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EARTHQUAKE &
FAULTS
What We Are Going To Learn
• What is mean earthquake ?
• Elastic rebound theory.
• Earthquake intensity measurement
• Earthquakes waves
• Types of faults
Earthquake
• Shaking and vibration of the Earth’s crust due to
plate tectonics (movement of plates)
• Happen along any type of plate boundary. They
also occur along faults which are large cracks in the
earth’s crust. Most faults are associated with large
plate boundaries where violent earthquakes usually
occur.
Elastic rebound theory
• Rocks bend until the strength of the
rock is exceeded
• Rupture occurs and the rocks quickly
rebound to an unreformed shape
• Energy is released in waves that radiate
outward from the fault
Measuring Earthquake
• The power (magnitude) of an earthquake is
measured on the Richter scale, using an instrument
called a seismometer.
• The Richter scale is numbered 0-10 with 10 being
the most powerful.
• The Richter scale is logarithmic – an earthquake
measuring 7 is 10 times more powerful than one
measuring 6 and 100 times more powerful than one
measuring 5. Up until 2 on the Richter Scale only
instruments will detect the earthquake. Earthquakes
above 6 cause serious damage and sometimes many
deaths
• The Mercalli scale measures the damage caused
by an earthquake.
• The Mercalli scale goes from I to XII e.g. “VI.
Everyone feels movement. People have trouble
walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall
off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might
crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight
in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.”
Seismic Waves
• Response of material to the arrival
of energy fronts released by rupture
• Two types:
• Body waves
P and S
• Surface waves
R and L
Body Waves: P and S waves
P or primary waves
• Fastest waves
• Travel through solids, liquids, or gases
• Compressional wave, material movement
is in the same direction as wave movement
S or secondary waves
• Slower than P waves
• Travel through solids only
• Shear waves - move material perpendicular
to wave movement
Surface Waves: R and L waves
• Travel just below or along the ground’s
surface
• Slower than body waves; rolling and side-
to-side movement
• Especially damaging to buildings
Faults
• A crack or facture in earth crust along which
rock on one side has moved relative to rock
on other side.
• Caused due to earthquake
• Three types :
Transverse fault
Normal fault
Reverse fault
Transverse fault
Land Plates
forces on the land
This is a Strike Slip
Fault
or a Transverse Fault
San Andréa Fault
Transverse fault
Imperial Valley, California, Earthquake (Magnitude 6.5)
October 15, 1979
Normal fault
Also called
Scarp face
Normal fault
Government Hill School, March 27, 1964 Magnitude 9.2
Anchorage, Alaska
Reverse Fault
This Presentation is Brought to you
by
An Civil Engineering Blog

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Earthquake waves and types of faults caused by earthquake

  • 2. What We Are Going To Learn • What is mean earthquake ? • Elastic rebound theory. • Earthquake intensity measurement • Earthquakes waves • Types of faults
  • 3. Earthquake • Shaking and vibration of the Earth’s crust due to plate tectonics (movement of plates) • Happen along any type of plate boundary. They also occur along faults which are large cracks in the earth’s crust. Most faults are associated with large plate boundaries where violent earthquakes usually occur.
  • 4.
  • 5. Elastic rebound theory • Rocks bend until the strength of the rock is exceeded • Rupture occurs and the rocks quickly rebound to an unreformed shape • Energy is released in waves that radiate outward from the fault
  • 6.
  • 8. • The power (magnitude) of an earthquake is measured on the Richter scale, using an instrument called a seismometer. • The Richter scale is numbered 0-10 with 10 being the most powerful. • The Richter scale is logarithmic – an earthquake measuring 7 is 10 times more powerful than one measuring 6 and 100 times more powerful than one measuring 5. Up until 2 on the Richter Scale only instruments will detect the earthquake. Earthquakes above 6 cause serious damage and sometimes many deaths
  • 9. • The Mercalli scale measures the damage caused by an earthquake. • The Mercalli scale goes from I to XII e.g. “VI. Everyone feels movement. People have trouble walking. Objects fall from shelves. Pictures fall off walls. Furniture moves. Plaster in walls might crack. Trees and bushes shake. Damage is slight in poorly built buildings. No structural damage.”
  • 10. Seismic Waves • Response of material to the arrival of energy fronts released by rupture • Two types: • Body waves P and S • Surface waves R and L
  • 11. Body Waves: P and S waves P or primary waves • Fastest waves • Travel through solids, liquids, or gases • Compressional wave, material movement is in the same direction as wave movement S or secondary waves • Slower than P waves • Travel through solids only • Shear waves - move material perpendicular to wave movement
  • 12.
  • 13. Surface Waves: R and L waves • Travel just below or along the ground’s surface • Slower than body waves; rolling and side- to-side movement • Especially damaging to buildings
  • 14.
  • 15. Faults • A crack or facture in earth crust along which rock on one side has moved relative to rock on other side. • Caused due to earthquake • Three types : Transverse fault Normal fault Reverse fault
  • 16. Transverse fault Land Plates forces on the land This is a Strike Slip Fault or a Transverse Fault San Andréa Fault
  • 17. Transverse fault Imperial Valley, California, Earthquake (Magnitude 6.5) October 15, 1979
  • 19. Normal fault Government Hill School, March 27, 1964 Magnitude 9.2 Anchorage, Alaska
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