page number at the end of your sentence.
  3. Here, the author claimed that the poem gives him the feeling of anger and depression. He uses exact words from the poem like foster like a sore, stink like rotten meat or does it explode which are directly relevant to his idea of anger and depression. Thus, we can say that the writer’s claim in this essay is valid and relevant.
  4.   In citing textual evidence, you need to quote, paraphrase or refer to the very specific part of the text where you can use to support your own thoughts and ideas.
  5. PAGE 86
  6. Read the text below. Identify the assertion made by the author and the textual evidences used to strengthen his argument. Write your answers on the diagram provide
  7. Read the text below. Identify the assertion made by the author and the textual evidences used to strengthen his argument. Write your answers on the diagram provide
  8. Cite the strongest piece of textual evidence to support your assertion and counterclaim
  9. Social Media should be banned in the Philippines