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Social Influence Tactics
Dr. Jerry A. Smith
Questions To Be Answered
✤   If you have 2 options to present to a buyer, which should you present first, the more
    costly or less costly?

✤   Is it better to tell prospects what they stand to gain by moving in your direction, or what
    they stand to lose if they don’t

✤   If you have a new piece of information when should you mention that it’s new to your
    audience? before or after you present this information to your audience?

✤   If you have a product, service or idea that has both strengths and weaknesses, when
    should you present the weaknesses, early or late?

✤   After someone has praised you or your organization, what is the most effective thing
    you can do immediately after you have said thank you

✤   To arrange for someone to like and cooperate with you, what is the single most
    productive thing you can do before you try to influence them
                                                                                              2
Constantly bombarded by
attempts to influence us…
  •   Newspapers                  •   Politics and Lobbying
  •   Magazines                   •   Public relations
  •   Television                  •   Social action campaigns
  •   Internet                    •   Law/courtroom
  •   Radio                       •   Friends and peers
  •   Outdoor signs               •   Spouse




 Pseudoscience of all types that tries to persuade you to spend
 money… such as homeopathy, water divining, magnet therapy,
                               etc.
                                                                  3
Are we aware of the influence?



✤   Are we aware when others are trying to influence us?



✤   Are we aware of how we try to influence others?




                                                          4
The story of Robert Cialdini

✤   Psychology Professor at Arizona State

✤   Left campus for a three-year project going
    undercover to explore first-hand real-world influence
    techniques

✤   Wrote a couple of famous books

    ✤   Influence: the Psychology of Persuasion

    ✤   Yes! 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive

✤   Speaker/consultant
                                                             5
Reciprocation
✤   We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

✤   One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance

✤   All societies subscribe to this norm

✤   Size or value of gift does not correlate with the potential to influence   “Will you donate $100”?

    ✤   Small gifts have significant impact beyond their value                              NO


✤   Examples…                                                                      “Oh, how about $5”?


    ✤   Free estimates                                                                    YES


    ✤   Give a flower then ask for a donation

    ✤   Send prospect pre-printed return address labels with solicitation letter

    ✤   Small gifts and comped meals
                                                                                                         6
The Principle of Reciprocation




                                 7
The Principle of Reciprocation

✤   1985 Ethiopian famine: $5,000
    donation was sent by the Red Cross
    between Mexico and famine-stricken
    Ethiopia …




                                         7
The Principle of Reciprocation

✤   1985 Ethiopian famine: $5,000
    donation was sent by the Red Cross
    between Mexico and famine-stricken
    Ethiopia …
✤   … that is, FROM Ethiopia TO Mexico
    (for the earthquake victims there).




                                          7
The Principle of Reciprocation

✤   1985 Ethiopian famine: $5,000
    donation was sent by the Red Cross
    between Mexico and famine-stricken
    Ethiopia …
✤   … that is, FROM Ethiopia TO Mexico
    (for the earthquake victims there).
✤   Why? Mexico sent aid to Ethiopia in
    1935, when it was invaded by Italy.
    (Note: 70% of Ethiopian evangelical
    Christians are said to tithe [10% of
    income to church].)
                                           7
The Evidence




               8
The Evidence
✤   Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell




                                        8
The Evidence
✤   Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell

✤   Subject is asked to rate quality of paintings along
    with a confederate (“Joe”).




                                                          8
The Evidence
✤   Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell

✤   Subject is asked to rate quality of paintings along
    with a confederate (“Joe”).

✤   Case 1: Joe brings the subject a (10 cent) Coke when
    he comes back from a break. (“I brought one for
    you, too.”)




                                                           8
The Evidence
✤   Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell

✤   Subject is asked to rate quality of paintings along
    with a confederate (“Joe”).

✤   Case 1: Joe brings the subject a (10 cent) Coke when
    he comes back from a break. (“I brought one for
    you, too.”)

✤   Case 2: Just comes back.




                                                           8
The Evidence
✤   Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell

✤   Subject is asked to rate quality of paintings along
    with a confederate (“Joe”).

✤   Case 1: Joe brings the subject a (10 cent) Coke when
    he comes back from a break. (“I brought one for
    you, too.”)

✤   Case 2: Just comes back.

✤   Joe asks the subject to buy raffle tickets. If he sells
    the most, he gets a prize. 25 cents each. “Any
    would help, the more the better.”                        8
The Evidence / Examples




                          9
The Evidence / Examples

Results:




                          9
The Evidence / Examples

Results:
✤   Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets




                                                                  9
The Evidence / Examples

Results:
✤   Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets
✤   Subjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more
    tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the
    relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets.




                                                                  9
The Evidence / Examples

Results:
✤   Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets
✤   Subjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more
    tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the
    relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets.
✤   The rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the
    other factor – liking the requester.



                                                                  9
The Evidence / Examples

Results:
✤   Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets
✤   Subjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more
    tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the
    relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets.
✤   The rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the
    other factor – liking the requester.
✤   Hare Krishna Society’s “donation-request” tactic

                                                                  9
Reciprocity Techniques
✤   Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession

        ✤   A large, unreasonable request is made which most probably will be refused

        ✤   Follow 1st request with 2nd request of a smaller favor (a planned compromise)

        ✤   2nd request appears more reasonable and usually results in reciprocation

        ✤   Consumer examples

            ✤   Commonly used tactic in negotiating contracts

            ✤   Add-ons to new car after closing deal

    ✤   Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater
        satisfaction with resolution

✤   Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to

✤   Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; present undesirable option first
                                                                                                            10
Social Proof
✤   One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct

✤   Looking to others, particularly role models, is a useful shortcut to determine how to behave

✤   The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct.

✤   Pluralistic Ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong

✤   Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us

✤   Examples…

    ✤   Product is “largest selling” or “fastest growing”

    ✤   Advertisements using targeted demographics

    ✤   Testimonials

    ✤   Laugh tracks and applause

    ✤   Mob behavior, inaction toward crime or emergency

    ✤   Jonestown
                                                                                                     11
Social Proof: The Evidence




                             12
Social Proof: The Evidence
✤   Study: Researchers publicize that people in New Haven, CT, are
    considered charitable people. Two weeks later: Researcher calls
    housewives and asks for donations. Result?

    ✤   Donations increase.




                                                                      12
Social Proof: The Evidence
✤   Study: Researchers publicize that people in New Haven, CT, are
    considered charitable people. Two weeks later: Researcher calls
    housewives and asks for donations. Result?

    ✤   Donations increase.

✤   When it works best:

    ✤   People are most likely to “follow the leader (or the group)” when
        the situation is unclear or ambiguous.

    ✤   We are most likely to look to people who are “just like us” when
        looking for people to emulate.

    ✤   Exception: Will follow “authorities” even when they are not like us
        (at least while they are watching). (Milgram)                         12
Commitment/Consistency
✤   People have a desire to look consistent through their words, beliefs, and deeds

    ✤   Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already
        done

    ✤   Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look
        virtuous

✤   Examples…

    ✤   “Please call” vs “Will you please call?”

    ✤   Foot-in-the-door (small initial request)
                                                              “3inch sign”?

    ✤   Lowballing (you agree to initial offer)
                                                                   YES

    ✤   Bait-and-Switch (lower quality replacement)
                                                         “Large poorly written sign”   “Large poorly written sign”


                                                                    YES                           NO          13
Consistency Techniques
✤   Technique 1: Have customers not salespeople fill out sale agreements

✤   Technique 2: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency

✤   Technique 3: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting
    commitments

✤   Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments
    manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment)

✤   Outcome

    ✤   Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound

    ✤   Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs
                                                                                14
Authority
✤   We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority

✤   Strong pressure within our society for compliance when requested by an authority figure

✤   Experience, expertise, or scientific credentials helps sell

✤   Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure

✤   1955 Research: a man could increase by 350% the number of pedestrians who would follow him across the
    street against the light by simply donning a suit and tie

✤   Examples…

    ✤   Titles

    ✤   Uniforms

    ✤   Clothes

    ✤   Trappings of status

                                                                                                          15
Liking
✤
    Also known as “attractiveness”, “rapport”, or “affection”

✤
    People prefer to say yes to individuals they know and like

✤
    Liking has been associated with physical attractiveness, similarity, and praise

✤
    Examples…

    ✤
        Connections

    ✤
        Targeted advertising

    ✤
        Peer solicitation

    ✤
        Good cop / Bad cop

    ✤
        Tupperware parties

    ✤
        Celebrity endorsements
                                                                                      16
Scarcity
✤   Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited

✤   We want it even more when we are in competition for it

✤   Scarcity affects value not only of commodities but of information as well

✤   E.g.:

✤   Examples…

    ✤   final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week

    ✤   “Limited time offer”

    ✤   “We are running out of the item”




                                                                                17
Social Psychology
1. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us

         • The free dinner and booze
2. Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done

         • Will you try our product?
3. Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct

         • Stacking the meeting with like-minded souls
4. Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority

         • The speaker who is being paid to sell a product or concept (back to reciprocation)
5. Likeability: we say yes to someone we like

         • Extroverted reps and peer camaraderie
6. Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability

         • The pitch during the presentation
                                                                                                18
Questions - Answers
✤   If you have 2 Options to present to a client, which should you present first, the more costly or less costly?

    ✤    Answer: The more costly followed by the less costly if they decline

✤   Is it better to tell prospects what they stand to gain by moving in your direction, or what they stand to lose if they don’t

    ✤    Answer: What they stand to lose, people are far more motivated by loss

✤   If you have a new piece of information when should you mention that it’s new to your audience? before or after you present this
    information to your audience?

    ✤    Answer: Before, Information is more valuable when new or comes from a reliable resource

✤   If you have a product, service or idea that has both strengths and weaknesses, when should you present the weaknesses, early or late?

    ✤    Answer: Early, the strengths of the product will outweigh it’s weaknesses. Arguing against your self-interest creates a perception
         that you/your company are honest and trustworthy. This puts you in a more persuasive position when promoting genuine
         strengths.

✤   After someone has praised you or your organization, what is the most effective thing you can do immediately after you have said
    thank you?

    ✤    Answer: Invite them to return the favor if ever required

✤   To arrange for someone to like and cooperate with you, what is the single most productive thing you can do before you try to influence
    them?

    ✤    Answer: Do something for them                                                                                                    19
Next Steps


✤   These are just a couple of possibilities:

    ✤   Set up web based Sales Knowledge Wiki for sharing idea,
        methodologies, etc.

    ✤   Share specific sales challenges and ways to apply Influence
        techniques to them



                                                                    20

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Social Influence

  • 2. Questions To Be Answered ✤ If you have 2 options to present to a buyer, which should you present first, the more costly or less costly? ✤ Is it better to tell prospects what they stand to gain by moving in your direction, or what they stand to lose if they don’t ✤ If you have a new piece of information when should you mention that it’s new to your audience? before or after you present this information to your audience? ✤ If you have a product, service or idea that has both strengths and weaknesses, when should you present the weaknesses, early or late? ✤ After someone has praised you or your organization, what is the most effective thing you can do immediately after you have said thank you ✤ To arrange for someone to like and cooperate with you, what is the single most productive thing you can do before you try to influence them 2
  • 3. Constantly bombarded by attempts to influence us… • Newspapers • Politics and Lobbying • Magazines • Public relations • Television • Social action campaigns • Internet • Law/courtroom • Radio • Friends and peers • Outdoor signs • Spouse Pseudoscience of all types that tries to persuade you to spend money… such as homeopathy, water divining, magnet therapy, etc. 3
  • 4. Are we aware of the influence? ✤ Are we aware when others are trying to influence us? ✤ Are we aware of how we try to influence others? 4
  • 5. The story of Robert Cialdini ✤ Psychology Professor at Arizona State ✤ Left campus for a three-year project going undercover to explore first-hand real-world influence techniques ✤ Wrote a couple of famous books ✤ Influence: the Psychology of Persuasion ✤ Yes! 50 Scientifically Proven Ways to Be Persuasive ✤ Speaker/consultant 5
  • 6. Reciprocation ✤ We want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us ✤ One of the most potent weapons of influence and compliance ✤ All societies subscribe to this norm ✤ Size or value of gift does not correlate with the potential to influence “Will you donate $100”? ✤ Small gifts have significant impact beyond their value NO ✤ Examples… “Oh, how about $5”? ✤ Free estimates YES ✤ Give a flower then ask for a donation ✤ Send prospect pre-printed return address labels with solicitation letter ✤ Small gifts and comped meals 6
  • 7. The Principle of Reciprocation 7
  • 8. The Principle of Reciprocation ✤ 1985 Ethiopian famine: $5,000 donation was sent by the Red Cross between Mexico and famine-stricken Ethiopia … 7
  • 9. The Principle of Reciprocation ✤ 1985 Ethiopian famine: $5,000 donation was sent by the Red Cross between Mexico and famine-stricken Ethiopia … ✤ … that is, FROM Ethiopia TO Mexico (for the earthquake victims there). 7
  • 10. The Principle of Reciprocation ✤ 1985 Ethiopian famine: $5,000 donation was sent by the Red Cross between Mexico and famine-stricken Ethiopia … ✤ … that is, FROM Ethiopia TO Mexico (for the earthquake victims there). ✤ Why? Mexico sent aid to Ethiopia in 1935, when it was invaded by Italy. (Note: 70% of Ethiopian evangelical Christians are said to tithe [10% of income to church].) 7
  • 12. The Evidence ✤ Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell 8
  • 13. The Evidence ✤ Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell ✤ Subject is asked to rate quality of paintings along with a confederate (“Joe”). 8
  • 14. The Evidence ✤ Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell ✤ Subject is asked to rate quality of paintings along with a confederate (“Joe”). ✤ Case 1: Joe brings the subject a (10 cent) Coke when he comes back from a break. (“I brought one for you, too.”) 8
  • 15. The Evidence ✤ Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell ✤ Subject is asked to rate quality of paintings along with a confederate (“Joe”). ✤ Case 1: Joe brings the subject a (10 cent) Coke when he comes back from a break. (“I brought one for you, too.”) ✤ Case 2: Just comes back. 8
  • 16. The Evidence ✤ Example #1: Dennis Regan, Cornell ✤ Subject is asked to rate quality of paintings along with a confederate (“Joe”). ✤ Case 1: Joe brings the subject a (10 cent) Coke when he comes back from a break. (“I brought one for you, too.”) ✤ Case 2: Just comes back. ✤ Joe asks the subject to buy raffle tickets. If he sells the most, he gets a prize. 25 cents each. “Any would help, the more the better.” 8
  • 17. The Evidence / Examples 9
  • 18. The Evidence / Examples Results: 9
  • 19. The Evidence / Examples Results: ✤ Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets 9
  • 20. The Evidence / Examples Results: ✤ Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets ✤ Subjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. 9
  • 21. The Evidence / Examples Results: ✤ Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets ✤ Subjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. ✤ The rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the other factor – liking the requester. 9
  • 22. The Evidence / Examples Results: ✤ Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets ✤ Subjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. ✤ The rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the other factor – liking the requester. ✤ Hare Krishna Society’s “donation-request” tactic 9
  • 23. Reciprocity Techniques ✤ Technique 1: If someone makes a concession, we are obligated to respond with a concession ✤ A large, unreasonable request is made which most probably will be refused ✤ Follow 1st request with 2nd request of a smaller favor (a planned compromise) ✤ 2nd request appears more reasonable and usually results in reciprocation ✤ Consumer examples ✤ Commonly used tactic in negotiating contracts ✤ Add-ons to new car after closing deal ✤ Making a concession gives the other party a feeling of responsibility for the outcome and greater satisfaction with resolution ✤ Technique 2: Rejection then retreat: exaggerated request rejected, desired lesser request acceded to ✤ Technique 3: Contrast principle: sell the costly item first; present undesirable option first 10
  • 24. Social Proof ✤ One means we use to determine what is correct is to find out what other people think is correct ✤ Looking to others, particularly role models, is a useful shortcut to determine how to behave ✤ The greater number of people who find an idea correct, the more the idea will be correct. ✤ Pluralistic Ignorance: each person decides that since nobody is concerned, nothing is wrong ✤ Similarity: social proof operates most powerfully when we observe people just like us ✤ Examples… ✤ Product is “largest selling” or “fastest growing” ✤ Advertisements using targeted demographics ✤ Testimonials ✤ Laugh tracks and applause ✤ Mob behavior, inaction toward crime or emergency ✤ Jonestown 11
  • 25. Social Proof: The Evidence 12
  • 26. Social Proof: The Evidence ✤ Study: Researchers publicize that people in New Haven, CT, are considered charitable people. Two weeks later: Researcher calls housewives and asks for donations. Result? ✤ Donations increase. 12
  • 27. Social Proof: The Evidence ✤ Study: Researchers publicize that people in New Haven, CT, are considered charitable people. Two weeks later: Researcher calls housewives and asks for donations. Result? ✤ Donations increase. ✤ When it works best: ✤ People are most likely to “follow the leader (or the group)” when the situation is unclear or ambiguous. ✤ We are most likely to look to people who are “just like us” when looking for people to emulate. ✤ Exception: Will follow “authorities” even when they are not like us (at least while they are watching). (Milgram) 12
  • 28. Commitment/Consistency ✤ People have a desire to look consistent through their words, beliefs, and deeds ✤ Our nearly obsessive desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done ✤ Consistency is usually associated with strength, inconsistency as weak; we want to look virtuous ✤ Examples… ✤ “Please call” vs “Will you please call?” ✤ Foot-in-the-door (small initial request) “3inch sign”? ✤ Lowballing (you agree to initial offer) YES ✤ Bait-and-Switch (lower quality replacement) “Large poorly written sign” “Large poorly written sign” YES NO 13
  • 29. Consistency Techniques ✤ Technique 1: Have customers not salespeople fill out sale agreements ✤ Technique 2: Elicit a commitment, then expect consistency ✤ Technique 3: Public, active, effortful commitments tend to be lasting commitments ✤ Technique 3: Get a large favor by first getting a small one (small commitments manipulate a person’s self-image and position them for large commitment) ✤ Outcome ✤ Commitments people own, take inner responsibility for, are profound ✤ Commitments lead to inner change and grow their own legs 14
  • 30. Authority ✤ We have a deep-seated sense of duty to authority ✤ Strong pressure within our society for compliance when requested by an authority figure ✤ Experience, expertise, or scientific credentials helps sell ✤ Tests demonstrate that adults will do extreme things when instructed to do so by an authority figure ✤ 1955 Research: a man could increase by 350% the number of pedestrians who would follow him across the street against the light by simply donning a suit and tie ✤ Examples… ✤ Titles ✤ Uniforms ✤ Clothes ✤ Trappings of status 15
  • 31. Liking ✤ Also known as “attractiveness”, “rapport”, or “affection” ✤ People prefer to say yes to individuals they know and like ✤ Liking has been associated with physical attractiveness, similarity, and praise ✤ Examples… ✤ Connections ✤ Targeted advertising ✤ Peer solicitation ✤ Good cop / Bad cop ✤ Tupperware parties ✤ Celebrity endorsements 16
  • 32. Scarcity ✤ Opportunities seem more valuable to us when their availability is limited ✤ We want it even more when we are in competition for it ✤ Scarcity affects value not only of commodities but of information as well ✤ E.g.: ✤ Examples… ✤ final $4.4 million in matching funds disappeared in one week ✤ “Limited time offer” ✤ “We are running out of the item” 17
  • 33. Social Psychology 1. Reciprocity: we want to repay, in kind, what another person has provided us • The free dinner and booze 2. Consistency: desire to be (and to appear) consistent with what we have already done • Will you try our product? 3. Social proof: to determine what is correct find out what other people think is correct • Stacking the meeting with like-minded souls 4. Authority: deep-seated sense of duty to authority • The speaker who is being paid to sell a product or concept (back to reciprocation) 5. Likeability: we say yes to someone we like • Extroverted reps and peer camaraderie 6. Scarcity: limitation enhances desirability • The pitch during the presentation 18
  • 34. Questions - Answers ✤ If you have 2 Options to present to a client, which should you present first, the more costly or less costly? ✤ Answer: The more costly followed by the less costly if they decline ✤ Is it better to tell prospects what they stand to gain by moving in your direction, or what they stand to lose if they don’t ✤ Answer: What they stand to lose, people are far more motivated by loss ✤ If you have a new piece of information when should you mention that it’s new to your audience? before or after you present this information to your audience? ✤ Answer: Before, Information is more valuable when new or comes from a reliable resource ✤ If you have a product, service or idea that has both strengths and weaknesses, when should you present the weaknesses, early or late? ✤ Answer: Early, the strengths of the product will outweigh it’s weaknesses. Arguing against your self-interest creates a perception that you/your company are honest and trustworthy. This puts you in a more persuasive position when promoting genuine strengths. ✤ After someone has praised you or your organization, what is the most effective thing you can do immediately after you have said thank you? ✤ Answer: Invite them to return the favor if ever required ✤ To arrange for someone to like and cooperate with you, what is the single most productive thing you can do before you try to influence them? ✤ Answer: Do something for them 19
  • 35. Next Steps ✤ These are just a couple of possibilities: ✤ Set up web based Sales Knowledge Wiki for sharing idea, methodologies, etc. ✤ Share specific sales challenges and ways to apply Influence techniques to them 20

Editor's Notes

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  7. Vartan Bhanji custom in Pakistan: ON the occasion of marriage, departing guests are given sweets. In weighing them out, the hostess may say, “These five are yours” (meaning what you formerly gave me) and then adds an extra measure saying, “These are mine.” On the next occasion, she will receive these back with an additional measure which she later returns and so on. “Men ale, men vini fe zanmitay dire.” -- Hands going, Hands coming make friendships last. \n
  8. Vartan Bhanji custom in Pakistan: ON the occasion of marriage, departing guests are given sweets. In weighing them out, the hostess may say, “These five are yours” (meaning what you formerly gave me) and then adds an extra measure saying, “These are mine.” On the next occasion, she will receive these back with an additional measure which she later returns and so on. “Men ale, men vini fe zanmitay dire.” -- Hands going, Hands coming make friendships last. \n
  9. Vartan Bhanji custom in Pakistan: ON the occasion of marriage, departing guests are given sweets. In weighing them out, the hostess may say, “These five are yours” (meaning what you formerly gave me) and then adds an extra measure saying, “These are mine.” On the next occasion, she will receive these back with an additional measure which she later returns and so on. “Men ale, men vini fe zanmitay dire.” -- Hands going, Hands coming make friendships last. \n
  10. Vartan Bhanji custom in Pakistan: ON the occasion of marriage, departing guests are given sweets. In weighing them out, the hostess may say, “These five are yours” (meaning what you formerly gave me) and then adds an extra measure saying, “These are mine.” On the next occasion, she will receive these back with an additional measure which she later returns and so on. “Men ale, men vini fe zanmitay dire.” -- Hands going, Hands coming make friendships last. \n
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  18. Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets as folks in Case 2. (In case 2, bought on average 2 tickets, but as many as 7.)\nSubjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. People who said they disliked Joe the most + got a Coke bought just as many tickets as those who said they liked Joe the most + got a Coke.\nThe rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the other factor – liking the requester.\nHare Krishna Society’s remarkable growth in 1970s, partially from their “donation-request” tactic – a book or flower. Flowers were often recycled. People now choose to avoid – rather than withstand – the force of gift-giving. \n
  19. Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets as folks in Case 2. (In case 2, bought on average 2 tickets, but as many as 7.)\nSubjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. People who said they disliked Joe the most + got a Coke bought just as many tickets as those who said they liked Joe the most + got a Coke.\nThe rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the other factor – liking the requester.\nHare Krishna Society’s remarkable growth in 1970s, partially from their “donation-request” tactic – a book or flower. Flowers were often recycled. People now choose to avoid – rather than withstand – the force of gift-giving. \n
  20. Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets as folks in Case 2. (In case 2, bought on average 2 tickets, but as many as 7.)\nSubjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. People who said they disliked Joe the most + got a Coke bought just as many tickets as those who said they liked Joe the most + got a Coke.\nThe rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the other factor – liking the requester.\nHare Krishna Society’s remarkable growth in 1970s, partially from their “donation-request” tactic – a book or flower. Flowers were often recycled. People now choose to avoid – rather than withstand – the force of gift-giving. \n
  21. Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets as folks in Case 2. (In case 2, bought on average 2 tickets, but as many as 7.)\nSubjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. People who said they disliked Joe the most + got a Coke bought just as many tickets as those who said they liked Joe the most + got a Coke.\nThe rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the other factor – liking the requester.\nHare Krishna Society’s remarkable growth in 1970s, partially from their “donation-request” tactic – a book or flower. Flowers were often recycled. People now choose to avoid – rather than withstand – the force of gift-giving. \n
  22. Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets as folks in Case 2. (In case 2, bought on average 2 tickets, but as many as 7.)\nSubjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. People who said they disliked Joe the most + got a Coke bought just as many tickets as those who said they liked Joe the most + got a Coke.\nThe rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the other factor – liking the requester.\nHare Krishna Society’s remarkable growth in 1970s, partially from their “donation-request” tactic – a book or flower. Flowers were often recycled. People now choose to avoid – rather than withstand – the force of gift-giving. \n
  23. Subjects in Case 1 (receive gift) buy twice as many tickets as folks in Case 2. (In case 2, bought on average 2 tickets, but as many as 7.)\nSubjects who liked Joe better (initially) bought more tickets. BUT giving the Coke totally wiped out the relationship between liking Joe and buying tickets. People who said they disliked Joe the most + got a Coke bought just as many tickets as those who said they liked Joe the most + got a Coke.\nThe rule for reciprocity overwhelmed the influence of the other factor – liking the requester.\nHare Krishna Society’s remarkable growth in 1970s, partially from their “donation-request” tactic – a book or flower. Flowers were often recycled. People now choose to avoid – rather than withstand – the force of gift-giving. \n
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  26. Study: Researchers get the word out that people in New Haven, CT, are considered charitable people (e.g., via newspapers). Two weeks later, a researcher calls housewives and asks for donations. Result? Donations increase. \nWhen it works best:\n
  27. Study: Researchers get the word out that people in New Haven, CT, are considered charitable people (e.g., via newspapers). Two weeks later, a researcher calls housewives and asks for donations. Result? Donations increase. \nWhen it works best:\n
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